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rule becomes an oppressive tyranny: of Robespierre These terms are all properly used to denote the acts of it has been said, that if he did not know how to conscious agents, but by a figure of personification they govern, he aimed at least at ruling.

may be applied to inanimate or moral objects: the price These terms are applied either to persons or things: of one market governs the price of another, or governs persons govern or rule others; or they govern, rule, the seller in his demand ; . The chief point which he or regulate things.

is to carry always in his eye, and by which he is to In regard to persons govern is always in a good govern all his counsels, designs, and actions.' ATTERsense, but rule is sometimes taken in a bad sense; it BURY.

Fashion and caprice rule the majority, or paris naturally associated with an abuse of power: to

ticular fashions rule ; govern is so perfectly discretionary, that we speak of

Distracting thoughts by turns his bosom ruld, governing ourselves; but we speak only of ruling

Now fir'a by wrath, and now by reason cool'd. POPE. others: nothing can be more lamentable than to be ruled by one who does not know how to govern him- One clock may regulate many others; • Though a self;

sense of moral good and evil be deeply impressed on

the heart of man, it is not of sufficient power to reSlaves to our passions we become, and then It becomes impossible to govern men.


gulate his life.' BLAIR. It is the business of a man to rule his house by keeping all its members in due subjection to his authority; it is the duty of a person to rule those who are under

GOVERNMENT, ADMINISTRATION. him in all matters wherein they are incompetent to

Both these terms may be employed either to desiggovern themselves ;

nate the act of governing and administering, or the Marg’ret shall now be queen, and rule the king, persons governing and administering. In both cases But I will rule both her, the king, and realm.

government has a more extensive meaning than admiSHAKSPEARE.

nistration : the government includes every exercise of To govern necessarily supposes the adoption of ju- authority ; the administration implies only that exerdicious means; but ruling is confined to no means but

cise of authority, which consists in putting the laws such as will obtain the end of subjecting the will of

or will of another in force : hence, when we speak of one to that of another; a woman is said to rule by

the government, as it respects the persons, it implies obeying ; an artful and imperious woman will have

the whole body of constituted authorities ; and the recourse to various stratagems to elude the

administration, only that part which puts in execu

power to which she ought to submit, and render it subservient

tion the intentions of the whole : the government of a to her own purposes.

country therefore may remain unaltered, while the In application to things, govern and rule admit of administration undergoes many changes; Governa similar distinction : a minister governs the state, and

ment is an art above the attainment of an ordinary a pilot governs the vessel ; the movements of the ma

genius.' South. It is the business of the government chine are in both cases directed by the exercise of the

to make treaties of peace and war; and without a gojudgement;

vernment it is impossible for any people to negociate ;

What are we to do if the government and the whole Whence can this very motion take its birth,

community are of the same description ?' BURKE. Not sure from matter, from dull clods of earth ?

It is the business of the administration to administer
But from a living spirit lodg’d within,
Which governs all the bodily machine. JENYNS.

justice, to regulate the finances, and to direct all the

complicated concerns of a nation ; without an admiA person rules the times, seasons, fashions, and the nistration all public business would be at a stand ; like; it is an act of the individual will ;

In treating of an invisible world, and the adminis'When I behold a factious band agree,

tration of government there carried on by the Father To call it freedom when themselves are free ;

of spirits, particulars occur which appear incompreEach wanton judge new penal statutes draw;

hensible.' BLAIR. Laws grind the poor, and rich men rule the law ;

I fly from petty tyrants to the throne. GOLDSMITH. Regulate is a species of governing simply by judge- GOVERNMENT, CONSTITUTION. ment; the word is applicable to things of minor moment, where the force of authority is not so requisite : Government is here as in the former article (v. Goone governs the affairs of a nation, or a large bodyvernment) the generic term ; constitution the specific. where great interests are involved; we regulate the Government implies generally the act of governing or concerns of an individual, or we regulate in cases exercising authority under any form whatever; conwhere good order or convenience only is consulted ; stitution implies any constituted or fixed form of Regulate the patient in his manner of living.' WISE- government: we may have a government without a MAN. So likewise in regard to ourselves, we govern constitution ; we cannot have a constitution without our passions, but we regulate our affections.

