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degree of fearlessness than boldness: boldness is con

fident, it forgets the consequences; intrepidity is colDismay is probably changed from the French

lected, it sees the danger, and faces it with composure; desmouvoir, signifying to move or pull down the

undauntedness is associated with unconquerable firmspirit ; daunt, changed from the Latin domitus, con

ness and resolution ; it is awed by nothing: the bold quered, signifies to bring down the spirit ; appal, compounded of the intensive ap or ad, and palleo to

man proceeds on his enterprise with spirit and viva

city: the intrepid man calmly advances to the scene grow pale, signifies to make pale with fear.

of death and destruction; I could not sufficiently The effect of fear on the spirit is strongly expressed wonder at the intrepidity of those diminutive mortals, by all these terms; but dismay expresses less than

who durst venture to walk upon my body, without daunt, and this than appal. We are dismayed by trembling.' Swift. The undaunted man keeps his alarming circumstances; we are daunted by terri

countenance in the season of trial, in the midst of the fying; we are appalled by horrid circumstances. A severe defeat will dismay so as to lessen the force of

most terrifying and overwhelming circumstances. resistance;

These good qualities may, without great care, de

generate into certain vices to which they are closely So flies a herd of beeves, that hear, dismay'd,

allied. The lions roaring through the midnight shade. Pope. Of the three, boldness is the most questionable in The fiery glare from the eyes of a ferocious beast will

its nature, unless justified by the absolute urgency of daunt him who was venturing to approach ;

the case : in maintaining the cause of truth against

the lawless and oppressive exercise of power, it is an Jove got such heroes as my sire, whose soul

essential quality, but it may easily degenerate into No fear could daunt, nor earth, nor hell controul. insolent defiance and contempt of superiors; it may


lead to the provoking of resentment and courting of The sight of an apparition will appal the stoutest persecution. Intrepidity may become rashness if the

contempt of danger lead to an unnecessary exposure Now the last ruin the whole host appals ;

of the life and person. Undauntedness, in the preNow Greece had trembled in her wooden walls, sence of a brutal tyrant, may serve to baffle all his But wise Ulysses call’d Tydides forth. Pope.

malignant purposes of revenge ; but the same spirit may be employed by the hardened villain to preserve himself from detection.


act the

men ;


Bold, v. Audacity; fearless signifies without fear

Manly, or like a man, is opposed to juvenile or pue(v. To apprehend); intrepid, compounded of in pri- rile, and of course applied to those who are fitted to vative and trepidus trembling, marks the total ab


of * I love a manly freedom as much sence of fear; undaunted, of un privative, and

as any of the band of cashierers of kings.' BURKE. daunted, from the Latin

domitatus, participle of do- Manful, or full of manhood, is opposed to effeminate, mitare to impress with fear, signifies unimpressed or unmoved at the prospect of danger.

and is applicable to particular persons, or persons in Boldness is positive ; fearlessness is negative; we

particular cases; 'I opposed his whim manfully,

which I think you will approve of.' CUMBERLAND. may therefore be fearless without being bold, or fear- A premature manliness in young persons is hardly less less through boldness ;

unseemly than a want of manfulness in one who is Such unheard of prodigies hang o'er us,

called upon to display his courage. As make the boldest tremble. Young. Fearlessness is a temporary state: we may be fearless of danger, at this, or at that time ; fearless of loss, and the like ;


Calls all her chirping family around,

Fed and defended by the fearless cock. Thomson.
Boldness is a characteristic; it is associated with con-

Fearful here signifies full of that which causes stant fearlessness;

fear (v. Alarm); dreadful, full of what causes dread

(v. Apprehension); frightful, full of what causes His party, press'd with numbers, soon grew faint, fright (v. Afraid) or apprehension ; tremendous, And would have left their charge an easy prey ; that which causes trembling; terrible, or terrific, Whilst he alone undaunted at the odds,

causing terror (v. Alarm); horrible, or horrid, causing Though hopeless to escape, fought well and bravely.


horror. The application of these terms is easily to

be discovered by these definitions: the first two affect Intrepidity and undauntedness denote a still higher the mind more than the senses ; all the others affect the senses more than the mind : a contest is fearful What is probable is feared ; "That which is feared when the issue is important, but the event doubtful; may sometimes be avoided : but that which is regretted

to-day may be regretted again to-morrow.' JOHNSON. She wept the terrors of the fearful wave, Too oft, alas ! the wandering lover's grave.

