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cating of happiness ; humanity is concerned in the a prince, when it does not lead him to sanction vice removal of evil. Benevolence is common to the Creator by its impunity; it is highly to be applauded in him and his creatures ; it differs only in degree ; the as far as it renders him forgiving of minor offences, former has the knowledge and power as well as the gracious to all who are deserving of his favours, and will to do good ; man often has the will to do good ready to afford a gratification to all whom it is in his without having the power to carry it into effect; I power to serve: the multiplied misfortunes to which have heard say, that Pope Clement XI. never passes all men are exposed afford ample scope for the exercise through the people, who always kneel in crowds and of humanity, which, in consequence of the unequal ask his benediction, but the tears are seen to flow from distribution of wealth, power, and talent, is peculiar
This must proceed from an imagination to no situation of life ; even the profession of arms that he is the father of all these people, and that he does not exclude humanity from the breasts of its folis touched with so extensive a benevolence, that it lowers; and when we observe men's habits of thinkbreaks out into a passion of tears.' STEELE. Benig- ing in various situations, we may remark that the nity is ascribed to the stars, to heaven, or to princes; soldier, with arms by his side, is commonly more huignorant and superstitious people are apt to ascribe mane than the partisan with arms in his hands. Kindtheir good fortune to the benign influence of the stars ness is always an amiable feeling, and in a grateful rather than to the gracious dispensations of Provi- mind always begets kindness ; but it is sometimes ill dence; • A constant benignity in commerce with the bestowed upon selfish people who requite it by making rest of the world, which ought to run through all a fresh exactions : tenderness is frequently little better man's actions, has effects more useful to those whom than an amiable weakness, when directed to a wrong you oblige, and is less ostentatious in yourself.' end, and fixed on an improper object; the false tenderSTEELE. Humanity belongs to man only; it is his ness of parents has often been the ruin of children. peculiar characteristic, and ought at all times to be his boast ; when he throws off this, his distinguishing badge, he loses every thing valuable in him ; it is a
BENEFIT, FAVOR, KINDNESS, CIVILITY. virtue that is indispensable in his present suffering condition : humanity is as universal in its application Benefit signifies here that which benefits ; favor, in as benevolence ; wherever there is distress, humanity French faveur, Latin favor and faveo to bear good flies to its relief; humanity is, however, not merely will, signifies the act flowing from good will ; kindan attribute of man; it is also the peculiar feeling for ness signifies an action that is kind; civility, that one's fellow creatures which exists in some men in a
which is civil (v. Civil). greater degree than in others ; · The greatest wits I The idea of an action gratuitously performed for have conversed with are men eminent for their hu- the advantage of another is common to these terms. manity.' ADDISON. Kindness and tenderness are Benefits and favors are granted by superiors; kindpartial modes of affection, confined to those who know nesses and civilities pass between 'equals. or are related to each other: we are kind to friends Benefits serve to relieve actual wants : the power of and acquaintances, tender towards those who are near conferring and the necessity of receiving them constiand dear: kindness is a mode of affection most fitted tute the relative difference in station between the giver for social beings; it is what every one can show, and and the receiver: favors tend to promote the interest every one is pleased to receive ; . Beneficence, would or convenience : the power of giving and the advantage the followers of Epicurus say, is all founded in weak- of receiving are dependant on local circumstances, ness; and whatever be pretended, the kindness that more than on difference of station. Kindnesses and passeth between men and men is by every man di- civilities serve to afford mutual accommodation by a rected to himself. This it must be confessed is of a reciprocity of kind offices on the many and various piece with that hopeful philosophy which, having occasions which offer in human life : they are not so patched man up out of the four elements, attributes important as either benefits or favors, but they carry his being to chance.' GROVE. Tenderness is a state a charm with them which is not possessed by the of feeling that is sometimes praiseworthy : the young former. Kindnesses are more endearing than civiliand the weak demand tenderness from those who stand ties, and pass mostly between those who are known to in the closest connexion with them, but this feeling each other : civilities may pass between strangers. may be carried to an excess so as to injure the object Dependance affords an opportunity for conferring on which it is fixed; · Dependance is a perpetual call benefits ; partiality gives rise to favors: kindnesses upon humanity, and a greater incitement to tender- are the result of personal regard ; civilities, of general ness and pity than any other motive whatsoever.' benevolence. A master confers his benefits on such ADDISON.
of his domestics as are entitled to encouragement for There are no circumstances or situation in life which their fidelity. Men in power distribute their favors preclude the exercise of benevolence: next to the plea- so as to increase their influence. Friends, in their sure of making others happy, the benevolent man re- intercourse with each other, are perpetually called joices in seeing them so the benign influence of a upon to perform kindnesses for each other. There is benevolent monarch extends to the remotest corner of no man so mean that he may not have it in his power his dominions : benignity is a becoming attribute for to show civilities to those who are above him.