a government. In the first formation of society go

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vernment was placed in the hands of individuals who imaginary work; for it is impossible but that they exercised authority according to discretion rather than must regard with a more dispassionate eye the posany fixed rule or law: here then was government sessors of power when they see themselves indebted to without a constitution : as time and experience proved those in power for the most admirable constitution the necessity of some established form, and the wisdom ever framed. of enlightened men discovered the advantages and The constitution is in danger, is the watch-word of disadvantages of different forms, government in every a party who want to increase the power of the people ; country assumed a more definite shape, and became but every one who is acquainted with history, and the constitution of the country; hence then the union remembers that before the constitution was fully of government and constitution. Governments are formed it was the people who overturned the governdivided by political writers into three classes, monar- ment, will perceive that much more is to be apprechical, aristocratic, and republican : but these three hended by throwing any weight into the scale of the general forms have been adopted with such variations popular side of government, than by strengthening the and modifications as to render the constitution of every hands of the executive government. The constitution country something peculiar to itself; Free govern- of England has arrived at the acme of human perments have committed more flagrant acts of tyranny fection ; it ensures to every man as much as he can than the most perfect despotic governments which we wish ; it deprives no man of what he can consistently have ever known.' BURKE. • The physician of the with the public peace expect; it has within itself adestate who, not satisfied with the cure of distempers, quate powers for correcting every evil and abuse as it undertakes to regenerate constitutions, ought to show may arise, and is fully competent to make such modiuncommon powers.' BURKE.

fications of its own powers as the circumstances may Political squabblers have always chosen to consider require. Every good citizen therefore will be contented government in its limited sense as including only the to leave the government of the country in the hands supreme or executive authority, and the constitution of those constituted authorities as they at present exist, as that which is set up by the authority of the people; fully assured that if they have not the wisdom and but this is only a forced application of a general term the power to meet every exigency, the evil will not be to serve the purposes of party. Constitution, accord- diminished by making the people our legislators. ing to its real signification, does not convey the idea of the source of power any more than government; the constitution may with as much propriety be formed or constituted by the monarch as government is ex

UNRULY, UNGOVERNABLE, ercised by the monarch; and of this we may be assured,

REFRACTORY. that what is to be formed specifically by any person or persons so as to become constituted must be framed Unruly marks the want of disposition to be ruled : by something more authoritative than a rabble. The ungovernable, an absolute incapacity to be governed : constitution may, as I have before observed, be the the former is a temporary or partial error, the latter is work of time, for most of the constitutions in Europe, an habitual defect in the temper: a volatile child will whether republican or monarchical, are indebted to be occasionally unruly; any child of strong passions time and the natural course of events for their esta- will become ingovernable by excessive indulgence : blishment; but in our own country the case has been we say that our wills are unruly, and our tempers are so far different that by the wisdom and humanity of ungovernable ; How hardly is the restive unruly will those in government or power, a constitution has been of man first tamed and broke to duty.' South. expressly formed, which distinguishes the English

Heav'ns, how unlike their Belgic sires of old ! nation from all others. Hence the word constitution

Rough, poor, content, ungovernably bold. GOLDSMITH. is applied by distinction to the English form of government; and since this constitution has happily secured The unruly respects that which is to be ruled or the rights and liberties of the people by salutary laws, turned at the instant, and is applicable therefore to a vulgar error has arisen that the constitution is the the management of children : ungovernable respects work of the people, and by a natural consequence it that which is to be put into a regular course, and is is maintained that the people, if they are not satisfied applicable therefore either to the management of chilwith their constitution, have the right of introducing dren or the direction of those who are above the state changes; a dangerous error which cannot be combated of childhood ; a child is unruly in his actions, and with too much steadfastness. It must be obvious to ungovernable in his conduct. Refractory, which from all who reflect on this subject that the constitution, as . the Latin refringo to break open, marks the dispofar as it is assignable to the efforts of any man or set sition to break every thing down before it, is the excess of men, was never the work of the people, but of the of the unruly with regard to children: the unruly is government or those who held the supreme power. however negative; but the refractory is positive: an

This view of the matter is calculated to lessen the unruly child objects to be ruled ; a refractory child jealousies of the people towards their government, and sets up a positive resistance to all rule: an unruly to abate that overweening complacency with which child may be altogether silent and passive ; a refracthey are apt to look upon themselves, and their own tory child always commits himself by some act of intemperance in word or deed: he is unruly if in any INSURRECTION, SEDITION, REBELLION, degree he gives trouble in the ruling; he is refractory

REVOLT. if he refuses altogether to be ruled. This term refractory may also be applied to the brutes ; “I con

Insurrection, from surgo to rise up, signifies rising ceive (replied Nicholas) I stand here before you, my up against any power that is; sedition, in Latin most equitable judges, for no worse a crime than cud- seditio, compounded of se and itio, signifies a going gelling my refractory mule.' CUMBERLAND.

apart, that is, the people going apart from the government; rebellion, in Latin rebellio, from rebello, signifies turning upon or against in a hostile manner; revolt, in French revolter, is most probably com

pounded of re and volter, from volvo to roll, signifying TUMULTUOUS, TURBULENT, SEDI

to roll or turn back from, to turn against. TIOUS, MUTINOUS.

