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It is necessary to try the fidelity of a servant before contrary; we put a thing to the proof in order to you place confidence in him; it is wicked to tempt any determine whether it be good or bad, real or unreal : one to do that which we should think wrong to do experiments tend to confirm our opinions; they are ourselves : our strength is tried by frequent experi- the handmaids of science ; the philosopher doubts ments; we are tempted, by the weakness of our prin- every position which cannot be demonstrated by reciples, to give way to the violence of our passions. peated experiments ; " That which sheweth them to

be wise, is the gathering of principles out of their own particular experiments, and the framing of our par

ticular experiments, according to the rule of their EXPERIENCE, EXPERIMENT, TRIAL, principles, shall make us such as they are.' HOOKER. PROOF, TEST.

Trials are of absolute necessity in directing our con

duct, our taste, and our choice; we judge of our Experience, experiment, from the Latin erperior, strength or skill by trials; we judge of the effect of compounded of e or ex and perio or pario to bring colors by trials, and the like; forth, signifies the thing brought to light, or the

But he himself betook another way, act of bringing to light; trial signifies the act of

To make more trial of his hardiment, trying, from try, in Latin tento, Hebrew on, to ex- And seek adventures, as he with prince Arthur went. plore, examine, search ; proof signifies either the act

SPENSER. of proving, from the Latin probo to make good, or the thing made good, proved to be good ; test, from

The proof determines the judgement, as in common the Latin testis a witness, is that which serves to attest

life, according to the vulgar proverb, “ The proof of or prove the reality of a thing.

the pudding is in the eating ; ” so in the knowledge By all the actions implied in these terms, we en

of men and things, the proof of men's characters and deavour to arrive at à certainty respecting some

merits is best made by observing their conduct; unknown particular: the experience is that which has O goodly usage of those ancient tymes ! been tried; the experiment is the thing to be tried :

In which the sword was servant unto right: the experience is certain, as it is a deduction from the

When not for malice and contentious crymes,

But all for praise and proof of manly might. past for the service of the present; the experiment is

SPENSER uncertain, and serves a future purpose : experience is an unerring guide, which no man can desert without

The experiment is a sort of trial ; . When we are falling into error; experiments may fail, or be super

searching out the nature or properties of any being by seded by others more perfect.

various methods of trial, this sort of observation is Experience serves to lead us to moral truth, the er- called experiment.' Watts. The proof results from periment aids us in ascertaining speculative truth; we the trial ; My paper gives a timorous writer an opprofit by experience to rectify practice; 'A man may, portunity of putting his abilities to the proof.' Adby experience, be persuaded that his will is free; that DISON. When the word test is taken in the sense of a he can do this, or not do it.' TillotSON. We make trial, as in the phrases to stand the test, or to make a experiments in theoretical inquiries; • Any one may

test, it derives its meaning from the chemical process easily make this experiment, and even plainly see

of refining metals in a test or cupel, testa being in that there is no bud in the corn which ants lay up.'

Italian the name of this vessel. The test is therefore Addison. He, therefore, who makes experiments in

a positive and powerful trial ; matters of experience rejects a steady and definite

All thy vexations mode of coming at the truth for one that is variable Were but my trials of thy love, and thou and uncertain, and that too in matters of the first Hast strangely stood the test. SHAKSPEARE. moment: the consequences of such a mistake are obvious, and have been too fatally realized in the

When the test is taken for the means of trying or

proving, it bears a similar signification ; present age, in which experience has been set at nought by every wild speculator, who has recom

Unerring nature, still divinely bright, mended experiments to be made with all the forms of One clear unchang'd and universal light, moral duty and civil society; It is good also not to

Life, force, and beauty, must to all impart

At once the source, and end, and test of every arts try experiments in states, except the necessity be

POPE. urgent, or the utility evident.' BACON. The experiment, trial

, and proof, have equally the Hence this word is used in the legal sense for the proof character of uncertainty ; but the experiment is em

which a man is required to give of his religious creed. ployed only in matters of an intellectual nature; the trial is employed in matters of a personal nature, on physical as well as mental objects; the proof is em- ATTEMPT, TRIAL, ENDEAVOUR, ployed in moral subjects : we make an experiment in

ESSAY, EFFORT. order to know whether a thing be true or false; we make a trial in order to know whether it be capable or Attempt, in French attenter, Latin attento, from incapable, convenient or inconvenient, useful or the at or ad and tento, signifies to try at a thing; trial comes from try (v. Experience); endeavour, com

some cases attended with mischievous consequences to pounded of en and the French devoir to owe, signifies the trier ; to try according to one's duty; essay, in French essayer,

