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of tenacious temper insists on trifles that are supposed amusements and diversions succeed in a perpetual to affect his importance; a pertinacious temper insists round.' BLAIR. on every thing which is apt to affect his opinions. The continual is that which admits of no interTenacity and pertinacity are both foibles, but the ruption, the constant is that which admits of no former is sometimes more excuseable than the latter. change. The last twenty-five years have presented

We may be tenacious of that which is good, as to the world a continuat succession of events, that when a man is tenacious of whatever may affect his have exceeded in importance those going before; the honor; • So tenacious are we of the old ecclesiastical French revolution and the atrocities attendant


it modes, that very little alteration has been made in have been the constant theme of execration with the them since the fourteenth or fifteenth century; adher- well disposed part of mankind. To an intelligent ing to our old settled maxim, never entirely, nor at parent it is a continual source of pleasure to watch once, to depart from antiquity.' BURKE. We cannot the progress of his child in the acquirement of knowbe pertinacious in any thing but our opinions, and ledge, and the development of his faculties ; that too in cases where they are least defensible; • The most pertinacious and vehement demonstrator

'Tis all blank saulness, or continual tears. Pope. may be wearied in time by continual negation. It will be the constant endeavour of a parent to train Johnson, It commonly happens that people are most tenacious of being thought to possess that in

him up in principles of religion and virtue, while he which they are most deficient, and most pertinacious science;

is cultivating his talents, and storing his mind with in maintaining that which is most absurd. A liar is tenacious of his reputation for truth; "Men are The world's a scene of changes, and to be tenacious of the opinions that first possess them.' Constant in nature were inconstancy. Cowley. LOCKE. Sophists, freethinkers, and sceptics, are the most pertinacious objectors to whatever is established;

Continual is used in the proper sense only, constant One of the dissenters appeared to Dr. Sanderson to

is employed in the moral sense to denote the temper of be so bold, so troublesome, and illogical, in the dis- the mind (v. Constancy). pute, as forced him to say, that he had never met with a man of more pertinacious confidence and less abilities.' WALTON.


Both these terms mark length of duration, but the CONTINUAL, PERPETUAL, CONSTANT.

former admits of a certain degree of interruption, which

the latter does not. What is continual may have Continual, in French continuet, Latin continuus, frequent pauses ; what is continued ceases only to terfrom contineo to hold or keep together, signifies keep- minate. Rains are continual ; noises in a tumultuous ing together without intermission; perpetual, in French street are continual : the bass in music is said to be perpetuel, Latin perpetualis, from perpeto, com- continued ; the mirth of a drunken party is one conpounded of per and peto to seek thoroughly, signifies tinued noise. Continual interruptions abate the vigor going on every where and at all times; constant, in of application and create disgust: * in countries situLatin constans, or con and sto, signifies the quality of ated near the poles...there is one continued darkness standing to a thing, or standing close together. for the space of five or six months; during which time

What is continual admits of no interruption : what the inhabitants are obliged to leave the place. is perpetual admits of no termination. There may be Continual respects the duration of actions or ciran end to that which is continual, and there may be cumstances only; continued is likewise applied to the intervals in that which is perpetual. Rains are con- extent or course of things: rumors are continual ; tinual in the tropical climates at certain seasons ; talking, walking, running, and the like, is concomplaints among the lower orders are perpetual, but tinual, they are frequently without foundation. There is a continual passing and repassing in the streets of the And gulphy Simoïs rolling to the main, metropolis during the day;

Helmets and shields and godlike heroes slain :

These turn’d by Phæbus from their wonted ways, Open your ears, for which if you will stop

Delug'd the rampire nine continual days. Pope. The vent of hearing when loud rumour speaks ; Upon my tongue continuat slanders ride,

A line, a series, a scene, or a stream of water, &c. is The which in every language I pronounce.

continued ; SHAKSPEARE.

Our life is one continued toil for fame. Martyn. The world, and all that it contains, are subject to perpetual change; If affluence of fortune unhappily •By too intense and continued application, our feeble concur to favour the inclinations of the youthful, powers would soon be worn out.' Blair.

* Vide Trussler : « Continual, continued.”