The symptom or prognostic of an evil is dreaded as if FALCONER.

the evil itself were present ; The thought of death is dreadful to one who feels

All men think all men mortal but themselves, himself unprepared ;

Themselves, when some alarming shock of fate

Strikes through their wounded hearts the sudden dread. And dar'st thou threat to snatch my prize away,

Young. Due to the deeds of many a dreadful day? Pope.

Apprehend respects things only; fear and dread The frightful is less than the tremendous ; the tre- relate to persons as well as things: we fear the per. mendous than the terrible; the terrible than the hor- son who has the power of inflicting pain or disgrace ; rible : shrieks may be frightful;

we dread him who has no less the will than the


Fear is a salutary sentiment in society, it binds Frightful convulsions writh'd his tortur'd limbs.


men together in their several relations and dependThe roaring of a lion is terrible ;

encies, and affords the fullest scope for the exercise of

the benevolent feelings; it is the sentiment of a child Was this a face to be expos’d

towards its parent or instructor; of a creature to its In the most terrible and nimble stroke

Creator; it is the companion of love and respect toOf quick, cross lightning ? SHAKSPEARE.

wards men, of adoration in erring and sinful mortals Thunder and lightning may be tremendous, or con- towards their Maker. Dread is altogether an irksome vulsions may be tremendous ; the glare in the eye of sentiment; with regard to our fellow creatures, it a ferocious beast is terrific; Out of the limb of the arises out of the abuse of power: we dread the tyrant murdered monarchy has arisen a vast, tremendous, who delights in punishing and tormenting ; his image unformed spectre, in a far more terrific guise than haunts the breast of the unhappy subject, his shadow any which ever yet overpowered the imagination of awakens terror as the approach of some direful misforman.' BURKE. The actual spectacle of killing is hor- tune: with regard to our Maker it springs from a conrible or horrid ;

sciousness of guilt, and the prospect of a severe and Deck'd in sad triumph for the mournful field,

adequate punishment; the wrath of God may justly

be dreaded.
O'er her broad shoulders hangs his horrid shield.

In their general application, these terms are often

AWE, REVERENCE, DREAD. employed promiscuously to characterize whatever produces very strong impressions : hence we may speak of Awe, probably from the German achten, conveys a frightful, dreadfúl, terrible, or horrid dream ; or the idea of regarding; reverence, in French revefrightful, dreadful, or terrible tempest; dreadful, rence, Latin reverentia, comes from revereor to fear terrible, or horrid consequences.

strongly; dread, in Saxon dread, comes from the Latin territo to frighten, and Greek tapéoow to trouble.

Awe and reverence both denote a strong sentiment TO APPREHEND, FEAR, DREAD.

of respect, mingled with some emotions of fear; but

the former marks the much stronger sentiment of the Apprehend, in French appréhender, Latin appre- two: dread is an unmingled sentiment of fear for hendo, compounded of ap and prehendo to lay hold one's personal security. Awe may be awakened by of, in a moral sense signifies to seize with the under- the help of the senses and understanding; reverence standing; fear comes in all probability through the by that of the understanding only; and dread princimedium of the Latin pavor and vereor, from the pally by that of the imagination. Greek opícow to feel a shuddering ; dread, in Latin Sublime, sacred, and solemn objects awaken awe; territo, comes from the Greek Tapaoow to trouble, sig- they cause the beholder to stop and consider whether nifying to fear with exceeding trouble.

he is worthy to approach them any nearer; they rivet These words rise progressively in their import; his mind and body to a spot, and make him cautious, they mark a sentiment of pain at the prospect of evil: lest by his presence he should contaminate that which but the sentiment of apprehension is simply that of is hallowed; It were endless to enumerate all the uneasiness; that of fear iş anxiety; that of dread is passages, both in the sacred and profane writers, which wretchedness.

establish the general sentiment of mankind concerning We apprehend an unpleasant occurrence; we fear the inseparable union of a sacred and reverential awe a misfortune; we dread a calamity. What is possible with our ideas of the Divinity.' BURKE. Exalted and is apprehended; Our natural sense of right and noble objects produce reverence ; they lead to every wrong produces an apprehension of merited punish- outward mark of obeisance and humiliation which it is ment, when we have committed a crime.' BLAIR. possible for a man to express; • If the voice of universal nature, the experience of all ages, the light of reason, who brings with him into a clamorous multitude the and the immediate evidence of my senses, cannot timidity of recluse speculation, will suffer himself to awake me to a dependance upon my God, a reverence be driven by a burst of laughter from the fortresses of for his religion, and an humble opinion of myself, demonstration.' JOHNSON. what a lost creature am I.' CU(BERLAND. Terrific Between fearful and timorous there is little distincobjects excite dread; they cause a shuddering of the tion, either in sense or application, except that we say animal frame, and a revulsion of the mind which is fearful of a thing, not timorous of a thing ; · By attended with nothing but pain;

know not what impatience of raillery, he is wonderTo Phæbus next my trembling steps be led,

fully fearful of being thought too great a believer.' Full of religious doubts and awful dread. DRYDEN.