To bring it to the trial, will you dare comes probably from the German ersuchen, com

Our pipes, our skill, our voices to compare? DRYDEN: pounded of er and suchen to seek, written in old German suachen, and is doubtless connected with Honest endeavours to please are to be distinguished sehen to see or look after, signifying to aspire after, to

from idle attempts to catch applause ; · Whether or look up to; effort, in French effort, from the Latin no (said Socrates on the day of his execution) God effert, present tense of effero, compounded of e or er will approve of my actions I know not; but this I am and fero, signifies a bringing out or calling forth the

sure of, that I have at all times made it

my endeavour strength.

to please him.' Addison. The first essays of youth To attempt is to set about a thing with a view of ought to meet with indulgence, in order to afford enaffecting it ; to try is to set about a thing with a view couragement to rising talents ; ' This treatise prides of seeing the result. An attempt respects the action itself in no higher a title than that of an essay, or with its object; a trial is the exercise of power. We imperfect attempt at a subject.' GLANVILLE. Great always act when we attempt ; we use the senses and attempts, which require extraordinary efforts either of the understanding when we try. We attempt by body or mind, always meet with an adequate share of trying, but we may try without attempting: when a public applause ; • The man of sagacity bestirs himthief attempts to break into a house he first tries the self to distress his enemy by methods probable and locks and fastenings to see where he can most easily reducible to reason: so the same reason will fortify his gain admittance.

enemy to elude these his regular efforts : but your Men attempt to remove evils; they try experi- fool projects with such notable inconsistency, that no ments. Attempts are perpetually made by quacks, course of thought can evade his machinations. whether in medicine, politics, or religion, to recom

STEELE. mend some scheme of their own to the notice of the public; which are often nothing more than trials

ATTEMPT, UNDERTAKING, of skill to see who can most effectually impose on

ENTERPRISE. the credulity of mankind. Spirited people make attempts; persevering people make trials ; players An attempt is the thing attempted (v. To attempt); attempt to perform different parts; and try to gain an undertaking, from undertake, or take in hand, is applause.

the thing taken in hand; an enterprise, from the An endeavour is a continued attempt. Attempts French enterpris, participle of entreprendre to undermay be fruitless; trials may be vain ; endeavours, take, has the same original sense. though unavailing, may be well meant. Many at- The idea of something set about to be completed is tempts are made which exceed the abilities of the

common to all these terms. An attempt is less comattempter; trials are made in matters of speculation, plicated than an undertaking ; and that less arduous the results of which are uncertain ; endeavours are than an enterprise. Attempts are the common exermade in the moral concerns of life. People attempt tions of power for obtaining an object : an undertaking to write books; they try various methods ; and endea- involves in it many parts and particulars which require vour to obtain a livelihood.

thought and judgement : an enterprise has more that An essay is used altogether in a figurative sense for is hazardous and dangerous in it; it requires reso an attempt or endeavour ; it is an intellectual exertion.

lution. Attempts are frequently made on the lives A modest writer apologizes for his feeble essay to con- and property of individuals; undertakings are formed tribute to the general stock of knowledge and culti- for private purposes; enterprises are commenced for vation : hence short treatises which serve as attempts some great national object. to illustrate any point in morals are termed essays, Nothing can be effected without making the atamong which are the finest productions in our language tempt; attempts are therefore often idle and unsucfrom the


of Addison, Steele, and their successors. cessful, when they are made by persons of little An effort is to an attempt as a means to an end; it is discretion, who are eager to do something without the very act of calling forth those powers which are knowing how to direct their powers; employed in an attempt. In attempting to make an escape, a person is sometimes obliged to make desperate

Why wilt thou rush to certain death and rage,

In rash attempts beyond thy tender age? DRYDEN. efforts.

