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political men and measures which favored the external reception of their doctrine; nor to suppose that the faith of heavenly origin can be made individually effective, by an establishment of the purest creed or. the wisest ritual.

But notwithstanding the intrinsic yalue which may be ascribed to the writings of the English reformers, several causes have -operated to prevent their being generally known at present. When the object to which they were directed was accomplished, controversy became less interesting, and the eagerness of curiosity subsided. The progress and establishment of the reformation offered men the continual and stated dispensation of God's word in their Own language, a liturgy agreeable to the Scriptures, and instruction both in doctrine and practice. They were therefore no longer obliged to seek for practical divinity in works of a controversial nature. The same cause, joined to their scarceness, operates still more strongly at this distance of time to remove them from general notice.

The extensive acquaintance of the editors of this publication with the works of our early protestant writers, has enabled them . to prepare a selection so large as to afford great scope for ascertaining the characteristic opinions and spirit of each author, by their recurrence in different forms and combinations. At the same time they are cleared of much that was interesting only at the period in which they were written, and have retained little which is not decidedly of a practical description or tendency. The object of the work will appear from the short but perspicuous address which introduces it.

* The design of this publication is to exhibit, in a regular series, the sentiments, doctrines, and practical views of religion which were adopted by that venerable body of men to whom, under God, we are indebted for the commencement and carrying on of the great work of the Reformation, and the consequent establishing of that sound body of Protestant and scriptural truth, which is at once the support and ornament of the Church of England.' p. iii.

'An acquaintance with the original works of the Reformers appears to be peculiarly desirable in the ministers of the Church, to whom it is presumed this publication will prove highly acceptable; the more so, as many of the books, from which die present selection will be made, are become Tery scarce and difficult of access. Much difference of opinion subsists, •with respect to the doctrinal interpretation of the articles and liturgy of the established Church: this work, by facilitating the means of reference to the general body of the other public and private writings of the same men, who were employed in the composition and vindication of the established standards of doctrine, must, from the very nature of the com-parison, throw much light on those controverted questions. And as the Conductors are determined that the Tracts and Extracts shall be selected with impartiality and integrity, so as to exhibit the respective authors, in their own original style and matter, with respect to all controverted doc*

Vol. IV. 'Kk

trines ; the pnfclic will be enabled to appeal to this work as a faithful record of the genuine sentiments which the early Protestant divines of the English Church held.''

'In this publication, the serious reader, of every description, will find a truly valuable and interesting selection of Protestant divinity, adapted to every clas.5 of the community, as well for the information of the understanding as the amendment and prowth of the heart jn holy affections. This will appear more evident, from the recollection that the work will exclusively consist of an impartial selection from the very materials which were prepared and circulated throughout every part of this kingdom, for die avowed purpose ef reviving and establishing the religion of the primitive, Church of Christ on the ruins of Papal superstition and error. The value of these writings is much enhanced, and they are rendered doubly interesting to the English Protestant, from the reflection that so many of these holy men, after a life spent in the defence of the truth, died as Martyrs to the sjcrud cause, and witnesses tp the power and eft" <iacy of the doctrines which they taught,

•The work U conducted by Clergymen of the established Chureh, anxious to unite their effprts in order to promote her prosperity and welfare. They feel a confidence in recommending the work to the patronagenot only of their brethen, the Clergy, but to the Christian community at large, from a full conviction that it is calculated to prove of essential service to the Church of Christ.

'The Second Volume will proceed with the writings of Dr. Lancelot Ridley and Bishop Latimer: it will also contain the Catechism published by the authority of King Edward Vf. The succeeding volumes will consist of the works of Cranmek, Hoofer, Nicholas Ridley, Bradford, Jewel, &c. &c.' pp. vii. viii.

The execution of the work,.and the sentiments which prevail in if, afford no small grounds'for the character of impartiality to which the editors lay claim. The doctrines contained in the selection are stated with decision, but with equal caution. Those readers, who wibh to find support for the exclusive superiority of peculiar sentiments, and who think they have found that support here, will in the cowrse of their perusal discover their mistake. The impressions made by detached parts, are so limited and corrected by others, that no authority can be drawn, from a comprehensive view of the whole, for compressing the substance of divine truth into sueh a form as to serve the interest of a party; much less is any Support furnished for the flame of controversy at the expence of practical piety. For a work tuns conducted we wjsfr and hop? success. To sincere Christians of all denomination? it wants no recommendation but an attentive pertjsa). To such as may take it up on partial views, it may be beneficial. by exhibiting their own sentiments with ail the distinctness that scripture authorizes, and at the ,same time their necessary connexion with the Gospel at large. Doctrine is so combined with precept, so embodied by practical illustration, and so much pursued into practical deductions, as to offer a powerful antidote to those halms of abstract speculatjpu which set aside the plaifns of active duty. To the members of the; chprch of England, in particular, it is highly desirabje to have access to writings, so authentic, and so congenial to the spirit of that church as expressed in the public records of her belief, her liturgical worship, and the instruction sanctioned by her authority: their adherence to the establishment is thus furnished with the materials of reply, to those who, on points of doctrine, would question its foundation. The reform of tfie established church was conducted with care, with moderation, and by slow degrees. It was nof thoroughly settled til) after the establishment of other prqtestant churches. It experienced many checks, and severe trials of its doctrines, Jrjence it was exempt from many effects of that liastyand indiscriminate zeaj which adopts the language of any single divine howeyer illustrious, and followed neither Luther, Calvin, nor Zuinglius, except so far as they appeared to be followers of Christ. mere necessity constrained him otherwise to do, for defence of truth against wilful blindness and subtle hypocrisy; as in the Practice of Prelates is notorious to be seen. Briefly, such was his modesty, zeal, charity, and painful travail, that he never sought for any thing less, than for himself: for nothing morfe, than for Christ's glory, and edification of others: for whose cause not only he bestowed his labours, but his life, and blood also. Wherefore not unrightly he might be then, a^ he is yet called, the apostle of England, as Paul calleth Epaphroditus, the apostle of the Philippians, for his singular care and affection towards them. For as the apostles in the primitive age first planted the church in truth of the Gospel: so the same truth being again decayed and defaced by enemies in this our latter time, there was none that travailed more earnestly in restoring of the same in this realm of England, than did William Tindal.