Benefits tend to draw those closer to each other who It is a great benefit to assist an embarrassed tradesby station in life are set at the greatest distance from man out of his difficulty ; I have often pleased myeach other: affection is engendered in him who bene- self with considering the two kinds of benefits which fits; and devoted attachment in him who is benefited; accrue to the public from these my speculations, and . I think I have a right to conclude that there is such which, were I to speak after the manner of logicians, a thing as generosity in the world. Though if I were I should distinguish into the material and formal.' under a mistake in this, I should say as Cicero in re- Addison. It is a great service for a soldier to save lation to the immortality of the soul, I willingly err;
the life of his commander, or for a friend to open the for the contrary notion naturally teaches people to be eyes of another to see his danger; Cicero, whose ungrateful by possessing them with a persuasion con- learning and services to his country are so well known, cerning their benefactors, that they have no regard to was inflamed by a passion for glory to an extravagant them in the benefits they bestow. GROVE. Favors degree.' Hughes. It is a good office for any one to increase obligation beyond its due limits; if they are interpose his mediation to settle disputes, and heal not asked and granted with discretion, they may pro- divisions ; « There are several persons who have many duce servility on the one hand, and haughtiness on the pleasures and entertainments in their possession which other; “A favour well bestowed is almost as great an they do not enjoy. It is therefore a kind and good honour to him who confers it, as to him who receives office to acquaint them with their own happiness.' it. What, indeed, makes for the superior reputation STEELE. of the patron in this case is, that he is always sur- It is possible to be loaded with benefits so as to rounded with specious pretences of unworthy candi- affect one's independence of character. Services are dates.' STEELE. Kindnesses are the offspring and sometimes a source of dissatisfaction and disappointparent of affection; they convert our multiplied wants ment when they do not meet with the remuneration or into so many enjoyments; Ingratitude is too base to return which they are supposed to deserve. Good return a kindness, and too proud to regard it.' South. offices tend to nothing but the increase of good will. Civilities are the sweets which we gather in the way
Those who perform them are too independent to exas we pass along the journey of life : A common pect a return, and those who receive them are too civility to an impertinent fellow often draws upon one sensible of their value not to seek an opportunity of a great many unforeseen troubles.' STEELE.
making a return.
BENEFIT, SERVICE, GOOD OFFICE.
TO OFFER, BID, TENDER, PROPOSE. These terms, like the former (v. Benefit, favor), Offer signifies the same as before (v. Tooffer, exhibit); agree in denoting some action performed for the good bid, in Saxon besdan, bidden to offer, old German buden, of another, but they differ in the principle on which low German bedan, high German bieten, &c. comes the action is performed.
in all probability from the Latin vito and invito, from A benefit (v. Benefit, favor) is perfectly gratuitous, in and viam, signifying to call into the way or measure it produces an obligation: a service (v. Advantage) is of another; tender, like the word tend, from tendo not altogether gratuitous; it is that at least which may be expected, though it cannot be demanded : a good propose, in Latin proposui, perfect of
to stretch, signifies to stretch forth by way of offering;
propono to office is between the two ; it is in part gratuitous, and place or set before, likewise characterizes a mode of in part such as one may reasonably expect. Benefits flow from superiors, and services from in
Offer is employed for that which is literally transferiors or equals; but good offices are performed by ferable, or for that which is indirectly communicable: equals only. Princes confer benefits on their subjects; bid and tender belong to offer in the first sense ; prosubjects perform services for their princes : neighbours pose belongs to offer in the latter sense. To offer is a do good offices for each other. Benefits are sometimes
Benefits are sometimes voluntary and discretionary act ; the offer may be the reward of services: good offices produce a return accepted or rejected at pleasure ; to bid and tender from the receiver.
are specific modes of offering which depend on cirBenefits consist of such things as serve to relieve cumstances : one bids with the hope of its being acthe difficulties, or advance the interests, of the re- cepted; one tenders from a prudential motive, and in ceiver: services consist in those acts which tend to
order to serve specific purposes. We offer money to lessen the trouble, or increase the ease and conveni
a poor person, it is an act of charity or good nature ; ence of the person served : good offices consist in
or we offer a reward by way of inducing another to do the employ of one's credit, influence, and mediation
a thing, which is an act of discretion ; for the advantage of another: it is a species of voluntary service.