The term insurrection is general; it is used in a

good or bad sense, according to the nature of the Tumultuous describes the disposition to make a

power against which one rises up; sedition and renoise; those who attend the play-houses, particularly bellion are more specific; they are always taken in the the lower orders, are frequentĪy tumultuous ; • Many bad sense of unallowed opposition to lawful authority. civil broils and tumultuous rebellions, they fairly There may be an insurrection against usurped power, overcame, by reason of the continual presence of their

which is always justifiable; but sedition and rebellion king, whose only presence oftentimes constrains the

are levelled against power universally acknowledged to unruly people from a thousand evil occasions." '

be legitimate. Insurrection is always open ; it is a Spenser (on Ireland). Turbulent marks a hostile rising up of many in a mass; but it does not imply spirit of resistance to authority; when prisoners are dissatisfied they are frequently turbulent; Men of any concerted, or any specifically active measure ; a

united spirit of opposition, as the moving cause, is all ambitious and turbulent spirits, that were dissatisfied that is comprehended in the meaning of the term ; with privacy, were allowed to engage in matters of

• Elizabeth enjoyed a wonderful calm (excepting some state.' BENTLEY. Seditious marks a spirit of resist

short gusts of insurrection at the beginning) for near ance to government; during the French revolution the

upon forty-five years together. Howell. Sedition is people were often disposed to be seditious ; Very either secret or open, according to circumstances; in many of the nobility in Edinburgh, at that time, did not popular governments it will be open and determined ; appear yet in this seditious behaviour.' CLARENDON.

in monarchical governments it is secretly organized ; Mutinous marks a spirit of resistance against officers

• When the Roman people began to bring in plebeians either in the army or navy; a general will not fail to to the office of chiefest power and dignity, then began quell the first risings of a mutinous spirit;

those seditions which so long distempered, and at Lend me your guards, that if persuasion fail,

length ruined, the state.' TEMPLE. Rebellion is the Force may against the mutinous prevail. WALLER.

consummation of sedition ; the scheme of opposition

which has been digested in secrecy breaks out into Electioneering mobs are always tumultuous; the open hostilities, and becomes rebellion ; young and the ignorant are so averse to control that

If that rebellion they are easily led by the example of an individual to

Came like itself, in base and abject routs, be turbulent, among the Romans the people were in You reverend father, and these noble lords, the habit of holding seditious meetings, and some- Had not been here to dress the ugly forms times the soldiery would be mutinous.

Of base and bloody insurrection. SHAKSPEARE. The insurrection which was headed by Wat Tyler, in the time of Richard II, was an unhappy instance of

widely extended delusion among the common people ; TUMULTUOUS, TUMULTUARY. the insurrection in Madrid, in the year 1808, against

the infamous usurpation of Bonaparte, has led to the Tumultuous signifies having tumult; tumultuary,

most important results that ever sprung from

any comdisposed for tumult: the former is applied to objects motion. Rome was the grand theatre of seditions, in general ; the latter to persons only: in tumultuous which were set on foot by the Tribunes : England has meetings the voice of reason is the last thing that is been disgraced by one rebellion, which ended in the heard ;

death of its king. But, O! beyond description happiest he

Sedition is common to all forms of government, but Who ne'er must roll on life's tumultuous sea. PRIOR.

flourishes most in republics, since there it can scarcely

be regarded as a political or moral offence: rebellion It is the natural tendency of large and promiscuous exists properly in none but monarchical states; in assemblies to become tumultuary; 6 With tu- which the allegiance that men owe to their sovereign multuary, but irresistible violence, the Scotch in- requires to be broken with the utmost violence, in surgents fell upon the churches in that city (Perth).' order to be shaken off

. Insurrections may be made ROBERTSON.

by nations against a foreign dominion, or by subjects against their government: sedition and rebellion are

FACTIOUS, SEDITIOUS. carried on by subjects only against their govern

Factious, in Latin factiosus from facio to do, sigment: revolt' is carried on only by nations against nifies the same as busy or intermeddling; ready to a foreign dominion ; upon the death of Alexander the

take an active part in matters not of one's own immeGreat most of his conquered countries revolted from

diate concern ; seditious, in Latin seditiosus, signifies his successors; He was greatly strengthened, and the enemy as much enfeebled by daily revolts.' prone to sedition (v. Insurrection).