CONTINUANCE, CONTINUATION, thereto: perceives the separation of its continuity, DURATION.

and for a time resists it; in fine, perception is diffused

through all nature.' Bacon. Continuance is said of the time that a thing continues (v. To continue); continuation expresses the

The sprightly breast demands act of continuing what has been begun. The con

Incessant rapture ; life, a tedious load,

Deny'd its continuity of joy. SHENSTONE. tinuance of any particular practice may be attended with serious consequence ; * Their duty depending upon fear, the one was of no greater continuance than the other.' HAYWARD. The continuation of a work DURABLE, LASTING, PERMANENT. depends on the abilities and will of the workman; · The Roman poem is but the second part of the Ilias,

Durable is said of things that are intended to remain the continuation of the same story.' Ray. Authors

a shorter time than those which are lasting ; and perhave however not always observed this distinction ;

manent expresses less than durable ; durable, from • Providence seems to have equally divided the whole

the Latin durus hard, respects the texture of bodies, mass of mankind into different sexes, that every woman

and marks the capacity to hold out; lasting, from the may have her husband, and that both may equally verb to last, or the adjective last, signifies to remain contribute to the continuance of the species.' STEELE.

the last or longest, and is applicable only to that · The Pythagorean transmigration, the sensual habita

which is supposed of the longest duration. Permations of the Mahometan, and the shady realms of nent, from the Latin permaneo, signifies remaining Pluto, do all agree in the main point, the continuation

to the end. of our existence.' BERKELEY.

Durable is naturally said of material substances; Continuance and duration, in Latin duratio, from

and lasting of those which are spiritual ; although in duro to harden, or figuratively to last, are both em

ordinary discourse sometimes they exchange offices : ployed for time; things may be of long continuance, permanent applies more to the affairs of men. or of long duration : but continuance is used only

That which perishes quickly is not durable : that with regard to the action; duration with regard to

which ceases quickly is not lasting ; that which is the thing and its existence. Whatever is occasionally only for a time is not permanent. Stone is more done, and soon to be ended, is not for a continuance;

durable than iron, and iron than wood: in the feudal whatever is made, and soon destroyed, is not of long

times animosities between families used to be lasting: duration ; there are many excellent institutions in a clerk has not a permanent situation in an office. England which promise to be of no less continuance

However we may boast of our progress in the arts, we than of utility; That pleasure is not of greater con

appear to have lost the art of making things as durable tinuance, which arises from the prejudice or malice of

as they were made in former times; If writings be its hearers.' Addison. Duration is with us a relative

thus durable, and may pass from age to age, through term; things are of long or short duration : by com

the whole course of time, how careful should an author parison, the duration of the world and all sublunary

be of not committing any thing to print that may objects is nothing in regard to eternity; "Mr. Locke

corrupt posterity.' Addison. The writings of the moobserves, “ that we get the idea of time and duration,

derns will many of them be as lasting monuments of by reflecting on that train of ideas which succeed one

human genius as those of the ancients; • I must desire another in our minds." ' Addison.

my fair readers to give a proper direction to their being admired; in order to which they must endeavour to make themselves the objects of a reasonable

and lasting admiration.' Addison. One who is of a CONTINUATION, CONTINUITY. contented moderate disposition will generally prefer a Continuation, as may be seen above (v. Con- permanent situation with small gains to one that is tinuance), is the act of continuing ; continuity is

very lucrative but temporary and precarious ; • Land the quality of continuing: the former is employed in comprehends all things in law of a permanent sub

stantial nature.' BLACKSTONE. the figurative sense for the duration of events and actions; the latter in the physical sense for the adhesion of the component parts of the bodies. The continuation of a history up to the existing period of the

DURABLE, CONSTANT. writer is the work of every age, if not of every year ; • The sun ascending into the northern signs begetteth Durability is the property of things; constancy first a temperate heat, which by his approach unto the (v. Constancy) is the property of either persons or solstice he intendeth; and by continuation the same things. The durable is that which lasts long. The even upon declination.' Brown (Vulgar Errors). constant is that which continues without interruption. There are bodies of so little continuity that they will No durable connections can be formed which are crumble to pieces on the slightest touch ; - A body founded on vicious principles ; Some states have always perceives the passages by which it insinuates; suddenly emerged, and even in the depths of their feels the impulse of another body where it yields calamity have laid the foundation of a towering and


durable greatness.' BURKE. Some persons are never Piso's behaviour towards us in this season of afflichappy but in a constant round of pleasures ; Since tion has endeared him to us.' MELMOTH (Letters of we cannot promise ourselves constant health, let us