Nor should thon offer all thy little store, Humanity leads to benefits; the zeal of devotion or Will rich Iolas yield but offer more. DRYDEN. friendship renders services ; general good-will dictates Should all these offers for my friendship call, good offices.
'Tis he that offers, and I scorn them all. Pope.
We bid a price for the purchase of a house, it is a
TO CONFER, BESTOW. commercial dealing subject to the rules of commerce ;
Confer, in French conferer, Latin confero, com• To give interest a share in friendship, is to sell it by inch of candle ; he that bids most shall have it ; and pounded of con and fero, signifies to bring something when it is mercenary, there is no depending upon it."
towards a person, or place it upon him, in which sense COLLIER. We tender a sum of money by way of it is allied to bestow (o. To give, grant).
Conferring is an act of authority; bestowing that payment, it is a matter of prudence in order to fulfil an obligation ; “ Aulus Gellius tells a story of one
of charity or generosity. Princes and men in power Lucius Neratius who made it his diversion to give a
confer ; people in a private station bestow. Honors, blow to whomsoever he pleased, and then tender them dignities, privileges, and rank, are the things conthe legal forfeiture.' BLACKSTONE. By the same rule ferred ; • The conferring this honour upon him, would
increase the credit he had.' CLARENDON. Favors, one offers a person the use of one's horse; one bids a
kindnesses, and pecuniary relief, are the things besum at an auction; one tenders one's services to the
stowed; · You always exceed expectations as if yours government. To offer and propose are both employed in matters
was not your own, but to bestow on wanting merit.'
DRYDEN of practice or speculation ; but the former is a less definite and decisive act than the latter; we offer an
Merit, favor, interest, caprice, or intrigue, give opinion by way of promoting a discussion; we propose a
rise to conferring ; necessity, solicitation, and private plan for the deliberation of others. Sentiments which affection, lead to bestowing: England affords more differ widely from those of the major part of the present
than one instance in which the highest honors of the
state have been conferred on persons of distinguished company ought to be offered with modesty and caution ; · Our author offers no reason.' Locke. We should merit, though not of elevated birth : it is the characnot propose to another what we should be unwilling with a desire of bestowing their goods on the
teristic of Christianity, that it inspires its followers to do ourselves; “We propose measures for securing
necessitous. to the young the possession of pleasure (by connecting with it religion).' Blair. We commonly offer by the value of a kindness is greatly enhanced by the
It is not easy to confer a favor on the unthankful : way of obliging ; we commonly propose by way of
manner in which it is bestowed ; arranging or accommodating. It is an act of puerility to offer to do more than one is enabled to perform ; it On him confer the poet's sacred name, does not evince a sincere disposition for peace to pro
Whose lofty voice declares the heavenly flame.
Addison. pose such terms as we know cannot be accepted;
Upon the proposal of an agreeable object, a man's It sometimes happens, that even enemies and envious choice will rather incline him to accept than refuse it.' persons bestow the sincerest marks of esteem when South.
they least design it.' STEELE.
TO INVEST, ENDUE OR ENDOW.
TO MINISTER, ADMINISTER,
CONTRIBUTE. To invest, from vestio, signifies to clothe with any thing ; endue or endow, from the Latin induo, signi- To minister, from the noun minister, in the sense fies to put on any thing. One is invested with that of a servant, signifies to act in subservience to another, which is external : one is endued with that which is either in a good, bad, or indifferent sense : we miniinternal. We invest a person with an office or a ster to the caprices and indulgences of another when dignity: one endues a person with good qualities. we encourage them unnecessarily ; or, we minister to The investment is a real external action ; but endue one who is entitled to our services; administer is may be merely fictitious or mental. The king is in- taken in the good sense of serving another to his advested with supreme authority; "A strict and effica- vantage : thus the good Samaritan administered to cious constitution, indeed, which invests the church the comfort of the man who had fallen among thieves ; with no power at all, but where men will be so civil as contribute, from the Latin contribuo, or con and to obey it.' South. A lover endues his mistress with tribuo to bestow, signifying to bestow for the same every earthly perfection ; “ As in the natural body, end, or for some particular purpose, is taken in either the
eye does not speak, nor the tongue see; so neither a good or bad sense; we may contribute to the relief in the spiritual, is every one endued also with the of the indigent, or we may contribute to the follies gift and spirit of government.' South. Endow is but and vices of others. a variation of endue, and yet it seems to have acquired It is the part of the Christian minister to minister a distinct office: we may say that a person is endued to the spiritual wants of the flock entrusted to his or endowed with a good understanding ; but as an act charge; . Those good men who take such pleasure in of the imagination endow is not to be substituted for relieving the miserable for Christ's sake, would not endue : for we do not say that it endows but endues have been less forward to minister unto Christ himthings with properties.