Attempts at imitation expose the imitator to ridicule Undertakings are of a more serious nature, and involve when not executed with peculiar exactness; A natural a man's serious interests; if begun without adequate and unconstrained behaviour has something in it so means of bringing them to a conclusion, they too freagreeable that it is no wonder to see people endeavour- quently bring ruin by their failure on those who are ing after it; but at the same time it is so very hard concerned in them; When I hear a man complain of to hit, when it is not born with us, that people often his being unfortunate in all his undertakings, I make themselves ridiculous in attempting it.' Ad- shrewdly suspect him for a very weak man in his

Trials of strength are often foolhardy ; in affairs. Addison. Enterprises require personal sa



TO ENDEAVOUR, AIM, STRIVE, crifices rather than those of interest; he who does not

STRUGGLE. combine great resolution and perseverance with considerable bodily powers, will be ill-fitted to take part To endeavour (v. Attempt) is general in its object; in grand enterprises.

aim (v. Aim) is particular; we endeavour to do whatThe present age has been fruitful in attempts to ever we set about; we aim at doing something which bring premature genius into notice: literary under- we have set before ourselves as a desirable object. To takings have of late degenerated too much into mere strive (v. Strife) is to endeavour earnestly; to strugcommercial speculations: a state of war gives birth to gle, which is a frequentative of strive, 'is to strive naval and military enterprises ; a state of peace is earnestly. most favorable to those of a scientific nature; " There An endeavour springs from a sense of duty; we would be few enterprises of great labor or hazard endeavour to do that which is right, and avoid that undertaken, if we had not the power of magnifying which is wrong: aiming is the fruit of an aspiring the advantages which we persuade ourselves to expect temper; the object aimed at is always something from them.' Johnson.

superior either in reality or imagination, and calls for particular exertion : striving is the consequence of an ardent desire; the thing striven for is always con

ceived to be of importance: struggling is the effect of FOOLHARDY, ADVENTUROUS, RASH.

necessity; it is proportioned to the difficulty of at

tainment, and the resistance which is opposed to it; Foolhardy signifies having the hardihood of a fool ;

the thing struggled for is indispensably necessary. adventurous, ready to venture ; rash, in German.

Those only who endeavour to discharge their duty rasch, which signifies swift, comes from the Arabic

to God and their fellow creatures can expect real tranraaschen to go swiftly.

quillity of mind; “ 'Tis no uncommon thing, my good The foolhardy expresses more than the adventur

Sancho, for one half of the world to use the other half ous; and the adventurous than the rash.

like brutes, and then endeavour to make 'em so.' The foolhardy man ventures in defiance of conse

STERNE. Whoever aims at the acquirement great quences : the adventurous man ventures from a love

wealth or much power opens the door for much misery of the arduous and the bold; the rash man ventures

to himself ; for want of thought : courage and boldness become However men may aim at elevation, foolhardihood when they lead a person to run a fruit- 'Tis properly a female passion. SHENSTONE. less risk; an adventurous spirit sometimes leads a

As our passions are acknowledged to be our greatest man into unnecessary difficulties; but it is a necessary accompaniment of greatness. There is not so much

enemies when they obtain the ascendancy, we should

always strive to keep them under our control ; design, but there is more violence and impetuosity in rashness than in foolhardihood : the former is the All understand their great Creator's will, consequence of an ardent temper which will admit of Strive to be happy, and in that fulfil, correction by the influence of the judgement; but the

Mankind excepted, lord of all beside,

But only slave to folly, vice, and pride, JENYNŞ. latter comprehends the perversion of both the will and the judgement.

There are some men who struggle through life to obAn infidel is foolhardy, who risks his future salva- tain a mere competence; and yet die without succeedtion for the mere gratification of his pride ;

ing in their object; If any yet be so foolhardy,

So the boat's brawny crew the current stem, T'expose themselves to vain jeopardy,

And slow adyancing' struggle with the stream. Dryden. If they come wounded off and lame, No honour's got by such a maim. BUTLER.

We ought to endeavour to correct faults, to aim at

attaining Christian perfection, to strive to conquer bad Alexander was an adventurous prince, who delighted habits : these are the surest means of saving us from in enterprizes in proportion as they presented difficul- the necessity of struggling to repair an injured reputies; he was likewise a rash prince, as was evinced

tation. by his jumping into the river Cydnus while he was hot, and by his leaping over the wall of Oxydrace and exposing himself singly to the attack of the ENDEAVOUR, EFFORT, EXERTION. enemy;

The idea of calling our powers into action is comT'was an old way of recreating,

mon to these terms: endeavour (v. Attempt) expresses Which learned butchers called bearbaiting,

little more than this common idea, being a term of A bold advent'rous exercise. BUTLER.