Factious is an epithet to characterize the tempers of

men ; seditious characterizes their conduct: the facRevolt is also applied to moral objects in the same

tious man attempts to raise himself into importance, sense ; • Our self-love is ever ready to revolt from

he aims at authority, and seeks to interfere in the our better judgement, and join the enemy within.'

measures of government; the seditious man attempts STEELE.

to excite others, and to provoke their resistance to established authority: the first wants to be a law-giver ;

the second does not hesitate to be a law-breaker: the FACTION, PARTY.

first wants to direct the state; the second to overturn

it: the factious man is mostly in possession of either * These two words equally suppose the union of

power, rank, or fortune; the seditious man is seldom many persons, and their opposition to certain views

elevated in station or circumstances above the mass of different from their own. But faction, from factio the people. The Roman tribunes were in general making, denotes an activity and secret machination little better than factious demagogues ; such, in fact, against those whose views are opposed ; and party,

as abound in all republics: Wat Tyler was a seditious from the verb to part or split, expresses only a division

disturber of the peace. Factious is mostly applied to of opinion.

individuals ; The term party has of itself nothing odious, that of faction is always so. Any man, without distinction

He is a traitor, let him to the Tower,

And crop away that factious pate of his. SHAKSPEARE. of rank, may have a party either at court or in the army, in the city or in literature, without being himself Seditious is employed for bodies of men : hence we immediately implicated in raising it; but factions are speak of a factious nobleman, a seditious multitude ; always the result of active efforts; one may have a France is considered (by the ministry) as merely a party for one's merit from the number and ardor of foreign power, and the seditious English only as a one's friends ; but a faction is raised by busy and domestic faction.' BURKE. turbulent spirits for their own purposes. Rome was torn by the intestine factions of Cæsar and Pompey; France, from the commencement of the revolution to

OBSTINATE, CONTUMACIOUS, STUBthe period of Buonaparte's usurpation, was successively governed by some ruling faction which raised itself BORN, HEADSTRONG, HEADY. upon the ruins of that which it had destroyed.

Obstinate, in Latin obstinatus, participle of obFactions are not so prevalent in England as parties, stino, from ob and stino, sto or sisto, signifies standowing to the peculiar excellence of the constitution; ing in the way of another ; contumacious, prone to but there are not wanting factious spirits who, if they contumacy (v. Contumacy); stubborn, or stoutborn, could overturn the present balance of power which has stiff or immoveable by nature; headstrong, strong in the been so happily obtained, would have an opportunity head or the mind; and heady, full of one's own head. of practising their arts alternately on the high and

Obstinacy is a habit of the mind; contumacy is low, and carrying on their schemes by the aid of both. Faction is the demon of discord, armed with the obstinacy consists in an attachment to one's own mode

either a particular state of feeling or a mode of action : power to do endless mischief, and intent alone on

of acting ; contumacy consists in a swelling contempt destroying whatever opposes its progress.

Woe to

of others : the obstinate man adheres tenaciously to that state into which it has found an entrance ; . It is

his own ways, and opposes reason to reason : the conthe restless ambition of a few artful men that thus

tumacious man disputes the right of another to control breaks a people into factions, and draws several well- his actions, and opposes force to force. Obstinacy meaning persons to their interest by a specious concern for their country.' Addison. Party spirit may show him blind to right reason ; contumacy is a crime

interferes with a man's private conduct, and makes itself in noisy debate ; but while it keeps within the against lawful authority; the contumacious man sets legitimate bounds of opposition, it is an evil that must

himself against his superiors: when young people are be endured; • As men formerly became eminent in obstinate they are bad subjects of education; learned societies by their parts and acquisitions, they now distinguish themselves by the warmth and violence

But man we find the only creature

Who, led by folly, combats nature; with which they espouse their respective parties.'

Who, when she loudly cries, forbear, ADDISON.

With obstinacy fixes there. Swift.