self.' ATTERBURY. It is the part of every Christian to administer, as far as lies in his power, comfort TAX, CUSTOM, DUTY, TOLL, IMPOST, to those who are in want, consolation to the afflicted,
TRIBUTE, CONTRIBUTION. advice to those who ask for it, and require it; help to those who are feeble, and support to those who can
Tax, in French taxe, Latin taxo, from the Greek not uphold themselves
. On the same ground we speak Tárow, táśw, to dispose or put in order, signifies what of grace or spiritual gifts being administered ; * By is disposed in order for each to pay ; custom signifies the universal administration of grace, begun by our
that which is given under certain circumstances, acblessed Saviour, enlarged by his Apostles, carried on
cording to custom; duty, that which is given as a due by their immediate successors, and to be compleated
or debt; toll, in Saxon toll, &c. Latin telonium, from by the rest to the world's end; all types that the Greek Témos a custom, signifies a particular kind of darkened this faith are enlightened.? SPRATT. It
custom or due. is the part of all who are in high stations to con
Tax is the most general of these terms, and applies tribute to the dissemination of religion and morality
to or implies whatever is paid by the people to the among their dependants; but there are, on the con- government, according to a certain estimate the custrary, many who contribute to the spread of immo
toms are a species of tax which are less specific than rality, and a contempt of all sacred things, by the
things, by the other taxes, being regulated by custom rather than most pernicious example of irreligion in themselves; any definite law; the customs apply particularly to • Parents owe their children not only material subsist
what was customarily given by merchants for the ence for their body, but much more spiritual contribu- goods which they imported from abroad: the duty is tions for their mind.' Digby. As expressing the act
a species of tax more positive and binding than the of unconscious agents, they bear a similar distinction;
custom, being a specific estimate of what is due upon
goods, according to their value; hence it is not only He flings the pregnant ashes through the air,
applied to goods that are imported, but also to many And speaks a mighty prayer.
other articles of inland produce: toll is that species of Both which the ministring winds around all Egypt bear. Cowley.
tar which serves for the repair of roads and havens.
The preceding terms refer to that which is levied by Thus do our eyes, as do all common mirrors,
authority on the people; but they do not directly exSuccessively reflect succeeding images; Not what they would, but must! a star or toad,
press the idea of levying or paying: impost, on the Just as the hand of chance administers. CONGREVE. contrary, signifies literally that which is imposed; and
tribute that which is paid or yielded : the former, May from my bones a new Achilles rise, That shall infest the Trojan colonies
therefore, exclude that idea of coercion which is inWith fire, and sword, and famine, when, at length,
cluded in the latter. The tax is levied by the consent Time to our great attempts contributes strength. of many; the impost is imposed by the will of one ;
DENHAM. and the tribute is paid at the demand of one or a few:
the tax serves for the support of the nation ; the im
post and the tribute serve to enrich a government. TO CONDUCE, CONTRIBUTE.
Conquerors lay heavy imposts upon the conquered
countries; distant provinces pay a tribute to the To conduce, from the Latin conduco, or con and princes to whom they owe allegiance. Contribution duco, signifying to bring together for the same end, signifies the tribute of many in unison, or for the is applied to that which serves the full purpose; to
same end ; in this general sense it includes all the contribute, as in the preceding article, is applied to that other terms ; for taxes and imposts are alike paid by only which serves as a subordinate instrument: the many for the same purpose ; but as the predominant former is always taken in a good sense, the latter in a idea in contribution is that of common consent, it bad or good sense. Exercise conduces to the health ; supposes a degree of freedom in the agent which is it contributes to give vigor to the frame.
incompatible with the exercise of authority expressed Nothing conduces more to the well-being of any by the other terms: hence the term is with more procommunity than a spirit of subordination among all priety applied to those cases in which men voluntarily ranks and classes ; . It is to be allowed that doing all unite in giving towards any particular object; as chahonour to the superiority of heroes above the rest of ritable contributions, or contributions in support of a mankind, must needs conduce to the glory and advan- war; but it may be taken in the general sense of a tage of a nation.' STEELE. A want of firmness and forced payment, as in speaking of military contribuvigilance in the government or magistrates contributes tion. greatly to the spread of disaffection and rebellion ;
The true choice of our diet, and our companions at it, seems to consist in that which contributes most to
TAX, RATE, ASSESSMENT. cheerfulness and refreshment.' FULLER.