Cicero.) endeavour at such a temper, as may be our best sup- The same distinction exists between the epithets port in the decay of it.” STEELE. What is durable timely and seasonable as their primitives. The former is so from its inherent property, but what is constant, signifies within the time, that is, before the time is in regard to persons or things, arises from the temper past; the latter according to the season or what the of the mind; He shewed his firm adherence to reli- season requires. A timely notice prevents that which gion as modelled by our national constitution, and was would otherwise happen ; It imports all men, especonstant to its offices in devotion, both in public and cially bad men, to think on the judgement, that by a in his family.' ADDISON.

timely repentance they may prevent the woeful effects of it.' South. A seasonable hint seldom fails of its effect because it is seasonable ; 6 What



bold, is not only the kindest, but the most seasonable proposal you could have made.' LOCKE.

We must In the philosophical sense, according to Mr. Locke, not expect to have a timely notice of death, but must time is that mode of duration which is formed in the be prepared to die at any time; an admonition to one mind by its own power of observing and measuring who is on a sick-bed is very seasonable, when given passing objects.

by a minister of religion or a friend. The opposites In the vulgar sense in which duration is syno of these terms are untimely or ill-timed and unseanymous with time, it stands for the time of duration, sonable : untimely is directly opposed to timely, sigand is more particularly applicable to the objects which nifying before the time appointed ; as an untimely are said to last; time being employed in general for death: but ill-timed is indirectly opposed, signifying whatever passes in the world.

in the

wrong time ; as an ill-timed remark. Duration comprehends the beginning and end of any portion of time, that is the how long of a thing ; time is employed more frequently for the particular

TIME, PERIOD, AGE, DATE, ÆRA, portion itself, namely, the time when : we mark the

EPOCHA. duration of a sound from the time of its commencement to the time that it ceases : the duration of a

T'ime (v. Time) is, as before, taken either from prince's reign is an object of particular concern to his time in general, or time in particular; all the other subjects if he be either very good or the reverse; the

terms are taken for particular portions of time. Time, time in which he reigns is marked by extraordinary in the sense of a particular portion of time, is used events. An historian computes the duration of reigns indefinitely, and in cases where the other terms are and of events in order to determine the antiquity of a

not so proper;

“There is a time when we should not nation ; 'I think another probable conjecture (respect- only number our days, but our hours.' Young. ing the soul's immortality) may be raised from our ap- Time included within any given points is termed petite to duration itself.' STEELE. An historian fixes

a period, from the Greek tepiocos, signifying a course, the exact time when each person begins to reign and round, or any revolution : thus, the period of day, or when he dies, in order to determine the number of of night, is the space of time comprehended between years that each reigned; “ The time of the fool is long the rising and setting, or setting and rising of the because he does not know what to do with it; that of

sun; the period of a year comprehends the space the wise man, because he distinguishes every moment which the earth requires for its annual revolution. So, of it with useful or amusing thoughts.' Addison. in an extended and moral application, we have stated

periods in our life for particular things : during the

period of infancy a child is in a state of total dependTIME, SEASON, TIMELY, SEASONABLE. ance on its parents ; a period of apprenticeship has

been appointed for youth to learn different trades; Time is here the generic term; it is taken either for

Some experiment would be made how by art to make the whole or the part : season is any given portion of plants more lasting than their ordinary period ; as to time. We speak of time when the simple idea of time

make a stalk of wheat last a whole year. Bacon. only is to be expressed, as the time of the day, or the This term is employed not only to denote the whole time of the year ; the season is spoken in reference to intervening space of time, but also the particular consome circumstances; the year is divided into four cluding point, which makes it equivalent in sense to parts, called the seasons, according to the nature of the termination of the existence of any body, as to the weather : hence, in general, that time is called put a period to one's existence, for to kill one's self, the season which is suitable for any particular pur- or be killed; pose ; youth is the season for improvement. matter of necessity to choose the time ; it is an affair

