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desirable in itself, what is preferable is more desirable The acceptable is a relative good; the grateful is than another. There may be many eligible situations positive: the former depends upon our external conout of which perhaps there is but one preferable. Of dition, the latter on our feelings and taste : a gift is persons however we say rather that they are eligible to an

rather that they are eligible to an acceptable to a poor man, which would be refused by office than preferable ; "The middle condition is the one less needy than himself; “I cannot but think the most eligible to the man who would improve himself following letter from the Emperor of China

to the in virtue.' ADDISON. • The saying of Plato is, that Pope of Rome, proposing a coalition of the Chinese labour is as preferable to idleness as brightness to rust!' and Roman Churches, will be acceptable to the HUGHES.

curious.' STEELE. Harmonious sounds are always

grateful to a musical ear; OPTION, CHOICE.

The kids with pleasure browze the bushy plain :

The showers are grateful to the swelling grain. Option is immediately of Latin derivation, and is

DRYDEN. consequently a term of less frequent use than the word choice, which has been shown (v. To choose) to Acceptable and welcome both apply to external cirbe of Celtic origin. The former term, from the Greek

cumstances, and are therefore relatively employed; óftbual to see or consider, implies an uncontrolled act

but acceptable is confined to such things as are offered of the mind; the latter a simple leaning of the will.

for our choice; but welcome, signifying come well or We speak of option only as regards one's freedom

in season, refers to whatever happens according to our from external constraint in the act of choosing : one

wishes : we may not always accept that which is acspeaks of choice only as the simple act itself. The ceptable, but we shall never reject that which is weloption or the power of choosing is given ; the choice

come : it is an insult to offer any thing by way of a itself is made: hence we say a thing is at a person's gift to another which is not acceptable ; it is a grateoption, or it is his own option, or the option is left to ful task to be the bearer of welcome intelligence to him, in order to designate his freedom of choice more

our friends ; " Whatever is remote from common apstrongly than is expressed by the word choice itself; pearances is always welcome to vulgar as to childish • Whilst they talk we must make our choice, they or credulity.' Johnson. the jacobins.' We have no other option.' BURKE.


Though both derived from the verb accept, have To gather, in Saxon gatherian, probably con- this difference, that the former is employed to express tracted from get here, signifies simply to bring to one

the abstract action generally; the latter only in spot. To collect, from colligo or col, cum, and lego regard to particular objects. A book, or whatever to gather into one place, annexes also the idea of else is offered to us, may be worthy of our acceptance binding or forming into a whole; we gather that

or not; • It is not necessary to refuse benefits from a which is scattered in different parts: thus stones are

bad man, when the acceptance implies no approbation gathered into a heap; vessels are collected so as to

of his crimes. Johnson. A word acquires its acceptform a fleet. Gathering is a mere act of necessity or ation from the manner in which it is generally accepted convenience ;

by the learned; On the subject of dress I may add As the small ant (for she instructs the man,

by way of caution that the ladies would do well not to And preaches labour) gathers all she can. CREECH. forget themselves. I do not mean this in the common Collecting is an act of design or choice;

acceptation of the phrase, which it may be sometimes

convenient and proper to do.' MACKENZIE.
The royal bee, queen of the rosy bower,
Collects her precious sweets from every flower.

C. Johnson.
We gather apples from a tree, or a servant gathers

TO ADMIT,* RECEIVE. . the books from the table; the antiquarian collects

Admit, in French admettre, Latin admitto, comcoins, or the bibliomaniac collects rare books.

pounded of ad and mitto, signifies to send or suffer to pass into; receive, in French recevoir, Latin recipio,

compounded of re and capio, signifies to take back or ACCEPTABLE, GRATEFUL, WELCOME.

to one's self.

To admit is a general term, the sense of which deAcceptable signifies worthy to be accepted ; grate- pends upon what follows ; to receive has a complete ful, from the Latin gratus pleasing, signifies alto- sense in itself: we cannot speak of admitting, without gether pleasing; it is that which recommends itself. associating with it an idea of the object to which one

* Girard: “ Amettre, recevoir.”


We may

of a war ;

is admitted ; but receive includes no relative idea of approaching; approach, from ap or ad and proximus the receiver or the received.

nearest, signifies coming near or drawing near. Admitting is an act of relative import; receiving is We get admittance into a place or a society; we always a positive measure : a person may be admitted have access to a person; and make an approach either into a house, who is not prevented from entering; towards a person or a thing.