Tax, agreeably to the above explanation (v. Tax), Schemes of ambition never conduce to tranquillity and rate, from the Latin ratus and reor to think or of mind. A single failure may contribute sometimes estimate, both derive their principal meaning from the to involve a person in perpetual trouble.
valuation or proportion according to which any sum is demanded from the people ; but the tax is imposed Johnson. A person's alms ought to be distributed directly by the government for public purposes, as among those who are most indigent; the land tax, the window tax, and the like; and the
From thence the cup of mortal man he fills, rate is imposed indirectly for the local purposes of
Blessings to these, to those distributes ills. POPE. each parish, as the church rates, the poor rates, and the like. The tax or rate is a general rule or ratio,
When any complicated undertaking is to be perby which a certain sum is raised upon a given number
formed by a number of individuals, it is necessary to of persons; the assessment is the application of that allot to each his distinct task. It is the part of a wise rule to the individual.
prince to assign the highest offices to the most worthy, The house-duty is a tax upon houses, according to and to apportion to every one of his ministers an emtheir real or supposed value ; the poor's rate is a rate ployment suited to his peculiar character and qualificalaid on the individual likewise, according to the value tions: the business of the state thus distributed will of his house, or the supposed rent which he pays; proceed with regularity and exactitude. the assessment in both these, is the valuation of the house, which determines the sum to be paid by each individual: it is the business of the minister to make
TO ALLOT, APPOINT, DESTINE. the tax ; of the parish officers to make the rate ; of the commissioners or assessors to make the assessment;
To allot is taken in a similar sense as in the prethe former has the public to consider; the latter the ceding article ; appoint, in French appointer, Latin individual. An equitable tax must not bear harder appono, that is, ap or ad and pono to place, signifies upon one class of the community than another: an to put in a particular place, or in a particular manner; equitable assessment must not bear harder upon one destine, in Latin destino, compounded of de and inhabitant than another.
stino, sto or sisto, signifies to place apart.
Allot is used only for things, appoint and destine for persons or things. A space of ground is allotted
for cultivation ; a person is appointed as steward or TO ALLOT, ASSIGN, APPORTION, governor ; a youth is destined for a particular profesDISTRIBUTE.
sion. Allotments are mostly made in the time past or
present; they are made for a special purpose, and acAllot is compounded of the Latin al or ad and the cording to a given design, whence we may speak of word lot, which owes its origin to the Saxon and other the allotments of Providence ; . It is unworthy a reanorthern languages. It signifies literally to set apart sonable being to spend any of the little time allotted as a particular lot; assign, in French assigner, Latin us without some tendency, direct or oblique, to the assigno, is compounded of as or ad and signo to sign, end of our existence. Johnson.
' Appointments reor mark to, or for, signifying to mark out for any one; spect either the present or the future ; they mostly apportion is compounded of ap or ad and portion regard matters of human prudence; "Having notified signifying to portion out for a certain purpose ; distri
to my good friend, Sir Roger, that I should set out bute, in Latin distributus, participle of dis and tribuo, for London the next day, his horses were ready at the signifies to bestow or portion out to several.
appointed hour.' STEELE.
Destinations always reTo allot is to dispose on the ground of utility for spect some distant purposes, and include preparatory the sake of good order ; to assign is to communicate measures ; they may be either the work of God or according to the merit of the object; to apportion is man ; Look round and survey the various beauties to regulate according to the due proportion; to dis- of the globe, which Heaven has destined for man, tribute is to give in several distinct portions.
and consider whether a world thus exquisitely framed A portion of one's property is allotted to charitable could be meant for the abode of misery and pain.' purposes, or a portion of one's time to religious medi- JOHNSON. A conscientious man allots à portion of tation ; • Every one that has been long dead, has a
his annual income to the relief of the poor: when due proportion of praise allotted him, in which, whilst public meetings are held it is necessary to appoint a he lived, his friends were too profuse, and his enemies particular day for the purpose: our plans in life are too sparing.'. ADDISON. A prize is assigned to the defeated by a thousand contingencies: the man who most meritorious, or an honorable post to those whose builds a house is not certain he will live to use it for abilities entitle them to distinction; I find by several the
for which it was destined. hints in ancient authors, that when the Romans were in the height of power and luxury they assigned out of their vast dominions an island called Anticyra, as DESTINY, FATE, LOT, DOOM. an habitation for madmen.' STEELE. A person's business is apportioned to the time and abilities he has for Destiny, from destine (v. To appoint) signifies performing it; Of the happiness and misery of our either the power that destines, or the thing destined ; present condition, part is distributed by nature, and fate, in Latin fatum, participle of for to speak or part is in a great measure apportioned by ourselves.' decree, signifies that which is decreed, or the power