But the last period, and the fatal hour,

Of Troy is come. DENHAM. of wisdom to choose the season ; . You will often want religion in times of most danger.' CHATHAM. The age is a species of period comprehending the life of a man, and consequently referring to what is moment, from the Latin momentum, is any small pardone by men living within that period : hence we ticle, particularly a small particle of time. speak of the different ages that have existed since the The instant is always taken for the time present; commencement of the world, and characterise this or the moment is taken generally for either past, present, that age by the particular degrees of vice or virtue, or future. A dutiful child comes the instant he is genius, and the like, for which it is distinguished; called ; a prudent person embraces the favorable mo

The story of Haman only shows us what human ment. When they are both taken for the present nature has too generally appeared to be in every age.' time, the instant expresses a much shorter space than BLAIR.

the moment; when we desire a person to do a thing The date is that period of time which is reckoned this instant, it requires haste; if we desire him to do from the date or commencement of a thing to the time it this moment, it only admits of no delay. Instantathat it is spoken of: hence we speak of a thing as neous relief is necessary on some occasions to preserve being of a long or a short date, that is, of being of life; · Some circumstances of misery are so powerfully long or short duration ; · Plantations have one advan- ridiculous, that neither kindness nor duty can withtage in them which is not to be found in most other stand them; they force the friend, the dependant, or works, as they give a pleasure of a more lasting date.' the child, to give way to instantaneous motions of ADDISON

merriment.? JOHNSON. A moment's thought will furÆra, in Latin æra, probably from æs brass, signi- nish a ready wit with a suitable reply; I can easily fying coin with which one computes ; and epocha, overlook any present momentary sorrow, when I reflect from the Greek énoxw, from étéxw to stop, signifying a that it is in my power to be happy a thousand years resting place; both refer to points of time rendered hence.' BERKELEY. remarkable by events : but the term æra is more commonly employed in the literal sense for points of computation in chronology, as the Christian era; "That period of the Athenian history which is included within

TEMPORARY, TRANSIENT, TRANSI. the era of Pisistratus, and the death of Menander

TORY, FLEETING. the comic poet, may justly be styled the literary age of Greece.' CUMBERLAND. The term epocha is in

Temporary, from tempus time, characterizes that definitely employed for any period distinguished by from that

which is permanent; offices depending upon

which is intended to last only for a time, in distinction remarkable events: the grand rebellion is an epocha in the history of England ; • The institution of this

a state of war are temporary, in distinction from those library (by Pisistratus) forms a signal epocha in the

which are connected with internal policy ; * By the annals of literature.' CUMBERLAND.

force of superior principles the temporary prevalence of passions may be restrained.' JOHNSON. Transient, that is, passing, or in the act of passing, characterizes

what in its nature exists only for the moment; a TIMESERVING, TEMPORIZING.

glance is transient ; Any sudden diversion of the Timeserving and temporizing are both applied to spirits, or the justling in of a transient thought, is the conduct of one who adapts himself servilely to the

able to deface the little images of things in the me

Transitory, that is, apt to pass time and season ; but a timeserver is rather active, mory). South. and a temporizer passive. A timeserver avows those

away, characterizes every thing in the world which is opinions which will serve his purpose : the temporizer

formed only to exist for a time, and then to pass forbears to avow those which are likely for the time

away; thus our pleasures, and our pains, and our being to hurt him. The former acts from a desire

very being, are denominated transitory; Man is a of gain, the latter from a fear of loss. T'imeservers rived from the verb to fly and flight, is but a stronger

T'imeservers transitory being.” Johnson. Fleeting, which is de are of all parties, as they come in the way; Ward had complied during the late times, and held in by

term to express the same idea as transitory; taking the covenant: so he was hated by the high Thus when my fleeting days at last, men as a timeserver.' BURNETT. Temporizers are

Unheeded, silently are past, of no party, as occasion requires ; • Feeble and tem

Calmly I shall resign my breath, porizing measures will always be the result, when

In life unknown, forgot in death. SPECTATOR. men assemble to deliberate in a situation where they ought to act.' ROBERTSON. Sycophant courtiers must always be timeservers : ministers of state are fre

COEVAL, COTEMPORARY. quently temporizers.

Coeval, from the Latin ævum an age, signifies of

the same age; cotemporary, from tempus, signifies INSTANT, MOMENT.

of the same time.