Admittance be

may Somewhat is sure design'd by fraud or force;

open or excluded; access and Trust not their presents, nor admit the horse.

approach may be free or difficult.
We have admittance when we enter;

we have

access to him whom we address. There can be no A person is received only by the actual consent of some

access where there is no admittance; but there may individual;

be admittance without access. Servants or officers He star'd and roll’d his haggard eyes around;

may grant us admittance into the palaces of princes; Then said, “Alas! what earth remains, what sea As my pleasures are almost wholly confined to those Is open to receive unhappy me?' DRYDEN.

of the sight, I take it for a peculiar happiness that I We may be admitted in various capacities; we are

have always had an easy and familiar admittance to

the fair sex.' STEELE. The favorites of princes have received only as guests, friends, or inmates. Persons are admitted to the tables, and into the familiarity or

access to their persons ; • Do not be surprised, most confidence of others;

holy father, at seeing, instead of a coxcomb to laughat, your old friend who has taken this

way of access The Tyrian train, admitted to the feast,

to admonish



your own folly.' STEELE. Approach, and on the painted couches rest. Dryden. Access and admittance are here considered as the

acts of conscious agents ; approach is as properly the Persons are hospitably received by those who wish to act of unconscious as conscious agents. be their entertainers ;

speak of the approach of an army, or the approach Pretending to consult About the great reception of their king

'Tis with our souls Thither to come. MILTON.

As with our eyes, that after a long darkness

Are dazzled at th' approach of sudden light. We admit willingly or reluctantly; we receive politely or rudely. Foreign ambassadors are admitted

Admittance may likewise sometimes be taken figuto an audience, and received at court.

It is necessary

ratively, as when we speak of the admittance of to be cautious not to admit any one into our society,

ideas into the mind. who may not be agreeable and suitable companions ; but still more necessary not to receive any one into our houses whose character may reflect disgrace on


These words differ according to the different acWhoever is admitted as a member of any com- ceptations of the primitive from which they are both munity should consider himself as bound to conform derived; the former being taken in the proper sense to its regulations : whoever is received into the service or familiar style, and the latter in the figurative sense of another should study to make himself valued and or in the grave style. esteemed. A winning address, and agreeable man- The admittance to public places of entertainment ners, gain a person admittance into the genteelest is on particular occasions difficult ; • Assurance never circles: the talent for affording amusement procures a failed to get admittance into the houses of the great.' person a good reception among the mass of mankind. MOORE. The admission of irregularities, however

When applied to unconscious agents there is a trifling in the commencement, is mostly attended with similar distinction between these terms: ideas are ad- serious consequences ;

· The gospel has then only a mitted into the mind by means of association and the free admission into the assent of the understanding, like ; « There are some ideas which have admittance

when it brings a passport from a rightly disposed will.' only through one sense, which is peculiarly adapted to receive them.' Locke. Things are received by others in consequence of their adaptation to each other ;

IMPERVIOUS, IMPASSABLE, The thin-leav'd arbute hazel-grafts receives,

INACCESSIBLE. And planes huge apples bear, that bore but leaves.

DRYDEN. Impervious, from the Latin in, per, and via, signi

fies not having a way through ; impassable, not to be

passed through; inaccessible, not to be approached. ADMITTANCE, ACCESS, APPROACH.

A wood is impervious when the trees, branches, and

leaves are entangled to such a degree as to admit of Admittance marks the act or liberty of admitting

no passage at all; (v. To admit, receive); access, from accedo to ap- The monster, Cacus, more than half a beast, proach or come up to, marks the act or liberty of This hold impervious to the sun possess'd. Deydex.

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A river is impassable that is so deep that it cannot be the particle de, to hold from another; the second, by forded ;

virtue of the particle re, signifies to hold back for

oneself. But lest the difficulty of passing back Stay his return perhaps over this gulf,

To hold is a physical act; it requires a degree of Impassable, impervious, let us try

bodily strength, or at least the use of the limbs; to Advent'rous work. Milton.

keep is simply to have by one at one's pleasure. The A rock or a mountain is inaccessible the summit of mode of the action is the leading idea in the significawhich is not to be reached by any path whatever;

tion of hold ; the durability of the action is the leading

idea in the word keep: we may hold a thing only At least our envious foe hath faild who thought for a moment; but what we keep we keep for a time. All like himself rebellions, by whose aid