* Vide Beauzée : “ Faction, parti.”

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When people are contumacious they are trou- certain points, and oppose the individual; the rebel blesome subjects to the king; When an offender sets himself up against the authority itself: the conis cited to appear in any ecclesiastical court, and he tumacious thwart and contradict, they never resort to neglects to do it, he is pronounced contumacious.' open violence; the rebel acts only by main force : BEVERIDGE.

contumacy shelters itself under the plea of equity and The stubborn and the headstrong are species of the justice ; • The censor told the criminal that he spoke obstinate : the former lies altogether in the perversion in contempt of the court, and that he should be proof the will ; the latter in the perversion of the judge- ceeded against for contumacy.' ADDISON. Rebellion ment: the stubborn person wills what he wills; the sets all law and order at defiance; “ The mother of headstrong person thinks what he thinks. Stubborn- Waller was the daughter of John Hampden of Hampness is mostly inherent in the nature : a headstrong den, in the same county, and sister to Hampden the temper is commonly associated with violence and im- zealot of rebellion.' Johnson. petuosity of character. Obstinacy discovers itself in persons of all ages and stations; a stubborn and headstrong disposition betray themselves mostly in those

DISAFFECTION, DISLOYALTY. who are bound to conform to the will of another.

. The obstinate keep the opinions which they have Disaffection is general; disloyalty is particular, once embraced in spite of all proof; but they are not being a species of disaffection.

being a species of disaffection. Men are disaffected hasty in forming their opinions, nor adopt them with

to the government; disloyal to their prince. out a choice : the headstrong seize the first opinions

Disaffection may be said with regard to any form that offer, and act upon them in spite of all remon- of government; disloyalty only with regard to å strance ;

monarchy. Although both terms are commonly emWe, blindly by our headstrong passions led,

ployed in a bad sense, yet the former does not Are hot for action. DRYDEN.

always convey the unfavorable meaning which is at

tached to the latter. A man may have reasons to The stubborn follow the ruling will or bent of the

think himself justified in disaffection ; but he will mind, without regard to any opinions ; they are not to be turned by force or persuasion ;

never attempt to offer any thing in justification of dis

loyalty. A usurped government will have many disFrom whence he brought them to these salvage parts, affected subjects with whom it must deal leniently; And with science mollified their stubborn hearts.


Yet, I protest, it is no salt desire

Of seeing countries shifting for a religion ! If an obstinate child be treated with some degree of

Nor any disaffection to the state

Where I was bred, and unto which I owe indulgence, there may be hopes of correcting his fail

My dearest plots, hath brought me out. ing; but a stubborn and a headstrong child are trou

Ben JOHNSON. blesome subjects of education, who will baffle the utmost skill and patience : the former is insensible to The best king may have disloyal subjects, upon whom all reason; the latter has blinded the little reason which he must exercise the rigor of the law; Milton being he possesses: the former is unconscious of every thing,

cleared from the effects of his disloyalty, had nothing but the simple will and determination to do what he required from him but the common duty of living in does; the latter is so preoccupied with his own favorite quiet.' JOHNSON. Many were disaffected to the ideas as to set every other at naught: force serves usurpation of Oliver Cromwell, because they would mostly to confirm both in their perverse resolution of not be disloyal to their king. persistance. Heady is applied as an epithet to the thing rather than the person ; 'Heady confidence promises victory without contest.' Johnson.


Guide, signifies either the person that guides, or

the thing that guides ; rule is only the thing that

rules or regulates; guide is to rule as the genus to Contumacy, from the Latin contumax, compounded the species ; every rule is a guide to a certain extent; of contra and tumeo to swell, signifies the swelling but the guide is often that which exceeds the rule. one's self up by way of resistance; rebellion, in Latin The guide, in the moral sense, as in the proper sense, rebellio, from rebello, or re and bello to war in return, goes with us, and points out the exact path; it does signifies carrying on war against those to whom we not permit us to err either to the right or left: the owe, and have before paid, a lawful subjection. rule marks out a line, beyond which we may not go ;

Resistance to lawful authority is the common idea but it leaves us to trace the line, and consequently to included in the signification of both these terms, but fail either on the one side or other. contumacy does not express so much as rebellion : the The Bible is our best guide for moral practice ; contumacious resist only occasionally; the rebel re- You must first apply to religion as the guide of life, sists systematically: the contumacious stand only on before you can have recourse to it as the refuge of sor

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