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a respect for “ the old gospel," and the “ good old church of England," and yet dares to vjlify its essential truths, as “a new doctrine." This volume gives a clear view of the sentiments entertained by those excellent men, who in the reign of Henry had wholly thrown off the shackles of popery. Those wbich are to follow must be increasingly interesting, as they will contain the works of the very bishops under whoit the Reformation was completed.
The work comes out in numbers every month, and in vo. . lumes every eight months. . · Patrick's Places is published as a separate Tract. Art. V. Construction of several Systems of Fortification; for the use of
the Royal Military Academy. By J. Landmann, Professor of Forti.
fication and Artillery, 8vo. pp. 103, with 26 folio plates, in a separate · Volume. Price 10$. Egerion, 1808. IN this Work, the first eight plates, and the corresponding
letter-press description, refer to the construction of Vau. ban's first system of Fortification ; plates 9, 10, and part of B, relate to Vauban's second system ; plates 11, to 16, are devoted to Vauban's third system ; plates 17 to 24 refer prinçi. pally to Cormontaigne's system, and the construction of out. works; and plates A and B are explanatory, or give some of the particulars more in detail. The plates represent the seve. ral parts corresponding to the respective systems, on a good scale; and are very well executed for mere cútline engravings: but we conceive their value and utility would have been much enhanced, had the different parts been properly shaded; as: those who have not the advantage of the Professor's oral in- :: structions, might then have ascertained the nature of the ma. terials employed, from the diagrams, without having recourse to other publications. The descriptions of the methods of construction are tolerably perspicuous, and are preceded by di. rections relative to the colouring and shading, as well as an account of the necessary instruments.
It seems intended by Professor Landmann, that this work should be considered as a kind of supplement to his former pub, lications; his“ Practical Geometry," his “Principles of Artillery, reduced into Questions and Answers for the use of the Royal Military Academy," and his “ Principles of Fortification," also in the way of question and answer. We therefore turned to this new performance with rather more than usual interest; but our expectations have been a little disappointed. Both the present and former publications of Mr. L. are calcu.. lated to be useful, as far as they ge; but in our opinion, they do not go far enough. In teaching a regular liberal course of
fortification, for the purposes of military education, we apprehend the published performances of Mr.: L. should occupy some such place as Walkingame's or Hutton's Arithmetic, in the study of mathematics, and Lilly's or Ruddiman's Grammar, in a course of classical education. They may serve for the junior classes, on their initiation into these important studies, but cannot do much inore.
It is certainly desirable, that students of the military art should be enabled to appreciate the comparative merits of diffeTent systems of Fortification, rovided the attention be not too early distracted with an excessive variety. Many of the systems, as they are called, which have been proposed in the last half century, are the productions of mere dabblers in fortification, unworthy the name of engineers; who, having amused themselves with pretty drawings of fortifications, on paper, had too much public spirit to confine the benefit to themselves, and have therefore been moved to bring their inventions into competition with the approved works of eminent engineers. Now, we are of opinion, that authors, possessing the requisite acquirements, would be usefully employed in establishing criteria to estimate the real value of a system, and to distinguish between the projects of a pretender, and the designs of a man of science. • We hope the profusion of new systems, with which we have ,lately been pestered, has not depraved the taste and vitiated
the judgement of the profession, with regard to the essentials - of a good fortification, but we confess, we think it singular,
that a Professor of Fortification at the first military school in the kingdom, and the only one where the principles of that art have been ever taught to good purpose, should, when speaking of different systems, take no notice whatever of the works of COEHOORN, an engineer, who was far superior, in the estiination even of Robius, to either Goulon or Vauban. That the French should pretend to neglect Coehoorn, while they copy his most celebrated works, is not a matter of surprise, since they were never famous for doing justice to the merits of foreigners; but their apparent disregard of that accomplished general, should not lead the English really to overlook him, at a time, especially, when there is greater probability than at almost any former period, that every resource of military science may be called into action, for the national defence.
We have been long anxious to see a standard treatise pub, lished in this country, which shall not merely explain the construction of a pentagori, a rampart without revetement, or an outline of bastions, with orillons and concave flanks, &c. on Paper, but teach the actual erection of the works in the field,
with the necessary number of men and of instruments, and the proportionate number due to each part of the work. We would also learn, from such a publication, the real principle and object of fortification, the comparative advantages of regular and irregular works, the cases in which a deviation from the former is not only allowable but advantageous, the general maxims of attack and defence, with their peculiar modifications, under different circumstances and local situations. It is vexatious, whenever we seek information of this kind that should be at once scientific and rich in detail, to be compelled to turn to Ozanam or Muller, or some other book publi med 50 years ago, if in the English language ;--or if we look for a modern publication, to find it only in French. We trust those who enjoy the advantage of attending Professor Landmann's lectures, derive much of this truly important information, especially important in this eventful period, from his instructions : but why does he publish nothing but what is merely elementary, and scarcely contains any exhibition of general principles, of practical maxims, or of minutiæ relative to construction on the ground? A man would be overwhelmed with contempt, who, under pretence of giving instruction in the principles of music, should teach his pupils how to draw fiddles and tambourins; and a person may be very expert in drawing, shading, and colouring half bastions, tetes-de-pont, star- forts, horn works before the curtain, &c. and after all be no more competent to fortify a town, or to construct works for the defence of a bridge, than a pick-axe or a shovel, ART. VI. The Satires of Juvenal; translated and illustrated by Francis
Hodgson, A.M. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 4to. pp. 572.