On the other hand, we may keep a thing by holding, This inaccessible high strength, the seat Of Deity Supreme, us dispossess’d,

although we may keep it by various other means : He trusted to have seiz’d. Milton.

we may therefore hold without keeping, and we may

keep without holding. A servant holds a thing in What is impervious is for a permanency; what is im- his hand for it to be seen, but he does not keep it ; passable is commonly so only for a time : roads are

he gives it to his master who puts it into his pocket, frequently impassable in the winter that are passable and consequently keeps, but does not hold it. А in the summer, while a thicket is impervious during thing may be held in the hand, or kept in the hand; the whole of the year: impassable is likewise said in the former case, the pressure of the hand is an only of that which is to be passed by living creatures, essential part of the action, but in the latter case it is but impervious may be extended to inanimate objects; simply a contingent part of the action: the hand holds, a wood may be impervious to the rays of the sun. but the person keeps it.

What is held is fixed in position, but what is kept

is left loose, or otherwise, at the will of the individual. TO APPROACH, APPROXIMATE.

Things are held by human beings in their hands, by

beasts in their claws or mouths, by birds in their Approach, in French approcher, compound of ap beaks; things are kept by human beings either about or ad and proche, or in Latin prope near, signifies to

their persons or in their houses, according to convenicome near; approximate, compounded of ap and ence ; prorimus to come nearest or next, signifies either to

France, thou mayst hold a serpent by the tongue, draw near or bring near.

A fasting tiger safer by the tooth, To approach is intransitive only ; a person ap- Than keep in peace that hand which thou dost hold.

SHAKSPEARE proaches an object; ' Lambs push at those that approach them with their heads before the first bud

Detain and retain are modes of keeping; the ding of a horn appears.' Addison. To approximate

To approximate former signifies keeping back what belongs to another; is both transitive and intransitive; a person approxi- the latter signifies keeping a long time for one's own mates two objects; Shakspeare approximates the

purpose. A person may be either held, kept, detained, remote and far.' JOHNSON.

or retained : when he is held he is held contrary to his To approach denotes simply the moving of an ob- will by the hand of another; as suspected persons are ject towards another, but to approximate denotes the held by the officers of justice, that they may not make gradual moving of two objects towards each other:

their escape: he is kept, if he stops in any place, by the that which approaches may come into immediate con

desire of another; as a man is kept in prison until his junction ; Comets, in their approaches towards the innocence is proved; or a child is kept at school, until earth, are imagined to cause diseases, famines, and

he has finished his education: he is detained if he be other such like judgments of God.' DERHAM. But

kept away from any place to which he is going, or bodies may approximate for some time before they from any person to whom he belongs ; as the servant form a junction, or may never form a junction. The

of another is detained to take back a letter; or one approximations and recesses of some of the little stars

is detained by business, so as to be prevented attendI speak of, suit not with the observations of some

ing to an appointment: a person is retained, who is very ancient astronomers.' DERHAM. An equivocation kept for a continuance in the service, the favor, or the approaches to a lie. Minds approximate by long in

power of another; as some servants are said to be retercourse.

tained, while others are dismissed ;

Too late it was for satyr to be told, TO HOLD, KEEP, DETAIN, RETAIN.

Or ever hope recover her again;

In vain he seeks, that having, cannot hold. SPENSER. Hold, in Saxon healden, Teutonic holden ; is


That I may know what keeps you here with me. bably connected with the verb to have, in Latin

DRYDEN habeo, &c.; keep in all probability comes from capio to lay hold of; detain and retain both come from the • He has described the passion of Calypso, and the Latin teneo to hold ; the first signifies, by virtue of indecent advances she made to detain him from his

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country.' BROOME. Having the address to retain

TO HOLD, OCCUPY, POSSESS. the conquest she (Roxalana) had made, she kept possession of his (Solyman's) love without any rival for

Hold has the same general meaning as in the premany years.' ROBERTSON.

ceding article ; occupy, in Latin occupo, or oc and These words bear a similar analogy to each other capio to hold or keep, signifies to keep so that it canin an extended application. A money-lender holds not be held by others; possess, in Latin possideo, or the property of others in pledge; the idea of a tem- potis and sedeo, signifies to sit as master of. porary and partial action is here expressed by hold, We hold a thing for a long or a short time; we ocin distinction from keep, which is used to express some- cupy it for a permanence : we hold it for ourselves or thing definite and permanent; Assuredly it is more others; we occupy it only for ourselves : we hold it shame for a man to lose that which he holdeth, than for various purposes ; we occupy only for the purpose to fail in getting that which he never had.' HAYWARD. of converting it to our private use.