STEELE. When the creature places himself in the presence

Then birds in airy space might safely move,

And tim'rous hares on heaths securely rove. DRYDEN, of the Creator; when he contemplates the immeasurable distance which separates himself, a frail and finite mortal, from his infinitely perfect Maker; he approaches with awe: even the sanctuary where he is

TO FRIGHTEN, INTIMIDATE. accustomed thus to bow before the Almighty acquires the power of awakening the same emotions in his Between frighten and intimidate there is the same mind. Age, wisdom, and virtue, when combined in difference as between fright (v. Alarm) and fear one person, are never approached without reverence ; (v. To apprehend); the danger that is near or before the possessor has a dignity in himself that checks the the eyes frightens ; that which is seen at a distance haughtiness of the arrogant, that silences the petu- intimidates : hence females are oftener frightened, and lance of pride and self-conceit, that stills the noise men are oftener intimidated : noises will frighten ; and giddy mirth of the young, and communicates to threats may intimidate : we may run away when we all around a sobriety of mien and aspect. A grievous are frightened ; we waver in our resolution when we offender is seldom without dread ; his guilty con- are intimidated : we fear immediate bodily harm when science pictures every thing as the instrument of venge- we are frightened ; we fear harm to our property as ance, and every person as denouncing his merited well as our persons when we are intimidated : frighten, sentence.

therefore, is always applied to animals, but intimiThe solemn stillness of the tomb will inspire awe, date never ; even in the breast of him who has no dread of death.

And perch, a horror ! on his sacred crown, Children should be early taught to have a reve- If that such profanation were permitted rence for the Bible as a book, in distinction from all

Of the by-standers, who with reverend care other books.

Fright them away. CUMBERLAND.
Cortes, unwilling to employ force, endeavoured

alternately to sooth and intimidate Montezuma.' RoAFRAID, FEARFUL, TIMOROUS, TIMID.

Afraid is changed from afeared, signifying in a state of fear; fearful, as the words of which it is FORMIDABLE, DREADFUL, TERRIBLE, compounded imply, signifies full of fear ; timorous

SHOCKING. and timid come from the Latin timor fear, timidus fearful, and timeo to fear.

Formidable is applied to that which is apt to excite The first denotes a temporary state, the three last fear (v. To apprehend); dreadful (v. To apprea habit of the mind.

hend) to what is calculated to excite dread; terrible Afraid may be used either in a physical or moral (v. Alarm) to that which excites terror ; and shocking application, either as it relates to ourselves only or to from to shake is applied to that which violently shakes others; fearful and timorous are only applied physi- or agitates (v. To agitate). The formidable acts cally and personally ; timid is mostly used in a moral neither suddenly nor violently ;

France continued

not only powerful but formidable to the hour of the It is the character of the fearful or timorous person ruin of the monarchy.' BURKE. The dreadful may to be afraid of what he imagines would hurt himself; act violently, but not suddenly : thus the appearance it is not necessary for the prospect of danger to exist of an army may be formidable ; that of a field of in order to awaken fear in such a disposition ; · To be battle is dreadful; always afraid of losing life is, indeed, scarcely to enjoy a life that can deserve the care of preservation.'

Think, timely think, on the last dreadful day.

ĎRYDEN. JOHNSON. It is the characteristic of the timid person to be afraid of offending or meeting with something The terrible and shocking act both suddenly and viopainful from others; such a disposition is prevented lently; but the former acts both on the senses and the from following the dictates of its own mind; He imagination, the latter on the moral feelings only: thus



the glare of a tyger's eye is terrible; the unexpected

AGITATION, EMOTION, TREPIDATION, news of a friend's death is shocking ; When men

TREMOR. are arrived at thinking of their very dissolution with pleasure, how few things are there that can be terrible Agitation, in Latin agitatio, from agito, signifies to them.' STEELE. Nothing could be more shocking the state of being agitated ; emotion, in Latin emotio, to a generous nobility, than the entrusting to mer- from emotus, participle of emoveo, compounded of e, cenary hands the defence of those territories which

out of, and moveo to move, signifies the state of being had been acquired or preserved by the blood of their moved out of rest or put in motion; trepidation, in ancestors.' ROBERTSON.