general import: effort, from the Latin effert, from Why wilt thou, then, renew the yain pursuit,

effero to bring forth, signifying the bringing out of And rashly catch at the forbidden fruit?. Prior. power ; and exertion, in Latin exero, signifying the putting forth power, are particular modes of endea- tongue;. · How has Milton represented the whole vour , the former being a special strong endeavour, the Godhead, exerting itself towards man in its full belatter a continued strong endeavour. The endeavour is nevolence, under the threefold distinction of a Creator, called forth by ordinary circumstances; the effort and a Redeemer, and Comforter.' ADDISON. . God made exertion by those which are extraordinary. "The en- no faculty, but also provided it with a proper object deavour flows out of the condition of our being and upon which it might exercise itself.' South. constitution; as rational and responsible agents we Exert conveys simply the idea of calling forth into must make daily endeavours to fit ourselves for an action ; exercise always conveys the idea of repeated hereafter; as willing and necessitous agents, we use

or continued exertion coupled with that of the purpose our endeavours to obtain such things as are agreeable or end for which it is made : thus a person who calls or needful for us : when a particular emergency arises to another exerts his voice; he who speaks aloud for we make a great effort; and when a serious object is any length of time exercises his lungs. When the to be obtained we make suitable exertions.

will has exerted an act of command upon any faculty The endeavour is indefinite both as to the end and of the soul, or member of the body, it has done all the means : the end may be immediate or remote; the that the whole man, as moral agent, can do for the means may

be either direct or indirect : but in the actual exercise or employment of such a faculty or effort the end is immediate ; the means are direct and member. personal: we may either make an endeavour to get into a room, or we may make an endeavour to obtain a situation in life, or act our part well in a particular

TO EXERCISE, PRACTISE. situation ; To walk with circumspection and steadi

Exercise signifies the same as in the preceding artiness in the right path ought to be the constant endea

cle ; practise, from the Greek apáoow to do, signifies vour of every rational being.' Johnson. We make

to perform a part. efforts to speak, or we make efforts to get through a crowd, or we make efforts to overcome our feelings ;

These terms are equally applied to the actions and « The influence of custom is such, that to

habits of men ; but we exercise in that where the conquer

it will require the utmost efforts of fortitude and virtue.'

powers are called forth; we practise in that where JOHNSON. The endeavour may call forth one or

frequency and habitude of action is requisite : we ex

ercise an art; we practise a profession; The Roman many powers; the effort calls forth but one power:

tongue was the study of their youth ; it was their own the endeavour to please in society is laudable, if it

language they were instructed and exercised in.' do not lead to vicious compliances; it is a laudable

LOCKE. A woman that practis'd physic in man's effort of fortitude to suppress our complaints in the

clothes.' TATLER. We may both exercise or practise moment of suffering. The exertion is as comprehen

a virtue; but the former is that which the particular sive in its meaning as the endeavour, and as positive

occurrence calls forth, and which seems to demand a as the effort ; but the endeavour is most commonly, and the effort always, applied to individuals only; peculiar effort of the mind; the latter is that which is

done daily and ordinarily : thus we in a peculiar whereas the exertion is applicable to nations as well as individuals. A tradesman uses his best endeavours to

manner are said to exercise patience, fortitude, or

forbearance; to practise_charity, kindness, beneplease his customers : a combatant makes desperate

volence, and the like ; 'Every virtue requires time efforts to overcome his antagonist: a candidate for

and place, a proper object, and a fit conjuncture of literary or parliamentary honors uses great exertions

circumstances for the due exercise of it.' Addison. to surpass his rival; a nation uses great exertions to

• All men are not equally qualified for getting money ; raise a navy or extend its commerce; The discom

but it is in the power

of every one alike to practise fitures which the republic of assassins has suffered have

this virtue (of thrift).' BUDGELL. uniformly called forth new exertions.' BURKE.

A similar distinction characterizes these words as nouns: the former applying solely to the powers of the body or mind; the latter solely to the mechanical

operations : the health of the body and the vigor of TO EXERT, EXERCISE.

the mind are alike impaired by the want of exercise ; The employment of some power or qualification that

Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.'

Addison. In every art practice is an indispensable belongs to oneself is the common idea conveyed by these terms; but exert (v. Endeavour) may be used

requisite for acquiring perfection ; for what is internal or external of oneself; exercise, Long practice has a sure improvement found, in Latin exerceo, from ex and arceo, signifying to

With kindled fires to burn the barren ground.

DRYDEN. drive or force out, is employed only for that which forms an express part of oneself: hence we speak of The exercise of the memory is of the first importance exerting one's strength, or exerting one's voice, or in the education of children; constant practice in exerting one's influence, of exercising one's limbs; writing is almost the only means by which the art of exercising one's understanding, or exercising one's penmanship is acquired.