Thus a person The money-lender keeps the property as his own, if may hold an estate, or, which is the same thing, the the borrower forfeits it by breach of contract;

title-deeds to an estate pro tempore, for another per

son's benefit; but he occupies an estate if he enjoys This charge I keep until my appointed day

the fruit of it. On the other hand, to occupy is only Of rendering up. Milton.

to hold under a certain compact; but to possess is to When a person purchases any thing, he is expected hold as one's own. The tenant occupies the farm to keep it, or pay the value of the thing ordered, if when he holds it by a certain lease, and cultivates it the tradesman fulfil his part of the engagement. What for his subsistence: but the landlord possesses the farm is detained is kept either contrary to the will, or with- who possesses the right to let it, and to receive the rent. out the consent, of the possessor: when things are We may hold by force, or fraud, or right; suspected to be stolen, the officers of justice have the right of detaining them until inquiry be instituted;

He (the eagle) drives them from his fort, the towering seat,
For ages of his empire which in peace

Unstain'd he holds. THOMSON.
Haste! goddess, haste ! the flying host detain,
Nor let one sail be hoisted on the main. Pope.

We occupy either by force or right; · If the title of What is retained is continued to be kept ; it sup- occupiers be good in a land unpeopled, why should it be poses, however, some alteration in the terms or cir- bad accounted in a country peopled thinly.' RALEGH. cumstances under which it is kept ; a person retains We possess only by right; his seat in a coach, notwithstanding he finds it dis- But now the feather'd youth their former bounds agreeable ; or a lady retains some of the articles of Ardent disdain, and weighing oft their wings, millinery, which are sent for her choice, but she returns Demand the free possession of the sky. Thomson. the rest;

Hence we say figuratively, to hold a person in esteem Let me retain

or contempt, to occupy a person's attention, to occupy The name, and all th' addition to a king.

a place, &c. or to possess one's affection ; SHAKSPEARE.

1, as a stranger to my heart and me, All are used in a moral application except detain ;

Hold thee from this for ever. SHAKSPEARE. in this case they are marked by a similar distinction.

• He must assert infinite generations before that first A person is said to hold an office, by which simple deluge, and then the earth could not receive them, possession is implied; he may hold it for a long or a but the infinite bodies of men must occupy an infinite short time, at the will of others, or by his own will,

space.' BENTLEY. which are not marked: he keeps a situation, or he

Of fortune's favor long possess’d, keeps his post, by which his continuance in the situa

He was with one fair daughter only bless’d. DRYDEN. tion, or at the post, are denoted : he retains his office, by which is signified that he might have given it up, or lost it, had he not been led to continue in it. In like

TO HOLD, SUPPORT, MAINTAIN. manner, with regard to one's sentiments, feelings, or external circumstances, a man is said to hold certain Hold is here, as in the former article, a term of opinions, which are ascribed to him as a part of his very general import ; to support, from sub and porto creed; It is a certain sign of a wise government, when to carry, signifying to bear the weight of a thing; and it can hold men's hearts by hopes.' Bacon. A person to maintain, from the French maintenir, and the keeps his opinions when no one can induce him to Latin manus a hand, and teneo to hold, signifying give them up; · The proof is best when men keep their to hold firmly, are particular modes of holding. authority towards their children, but not their purse.' Hold and support are employed in the proper sense, Bacon. He retains his old attachments, notwith- maintain in the improper sense. To hold is a term standing the lapse of years, and change of circum- unqualified by any circumstance; we may hold a thing stances, which have intervened, and were naturally in any direction, hold up or down, straight or crooked calculated to wean him ; Ideas are retained by re- support is a species of holding up; to hold up, hownovation of that impression which time is always wear- ever, is a personal act, or a direct effort of the indiviing away.' JOHNSON.

dual ; to support may be an indirect and a passive act; he who holds any thing up keeps it in an upright

