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with the necessary number of men and of instruments, and the proportionate number due to each part of/the work. We would also learn, from such a publication, the real principle and object of fortification^ the comparative advantages of regular and irregular works, the cases in which a deviation from the former is not only allowable but advantageous, the general maxims of attack and defence, with their peculiar modifications, under different circumstances and local situations. It is vexatiouSj whenever we seek information of this kind that should be at ona# scientific and rich in detail, to be compelled to turn to Ozanam or Muller, or some other book publLned 50 years igo, if in the English language;—or if we look for a modern publication, to find it only in French. We trust those who enjoy the advantage of attending Professor Landmann's lectures, derive much of this truly important information, especially important in this eventful period, from his instructions: but why does he publish, nothing but what is merely elementary, and scarcely contains any exhibition of general principles, of practical maxims, or of minutiae relative to construction on the ground? A man would be overwhelmed with contempt, who, under pretence of giving instruction in the principles of music, should teach his pupils how to draw fiddles and tambourins; and a person may be very expert in drawing, shading, and colouring half bastions, tetes-de-pont, star-forts, horn works before the curtain, &c. and after all be no more competent to fortify a town, or to construct works for the defence of abridge, than a pick-axe or a shovel.
Art. VI. The Satires of Juvenal; translated and illustrated by Francis Hodgson, A. M. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 4to. pp. 572. Price 21. 2s. Payne and Mackinlay. 1807.
'"THE projects of reform which have flattered the hopes of successive generations, as effectual remedies for human depravity, if summoned at once before the mind, would be a whimsical, but melancholy exhibition. On one side we should behold an immense array of lawgivers, turnkeys, and hangmen, the army of public justice, whose trophies are, unfortunately, the record of her defeats. We should see the whole myriad fearlessly encountered by a single philosopher, who rails at prisons and halters, proclaiming the omnipotence of truth and the perfectibility of mankind. Another swarm of philanthropists have discovered, that the calamities of the people originate in defects of the government; they have traced all the varieties of evil in a society to one corrupt man, and have expected, by deposing this one, and, enthroning five or five hundred cor-' rupt men, to restore the golden age. A crowd of elegant persons expatiate on the efficacy of civilization as a purifier of tjie morals, and detail the virtues of refinement from the conVol. IV. Q q
versation of a Parisian coterie, or the column! of the Morning" Post. A romantic lover of solitude and paradox reclaims tham to pure and unsophisticated nature, and enforces the precepts of his eloquence by an exhibition of carousing cannibals. A venerable host of theologians, some in the dress of an Eleusinian hierophant, and some in the humbler habiliments of a Presbyterian academic, or an Oxonian Master of Arts, harangue on the attractions of virtue and the prospect oT a future state; they are sure of the efficacy of their system, for mankind, during the last score or two of centuries, having been tolerably versed in its principles, have lived very good lives and made very good ends. A very scientific inuirer, however, starts forth from among the denunciators of nal retribution, announcing the dethronement of terror from the consciences of men, and assuring his audience that the worst they have to expect is a philosophical purgatory, that every woe they at any time may suffer is for their good, that they only require different degrees of discipline, and shall all be happy at last. One of the most approved nostrums is education; when the poor are taught to read and write, they are sure to be virtuous, because it is well known that instructed draymen are much more sober and honest than illiterate shepherds. A classical education, however, is still better; it is especially extolled by a reeling pedagogue, who chaunts "Ingenuas didicisse," displaying the immortal Busby in one hand, and pointing with his rod in the other to a model of the Temple of Virtue as a porch to -the Temple of Fame; he recites the fine sentiments of heathen writers, describes the morality of a college, and refers to the manners of the great. The sapient Edinburgh reviewers opine, that we may preach, or we may let it alone; but if any thing will reform the vices of the fashionable world, it is Edgeworth's Moral Tales, which are not adulterated with Christian sentiment. Another hawker of infallible elixirs explains the purifying influence of the Arts; he praises Annihal, Caracci,and Raffaelle, and Fiamniingo, and Kirk, and Morland, and he celebrates the morals of Italy. Another acquaints us that the stage is a school for virtue: his information is unquestionable, for its scholars are practising in the lobby. It would be endless to trace the spirit of reform in all its shapes and influences; at one time we find it in a pair of contemporary queens, one of whom improves her people with bayonets ancT dragoons; other with faggots and bishops, at another time it stimulates a primate to promote sports on the Sunday, for the purpose of encouraging piety ; and at leivgth it. betrays a Member of of Parliament into a panegyric on bull-Baiting, as peculiarly suited to improve the industry and order, the humanity and patriotism of his countrymen. According to Moliere, it
has even possessed fiddlers and dancing-masters, who ascribed the miseries of the world to an ignorance of the principles of harmony, and the frequency of taking false steps. They certainly were not singular; great benefit, we doubt wot, is expected from the accomplishment of dancing, as it ocC"jjies so much of the probationary time of immortal beings; and, in addition to the same argument in favour of music, we have repeatedly heard that the tones of an organ are a specific for the cure of indevotion, and have also learned, from the lips of an ingenious Professor, that.the reformatio? of mankind would be much promoted by a more general aQff»\Vrrtt!Cn,ce with- Handel's oratorios.
Such a te recognitions, principles, and labours of the reformer/ iclcnowledges-the. guilt of individuals and the
corruption t»ie age, for this is only a censure on his neighbour; but evades the imputation of depravity to the species, for this would be a censure on himself': he perceives the necessity of a change, yet will not admit that it must be radical; he is willing that our nature should be reformed, but not that it should be regenerated; he will tiy every partial remedy and palliative, he will submit to any process or agent—except it be divine: and the chronicle of time is the catalogue of his disappointments.