Latin trepidatio, from trepido to tremble, compounded of tremo and pede, to tremble with the feet, signifies the condition of trembling in all one's limbs from head

to foot; tremor, v. Trembling. TREMBLING, TREMOR, TREPIDATION.

Agitation refers either to the body or mind, emotion All these terms are derived from the very same

to the mind only ; tremor mostly, and 'trepidation source (v. Agitation), and designate a general state

only, to the body of agitation : trembling is not only the most familiar

Agitation of mind is a vehement struggle between but also the most indefinite term of the three ; trepi- contending feelings; emotion is the awakening but dation and tremor are species of trembling. Trem

one feeling; which in the latter case is not so vehebling expresses any degree of involuntary shaking of

ment as in the former. Distressing circumstances prothe frame, from the affection either of the body or the

duce agitation ; The seventh book affects the imamind; cold, nervous affections, fear, and the like, are

gination like the ocean in a calm, and fills the mind the ordinary causes of trembling ;

of the reader without producing in it any thing like

tumult or agitation.' ADDISON (On Milton). AffectAnd with unmanly tremblings shook the car. Pope. ing and interesting circumstances produce emotions ; Tremor is a slight degree of trembling, which arises

· The description of Adam and Eve as they first aponly from a mental affection ; when the spirits are agi- peared to Satan, is exquisitely drawn, and sufficient tatéd, the mind is thrown into a tremor by any trifling

to make the fallen angel gaze upon them with all those incident ; Laughter is a vent of any sudden joy that

emotions of envy in which he is represented.' ADDISON strikes upon the mind, which, being too volatile and

(On Milton). strong, breaks out in this tremor of the voice.'

Agitations have but one character, namely, that of STEELE. Trepidation is more violent than either of them; they are emotions either of pain or pleasure,

violence : emotions vary with the object that awakens the two, and springs from the defective state of the mind, it shows itself in the action, or the different

of tenderness or anger; they are either gentle or movements of the body; those who have not the re

strong, faint or vivid. quisite composure of mind to command themselves on

With regard to the body, agitation is more than all occasions are apt to do what is required of them

trepidation, and the latter more than tremor : the with trepidation ; - The ferocious insolence of Crom

two former attract the notice of the bystander; the

latter is scarcely visible. well, the rugged brutality of Harrison, and the general trepidation of fear and wickedness in the rebel

Agitations of the mind sometimes give rise to disparliament), would make a picture of unexampled tions of terror or horror will throw the body into a

torted and extravagant agitations of the body; emovariety.' Johnson. Trembling is either an occasional or an habitual infirmity; there is no one who may not

trepidation ; or any public misfortune may produce a be sometimes seized with a trembling, and there are

trepidation among a number of persons; His first those who, from a lasting disease or from old age, are

action of note was in the battle of Lepanto, where the never rid of it: tremor is but occasional, and conse

success of that great day, in such trepidation of the

Emoquently depends rather on the nature of the occasion ;

state, made every man meritorious.' Wotton. no one who has a proper degree of modesty can make

tions of fear will cause a tremor to run through the his first appearance in public without feeling a tremor :

whole frame; He fell into such a universal tremor of trepidation may be either occasional or habitual, but

all his joints, that when going his legs trembled under

him.' TERVEY. oftener the latter, since it arises rather from the weakness of the mind than the strength of the cause.

Trembling and tremulous are applied as epithets, either to persons or things: a trembling voice evinces TO ACTUATE, IMPEL, INDUCE. trepidation of mind, a tremulous voice evinces a tremor of mind: notes in music are sometimes trem

Actuate, from the Latin actum an action, implies bling; the motion of the leaves of trees is tremulous ; pounded of in towards, and pello to drive, signifying

to call into action ; impel, in Latin impello, is comAnd rend the trembling unresisting prey. Pope. to drive towards an object; induce, in Latin induco, As thus th' effulgence tremulous I drank,

is compounded of in and duco, signifying to lead toWith cherish'd gaze. Thomson.

wards an object.