Price 21. 2s. Payne and Mackinlay. 1807. THE projects of reform which have flattered the hopes of suc
cessive generations, as effectual remedies for human depravity, if summoned at once before the mind, would be a whimsical, but melancholy exhibition. On one side we should behold an immense array of lawgivers, turnkeys, and hangmen, the army of public justice, whose trophies are, unfortunately, the record of her defeats. We should see the whole myriad fearlessly encountered by a single philosopher, who rails at prisons and halters, proclaiming the omnipotence of truth and the perfectibility of mankind. Another swarm of philanthropists have discovered, that the calamities of the people originate in de: fects of the government; they have traced all the varieties of evil in á society to one corrupt man, and have expected, by deposing this one, and enthroning five or five hundred cor.. rupt men, to restore the golden age. A crowd of elegant pera' sons expatiate on the efficacy of civilization as a purifier of the morals, and detail the virtues of refinement from the conVOL. IV,
versation of a Parisian coterie, or the columns of the Morning Post. A romantic lover of solitude and paradox reclaims them to pure and unsophisticated nature, and enforces the precepts of his eloquence by an exhibition of carousing cannibals. A venerable host of theologians, some in the dress of an Eleusinian hierophant, and some in the humbler habiliments of a Presbyterian academic, or an Oxonian Master of Arts, harangue on the attractions of virtue and the prospect on a future state; they are sure of the efficacy of their system, for mankind, during the last score or two of centuries, having been tolerably versed in its principles, have lived very good lives and made very good ends. A very scientific in. quirer, however, starts forth from among the denunciators of final retribution, announcing the dethronement of terror from the consciences of men, and assuring his audience that the worst they have to expect is a philosophical purgatory, that every woe they at any time may suffer is for then good, that they only require different degrees of discipline, and shall all be happy at last. One of the most approved nostrums is education; when the poor are taught to read and write, they are sure to be virtuous, because it is well known that instruct. ed draymen are much more sober and honest than illiterate shepherds. A classical education, however, is still better; it is especially extolled by a reeling pedagogue, who chaunts
Ingenuas didicisse," displaying the immortal Busby in one hand, and pointing with his rod in the other to a model of the Temple of Virtue as a porch to the Temple of Fame; he recites the fine sentiments of heathen writers, describes the morality of a college, and refers to the manners of the great. The sapient Edinburgh reviewers opine, that we may preach, or we may let it alone; but if any thing will reform the vices of the fashionable world, it is Edgeworth's Moral Tales, which are not adulterated with Christian sentiment. Another hawker of infallible elixirs explains the purifying influence of the Arts; he praises Annihal, Caracci, and Raffaelle, and Fiammingo, and Kirk, and Morland, and he celebrates the morals of Italy. Another acquaints us that the stage is a school for virtue : his information is unquestionable, for its scholars are practising in the lobby. It would be end. less to trace the spirit of reform in all its shapes and influences; at one time we find it in a pair of contemporary queens, one of whom improves her people with bayonets and dragoons ; other with faggots and bishops, at another time it stimulates a prímate to promote sports on the Sunday, for the purpose of encouraging piety; and at length it betrays a Member of of Parliament into a panegyric on bull-haiting, as peculiarly suited to improve the industry and order, the humanity and patriotism of his countrymen. According to Moliere, it has even possessed fiddlers and dancing-masters, who ascribed the miseries of the world to an ignorance of the prins ciples of harmony, and the frequency of taking false steps. They certainly were not singulat; great benefit, we doubt not, is expecied from the accomplishment of dancing, as it occupies so much of the probationary time of immortal beings; and, in addition to the same argument' in favour of music, we have repeatedly heard that the tones of an organ are a specific for the cure of indevotion, and have also learned, from the lips of an ingenious Professor, that the reformation of mankind would be much promoted by a more general acquaintiince with Handel's oratorios.
Such a le recognitions, principles, and labours of the reformer.; Acknowledges the guilt of individuals and the corruption we age, for tüis is only a censure on his neighbour; but evades the imputation of depravity to the species, for this would be a censure on himself: he perceives the necessity of a change, yet will not admit that it must be radical; he is willing that our nature should be reformed, but not that it should be regenerated; he will try every partial remedy and palliative, he will submit to any process or agent-except it be divine: and the chroircle of time is the catalogue of his disappointments.
It is the misfortune of Mr. H. to belong to that faculty in the college of Laputa, which espects wonders of reformation in this wicked world, from an exposure of the world's wickedness; and expresses its opinion, on comparing projects of reform, in the following well known and most absurd couplet:
Satire well writ has most successful proved,
And cures because the remedy is loved. Mr. H. considers the object of Juvenal to be 6 a very noble one, namely, that of exposing vice in its true colours and na. tural deformity ;'(p.ix) " the aim of Juvenal, in writing so grossly, was to lay open the native unsightiness of vice ; to remove that fascinating cloak which hides its horrors : and thereby to render it an object too disgusting to be publicly espoused ; and a guest too dangerous to be privately admitted into our bosoms.? p. xix.
• Is not such a satirist as Juvenal,' he exclaims, who condemns the vicious to eternal infamy, of high value to a state?” p. 359.
These notions of Mr. H. find such ready currency in the world, that we hope to be pardoned for assaying them, even by those who would think us better employed'in weighing English coupe lets against Latin hexameters.
Considering satire most favourably, not as the effusion of personal animosity, but as an attempt to expose vice and folly to indignation and contempt, we are of opinion that it is rarely