It is the misfortune of Mr. H. to belong to that faculty in the college of Laputa, which expects wonders of reformation in this wicked world, from, an exposure of the world's wickedness; and expresses its opinion, on comparing projects of reform, in the following well known and most absurd couplet:
Satire well writ has most successful proved,
And cures because the remedy is loved.
Mr. H. considers the object of Juvenal to be
•- a very noble one, namely, that of exposing vice in its true colours and natural deformity ;' (p, ix) " the aim of Juvenal, in writing so grossly, was to lay open the native unsightiness of vice ; to remove that fascinating cloak which hides its horrors: and thereby to render it an object too disgussiag to be publicly espoused ; and a guest too dangerous to be privately admitted into our bosoms.' p. xix.
« Is not such a satirist as Juvenal,' he exclaims,' who condemns the vicious to eternal infamy, of high value to a state ?" p. 359.
These notions of Mr. H. find such ready currency in the world, that we hope to be pardoned for assaying them, even by those who would think us better employed in weighing English coup, lets against Latin hexameters.
Considering satire most favourably, not as the effusion of personal animosity, but as an attempt to expose vice and folly t.o indignation awl contempt,, we are of opinion that it is rarely innocent The exercise of ridicule implies in the satirist and excites in his reader a contemptuous feeling, composed of pride and mirth; that of invective, implies and excites an indignant feeling, composed of pride and malice ; and however faint and harmless these feelings may appear in single instances, and on just occasions, the character which they induce on the mind by frequent recurrence, is neither dubious nor amiable. The moh, which has been assisting with stones and mud at an exhibition on the pillory, returns, perhaps, with strong feelings of contempt or indignation against some particular crime; but we cannot applaud such an attack, even on vice, ■nor recommend such an employment as a salutary disciplinefBf the heart.
If the innocence of satire be doubtful, we are'*|ti4jl more inclined to question its efficacy. We will not affirm* that it has been wholly useless in combating the follies and delusions of mankind. It may have abated some nuisances in literature, and reformed some offences against taste; it may have rectified some little absurdities in dress or manner: and assisted in dimolishing the reverence for monks, the spirit of knight-errantry, and the devotion to a corrupt and despotic priesthood. These absurdities were easy to overcome; to expose, was to defeat them: they had no hold on the passions and appetites, they maintained their power injuriously to the public interest, under a temporary cover of ignorance, and were vanquished by a gleam of light; they were not the canker at the heart of a flower, but the caterpillar on its leaf. The follies of men are, however, so volatile and fantastic, they are so ready to vanish spontaneously, and re-appear in new shapes, that the touch of satire is scarcely needed to anticipate their destiny; it is unable to extinguish their essential being, and can only pretend to hasten that metamorphosis, which might otherwise have waited a little for the lapse of time. But the vices derive their influence, not from novelty or accident, but from the most powerful and permanent propensities of human nature; they maintain it, not by favour of ignorance, but against convictions of interest, and sentiments of obligation. The vice which has resisted them all, is invulnerable to the wrath or the ridicule of a satirist; he cannot make it appear more odious than it is known to be, by any poetical association of circumstances or aggravation of phrase; nor propose any motives to virtue, which conscience or policy has not often suggested in vain.
Should it however be admitted, that the vicious are not accustomed to surrender their favourite gratifications at the summons of a speculative satirist, yet personal satire may still be supposed to have its use, to deter the delinquent from repeating, or the tempted from committing, a crime, by the prospect of exposure and public scorn To condemn the vicious may be effectual, where it is useless to condemn vice. The experiment has been tried ; the early comic writers of Athens, as long as they were endured,
Si quis erat dignus describi, quod malus, aut fur,
We do not hear that the ridicule of Aristophanes reformed or banished any culprit, or corrected the licentiousness of the Athenian manners; but we do remember, that a venerable and innocent sage was the vietim of this hopeful censurate, The satire of the middle comedy has been revived in our own times ; we do not hear that Samuel Foote could claim the credit of reducing the number of " Mother Coles;" but we doubt not that, in blackening the character of Whitfield, he stimulated the spirit of bigotry ami persecution which raged against him amongst vulgar mind , and confirmed multitudes in their. derision of religious truth, their habits of vice, and their heedlessness of eternity. We must further observe, that few vices can be imputed to an individual which would not subject him to punishment or injury; and that no orderly government can admit the publication of charges without proof, or tolerate the continual breaches of the peace which must result from employing the press as a vehicle of persona! accusation and scurrility. Some crimes, however, escape the vengeance of public justice, by favour of an imperfect and partial system of law. Yet even here it is needless for the satirist to interfere, with any other design, at least, than to recommend i revision of the jurisprudence. Few crimes will come to his knowledge, which are not sufficiently public without his intervention ; and the seducer, the adulterer, the miser, the duellist, who apprehends no censure from his immediate connections, or if he did would Jespise it, must be ridiculously weak, s'ouid he concern himself for the good opinion of the satirist, the nation, or posterity. If any efficacy could be ascribe-1 to satire, when directed against crimes, we might anticipate its success when directed against national crimes; against crimes which the nation has power to suppress, and its members in general have no interest to maintain; against the hideous traffic in blood, for instance, which has yielded at length to far other influence than that of humane satirists, double-tongued adversaries, or national repentance. In fine, one question may perhaps be equivalent to fifty argumentSj-r-" What profligate has it ever reclaimed to virtue, and what crime has it ever banished from society?" If one instance could be produced, we must again inquire, before we acknowledge its efficacy as an instrument of reform, "has it altered the character, or only changed the