One is actuated by motives, impelled by passions, When excite and provoke are applied to similar and induced by reason or inclination.

objects, the former designates a much stronger action Whatever actuates is the result of reflection : it is than the latter. A thing may 'excite a smile, but it a steady and fixed principle : whatever impels is mo- provokes laughter; it may excite displeasure, but it mentary and vehement, and often precludes reflection: provokes anger; it may excite joy or sorrow, but it whatever induces is not vehement, though often mo- provokes to madness. mentary

We seldom repent of the thing to which we are actuated; as the principle, whether good or bad, is not liable to change ; . It is observed by Cicero, that

TO PRESS, SQUEEZE, PINCH, GRIPE. men of the greatest and the most shining parts are most Press, in Latin pressus, participle of premo, which actuated by ambition. Addison. We may frequently probably comes from the Greek Beépnua; squeeze, in be impelled to measures which cause serious repent- Saxon quisan, Latin quasso, Hebrew pwi to press ance ;

together; pinch is but a variation from pin, spine ; When youth impelld him, and when love inspir’d, gripe, from the German greifen, signifies to seize, The listening nymphs his Doric lays admir’d.

like the word grapple or grasp, the Latin rapio, the SIR Wm. Jones.

Greek yporišw to fish or catch, and the Hebrew Dia The thing to which we are induced is seldom of suffi- to catch cient importance to call for repentance ;

The forcible action of one body on another is in

cluded in all these terms. In the word press this is Induced by such examples, some have taught That bees have portions of ethereal thought.

the only idea ; the rest differ in the circumstances. DRYDEN. We may press with the foot, the hand, the whole

body, or any particular limb; one squeezes commonly Revenge actuates men to commit the most horrid

with the hand; one pinches either with the fingers, deeds; anger impels them to the most imprudent or an instrument constructed in a similar form ; one actions ; phlegmatic people are not easily induced to gripes with teeth, claws, or any instrument that can take any one measure in preference to another.

gain a hold of the object. Inanimate as well as animate objects press or pinch ; but to squeeze and gripe

are more properly the actions of animate objects; the TO EXCITE, INCITE, PROVOKE. former is always said of persons, the latter of animals;

stones press that on which they rest their weight; a Excite, v. To awaken ; incite, v. To encourage ; door which shuts of itself may pinch the fingers; one provoke, v. To aggravate.

squeezes the hand of a friend ; lobsters and many To excite is said more particularly of the inward other shell-fish gripe whatever comes within their feelings ; incite is said of the external actions ; pro- claws. coke is said of both.

In the figurative application they have a similar A person's passions are excited ; he is incited by distinction ; we press a person by importunity, or by any particular passion to a course of conduct; a par- some coercive measure ;

** All these women (the thiriy ticular feeling is provoked, or he is provoked by some wives of Orodes) pressed hard upon the old king, each feeling to a particular step. Wit and conversation soliciting for a son of her own. PRIDEAUX. An exexcite mirth ;

tortioner squeezes in order to get that which is given Can then the sons of Greece (the sage rejoin'd)

with reluctance or difficulty ; · Ventidius receiving Excite compassion in Achilles' mind? Pore.

great sums from Herod to promote his interest, and

at the same time greater to hinder it, squeezed each Men are incited by a lust for gain to fraudulent prac- of them to the utmost, and served neither.' Pri

A miser pinches himself by contracting his To her the God: Great Hector's soul incite

subsistence ;
To dare the boldest Greek to single fight,
Till Greece provok'd from all her numbers show

Better dispos’d to clothe the tatter'd wretch,
A warrior worthy to be Hector's foe. Pope.

Who shrinks beneath the blast, to feed the poor

Pinch'd with afflictive want. SOMERVILLE. Men are provoked by the opposition of others to intemperate language and intemperate measures; “ Among A covetous person gripes all that comes within his the other torments which this passion produces, we possession; How can he be envied for his felicity may usually observe, that none are greater mourners who is conscious that a very short time will give him than jealous men, when the person who provoked their up to the gripe of poverty.' Johnson. jealousy is taken from them.' Addison. To excite is very frequently used in a physical acceptation; incite always, and provoke mostly, in a moral application. We speak of exciting hunger, thirst, or perspiration;

TO RUB, CHAFE, FRET, GALL. of inciting to noble actions ; of provoking imperti- To rub, through the medium of the northern lannence, provoking scorn or resentment.

guages, comes from the Hebrew Dil. It is the generic



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