CUSTOM, FASHION, MANNER, person to do acts of charity, as the occasion requires ;

but when he uniformly does a particular act of charity

at any given period of the year, it is properly denomiCustoms, fashions, and manners, are all employed nated his custom ; Savage was so touched with the for communities of men : custom (v. Custom, habit) discovery of his real mother, that it was his frequent respects established and general modes of action practice to walk in the dark evenings for several hours fashion, in French façon, from facio to do or make, before her door, with hopes of seeing her as she might regards partial and transitory modes of making or cross her apartments with a candle in her hand.' doing things: manner, in the limited sense in which Johnson. it is here taken, signifies the manner or mode of men's Both practice and custom are general or particular, living or behaving in their social intercourse.

but the former is absolute, the latter relative: the Custom is authoritative ; it stands in the place of practice may be adopted by a number of persons

withlaw, and regulates the conduct of men in the most im- out reference to each other ; but a custom is always portant concerns of life: fashion is arbitrary and followed either by imitation or prescription : the praccapricious, it decides in matters of trifling import: tice of gaming has always been followed by the vicious manners are rational; they are the expressions of part of society; but it is to be hoped for the honor of moral feelings. Customs are most prevalent in a bar- man that it will never become a custom. barous state of society; fashions rule most where luxury has made the greatest progress; manners are most distinguishable in a civilized state of society. Customs are in their nature as unchangeable as

CUSTOM, HABIT. fashions are variable; manners depend on cultivation and collateral circumstances : customs die away or Custom signifies the same as in the preceding artiare abolished ; fashions pass away, and new ones take cle; habit, in Latin habitudo, from habeo to have, their place; manners are altered either for the better marks the state of having or holding. or the worse : endeavours have been successfully em- Custom is a frequent repetition of the same act; ployed in several parts of India to abolish the custom • It is the custom of the Mahometans, if they see any of infanticide, and that of women sacrificing them- printed or written paper upon the ground, to take it selves on the funeral piles of their husbands ; · The up and lay it aside carefully, as not knowing but it custom of representing the grief we have for the loss may contain some piece of the Alcoran.' ADDISON. of the dead by our habits, certainly had its rise from Habit the effect of such repetition ; ' If a loose and the real sorrow of such as were too much distressed to careless life has brought a man into habits of dissipatake the care they ought of their dress.' STEELE. tion, and led him to neglect those religious duties The votaries of fashion are not contented with giving which he owed to his Maker, let him return to the the law for the cut of the coat, or the shape of the regular worship of God.' BLAIR. The custom of bonnet, but they wish to intrude upon the sphere of rising early in the morning is conducive to the health, the scholar or the artist, by prescribing in matters of and may in a short time become such a habit as to literature and taste;

render it no less agreeable than it is useful.

Custom applies to men collectively or individually ; Of beasts, it is confess'd, the ape

habit applies to the individual only. Every nation Comes nearest us in human shape ; Like man, he imitates each fashion,

has customs peculiar to itself; I dare not shock my And malice is his ruling passion. Swift.

readers with the description of the customs and man

ners of these barbarians (the Hottentots).' HUGHES. The influence of public opinion on the manners of a Every individual has habits peculiar to his age, station, people has never been so strikingly illustrated as in and circumstances. the instance of the French nation during and since the Custom, in regard to individuals, supposes an act Revolution ;

of the will; habit implies an involuntary movement:

a custom is followed; a habit is acquired : whoever Their arms, their arts, their manners, I disclose,

follows the custom of imitating the look, tone, or And how they war, and whence the people


gesture of another, is liable to get the habit of doing

the same himself: as habit is said to be second nature, Practice, in Latin practicus, Greek #paxtıxòs, from it is of importance to guard against all customs to Aphrow to do, signifies actual doing or the thing done, which we do not wish to become habituated: the that is by distinction the regularly doing, or the thing drunkard is formed by the custom of drinking intemregularly done, in which sense it is most analogous to perately, until he becomes habituated to the use of custom; but practice simply conveys the idea of spirituous liquors : the profane swearer who accustoms actual performance; custom includes also the acces- himself in early life to utter the oaths which he hears, sory idea of repetition at stated periods: a practice will find it difficult in advanced years to break himmust be defined as frequent or unfrequent, regular or self of the habit of swearing : the love of imitation is irregular ; but a custom does not require to be quali- so powerful in the human breast, that it leads the fied by any such epithets: it may be the practice of a major part of mankind to follow custom even in ridi

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