TO HAVE, POSSESS. posture, by the exertion of his strength; he who supports a thing only bears its weight, or suffers it to Have, in German haben, Latin habeo, not improrest upon himself: persons or voluntary agents can

bably from the Hebrew nax to desire, or anx he loved, hold up; inanimate objects may support : a servant

because those who have most, desire most, or because holds up a child that it may see; a pillar supports a

men love worldly possessions above every thing else; building

possess has the same meaning as in the preceding Hold, maintain, and support are likewise employed article; have is the general, possess is the particular still farther in a moral application, as it respects the

term: have designates no circumstance of the action ; different opinions and circumstances of men ; opinions possess expresses a particular species of having. are held and maintained as one's own; they are sup

To have is sometimes to have in one's hand or ported when they are another's. We hold and main- within one's reach ; but to possess is to have as one's tain when we believe ; we support the belief or doc- own: a clerk has the money which he has fetched for trine of another, or what we ourselves have asserted his employer; the latter possesses the money, which and maintained at a former time. What is held is he has the power of turning to his use. To have is held by the act of the mind within one's self; what is

sometimes to have the right to, to belong; to possess maintained and supported is openly declared to be is to have by one and at one's command: a debtor has held. To hold marks simply the state of one's own the property which he has surrendered to his creditor ; mind ; . It was a notable observation of a wise father,

but he cannot be said to possess it, because he has it that those which held and persuaded pressure of con

not within his reach, and at his disposal : * we are not sciences were commonly interested therein themselves necessarily masters of that which we have; although for their own ends. Bacon. To maintain indicates we always are of that which we possess : to have is the effort which one makes to inform others of this sometimes only temporary ; to possess is mostly perstate ; • If any man of quality will maintain upon

manent: we have money, which we are perpetually Edward, Earl of Glo'ster, that he is a manifold traitor, disposing of; we possess' lands which we keep for a let him appear.' SHAKSPEARE. To support indicates permanency: a person has the good graces of those the efforts which one makes to justify that state. We whom he pleases; he possesses the confidence of those hold an opinion only as it regards ourselves; we main- who put every thing in his power: the stoutest heart tain and support it as it regards others; that is, we may have occasional alarms, but will never lose its maintain it either with others, for others, or against self-possession : a husband has continual torments who others : we support it in an especial manner against is possessed by the demon of jealousy: a miser has others : we maintain it by assertion ; we support it goods in his coffers, but he is not master of them; by argument. Bad principles do harm only to the they possess his heart and affections: we have things individual when they are held ; they will do harm to by halves when we share them with others; we possess all whom our 'influence extends when we main- them only when they are exclusively ours and we enjoy tain them; they may do harm to all the world, when

them undividedly ; we undertake to support them. Good pripciples need

That I spent, that I had ; only be held, or at most maintained, unless where ad- That I gave, that I have ; versaries set themselves up against them, and render it That I left, that I lost.

EPITAPH ON A CHARITABLE Man. necessary to support them. Infidel principles have been held occasionally by individuals in all ages, but A lover has the affections of his mistress by whom he they were never maintained with so much openness is beloved ; he possesses her whole heart when she and effrontery at any time, as at the close of the

loves him only: one has an interest in a mercantile eighteenth century, when supporters of such principles

concern in which he is a partner; the lord of a manor were to be found in every tap-room.

possesses all the rights annexed to that 'manor; · The Hold is applied not only to principles and opinions, various objects that compose the world were by nature but also to sentiments ; maintain and support are confined either to abstract and speculative opinions, or

formed to delight our senses; and as it is this alone

that makes them desirable to an uncorrupted taste, a to the whole mind : we hold a thing dear or cheap, we man may be said naturally to possess them when he hold it in abhorrence, or we hold it sacred ; As Chaucer is the father of English poetry, so I hold possesseth those enjoyments which they are fitted by

nature to yield.' BERKELEY. him in the same degree of veneration as the Grecians held Homer, or the Romans Virgil.' DRYDEN. We maintain or support truth or error; we maintain an influcuce over ourselves, or maintain a cause ;

TO LAY OR TAKE HOLD OF, CATCH, Who then is free? The wise, who well maintains

SEIZE, SNATCH, GRASP, GRIPE. An empire o'er himself. Francis.

To lay or take hold of is here the generic expresWe support our resolution or our minds ; Nothing can sion: it denotes simply getting into the possession, support the minds of the guilty from drooping.' South. which is the common idea in the signification of all

• Vide Abbé Girard : « Avoir, posséder.”


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