An age is a specifically long space of time; a time Instant, from sto to stand, signifies the point of is indefinite ; hence the application of the terms to time that stands over us, or as it were over our heads; things in the first case, and to persons in the second :

the dispersion of mankind and the confusion of languages were coeval with the building of the tower of Babel ; The passion of fear seems coeval with our nature.' CUMBERLAND. Addison was cotemporary with Swift and Pope; “ If the elder Orpheus was the disciple of Linus, he must have been of too early an age to have been cotemporary with Hercules ; for Orpheus is placed eleven ages before the siege of Troy.' CUMBERLAND.

course of that time. * By doing a thing often it be-
comes habitual ; we frequently meet the same persons
in the route which we often take;

Often from the careless back
Of herds and flocks a thousand tugging bills
Pluck hair and wool. THOMSON.
Here frequent at the visionary hour,
When musing midnight reigns or silent noon,
Angelic harps are in full concert heard. THOMSON.



OLD-FASHIONED, OBSOLETE. Daily, from day and like, signifies after the manner or in the time of the day; diurnal, from dies,

Old, in German alt, Low German old, &c. comes day, signifies belonging to the day.

from the Greek fw.os of yesterday; ancient, in French Daily is the colloquial term, which is applicable to ancien, and antique, antiquated, all come from the whatever passes in the day time; diurnal is the scien- Latin antiquus, and antea before, signifying in tific term, which applies to what passes within or be- general before our time; old-fashioned signifies after longs to the astronomical day: the physician makes

an old fashion ; obsolete, in Latin obsoletus, participle daily visits to his patients ;

of obsoleo, signifies literally out of use.

Old All creatures else forget their daily care,

respects what has long existed and still exists; And sleep, the common gift of nature, share.

ancient what existed at a distant period, but does not

DRYDEN. necessarily exist at present; antique, that which has The earth has a diurnal motion on its own axis ;

been long ancient, and of which there remain but

faint traces: antiquated, old-fashioned, and obsolete Half yet remains unsung, but narrow bound

that which has ceased to be any longer used or Within the visible diurnal sphere. Milton.

esteemed. A fashion is old when it has been long in use; · The Venetians are tenacious of old laws and

customs to their great prejudice.' Addison. A cusNIGHTLY, NOCTURNAL.

tom is ancient when its use has long been passed ; Nightly, immediately from the word night, and *But sev'n wise men the ancient world did know, nocturnal, from now night, signify belonging to the

We scarce know sev’n who think themselves not so.

DENHAM. night, or the night season ; the former is therefore more familiar than the latter: we speak of nightly de- A bust or statue is antique which is the work of the predations to express what passes every night, or ancients, or made after the manner of the ancient nightly disturbances, nocturnal dreams, nocturnal works of art;

Under an oak, whose antique root peeps out
Yet not alone, while thou

Under the brook that brawls along this wood,
Visit'st my slumbers nightly, or when morn

A poor sequester'd stag, Purples the east. MILTON.

That from the hunters' aim had ta'en a hurt, Or save the sun his labour, and that swift

Did come to languish. SHAKSPEARE. Nocturnal and diurnal rhomb suppos'd

A person is antiquated whose appearance is grown out Invisible else above all stars, the wheel

of date; · Whoever thinks it necessary to regulate his Of day and night. Milton.

conversation by antiquated rules, will be rather despised for his futility than caressed for his politeness.”

JOHNSON. Manners which are gone quite out of OFTEN, FREQUENTLY.

fashion are old-fashioned; "The swords in the arOften, or in its contracted form oft, comes in all senal of Venice are old-fashioned and unwieldy.' Adprobability through the medium of the northern lan

A word or custom is obsolete which is grown guages, from the Greek dit again, and signifies pro- out of use; Obsolete words may be laudably revived, perly repetition of action ; frequently, from frequent when they are more sounding or more significant than crowded or numerous, respects a plurality or number those in practice.' DRYDEN. of objects.

The old is opposed to the new :, some things are the An ignorant man often uses a word without know- worse for being old; other things are the better. ing what it means ; ignorant people frequently mis- Ancient and antique are opposed to modern: all take the meaning of the words they hear. A person things are valued the more for being ancient or angoes out very often in the course of a week; he has tique; hence we esteem the writings of the ancients frequently six or seven persons to visit him in the above those of the moderns. The antiquated is

visits ;


* Vide Trusler: “ Often, frequently,"

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