From the important tendency of the work, and the scarceness of the originals, we shall hope for the indulgence of our readers, jf we enter a little more at large into the examination of it than is usual with articles of mere republication. The reformers froin whose writings the most extensive selections are made, are William Tindal, John Frith, and Dr. Jlobert Barnes. A short space js allotted to a treatise by Patrick Hamilton, and a copious extract is given from George Joy, who published a spirited confutation of the Papistical Errors on Justification in answer to some articles exhibited by Bishop Gardiner against Dr. Barnes. In a preface, written by John Fox the martyro.logist, to an edition of the joint works of' Tindal, Frith, and Barnes, he speaks of his three authors in a passage which we shall extract, as a specimen of his simplicity and good sense, and a testimony to their merits.

1 In opening the Scriptures, what truth, what soundness can a man require more, or what more is to be said, than is to "be found in Tindal? In his Prologues upon the five books of Moses, upon Jonas, upon the Gospels, and Epistles of St. Paul, particularly to the Romans; how perfectly doth he hit the right sense, and true meaning in every thins*? In his obedience, how fruitfully teacheth he every person his duty! In his Expositions, and upon the parable of the wicked mammon, how pithily doth he persuade; how gradual doth lie exhort; how lovingly doth he comfort! Simple without ostentation, vehement without contention. Which two faults, as they commonly are wont to follow the most pjrt o{ writers, so Jiow far the same were from him, and he from them, his replies and answers to Sir Thomas More, dp wejl declare. In doctrine spund, in heart humble, in life unrjejbukeable, in disputations modest, in rebuking charitable, in truth fervent, and ye£ no less prudent in dispensing the same, and bearing with time, and with weakness of men, at much as he might; saying only, where

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* With which William Tindal, no less may be adjoined also John Frith and Dr. Barnes, both for that they, together with him, in one cause, and about one time, sustained the first brunt in this our latter age, and gave the first onset against the enemies: as also for the special gifts of fruitful erudition, and plentiful knowledge, wrought in them by God, and so by them left unto us in their writings. Wherefore, according to our promise in the book of Acts and Monuments, we thought good herein to spend a little diligence in collecting and setting abroad their books together, so many as could be found, to remain as perpetual lamps, shining in the Church of Christ, to give light to all posterity. And although the printer, herein taking great pains, could not peradventure come by all (howbeit, I trust, there lack not many), yet the Lord be thanked for those which he hath got and here published unto us.' pp. xii. xiii.

Tindal was educated at Oxford, from whence he removed to Cambridge for further improvement in learning, " and especially in the knowledge of the Scriptures, whereunto his mind was singularly addicted." He afterwards went to be private tutor at the house of one Welch, who is said to have been a knight of Gloucestershire: where his freedom of conversation on religious topics provoked the persecution of the . clergy, to avoid whose malice he removed to London. But finding the temper of the times would not permit the accomplishment of his grand object, which was to print a translation of the Bible, he went abroad, and after conversing'intimately with Luther and the heads of the reformation in Germany, printed his Bible, and sent it over with several other tracts from Antwerp. The Bishops however employed a person to trepan him from his retreat in that city, and by virtue of an imperial edict he was burnt, after a confinement of a year and a half.

The principal and most pernicious error, in the theology of the Romish church, regarded the subject of justification. Another connected with this, and productive of most mischievous effects, was the erroneous scale upon which the relative merit of works' with respect to each other was calculated. Pilgrimages, fasting, and almost every species of willworship, were held in much higher estimation than that love of God and man which is the sum of all religion. Not only was justification in the sight of God made to depend on the merit of works, but it was held that a man might perform more than was necessary for this purpose. The surplus, called works of supererogation, were deposited with the Pope, together with the infinite" merits of Christ, to be disposed of to whomsoever, and on what terms, he pleased. It is obvious, that here was the principal point of attack for the reformers, who were ende'avouring to restore the pure religion of Christ, and to vindicate the lawand the gospel from the delusive expositions and glosses of an interested Clergy. Men were not only fatally deceived with respect to the nature and attainment of eternal happiness through the merits of Christ, but the sule of indulgences, a consequence of these pestilent opinions,- threatened by furnishing a continual supply of strength to the papal dominion to establish for ever this spiritual tyranny. To place the doctrine of justification by faith, which Luther calls "articulus stantis vel cadentis ecclesise," in a true light, was their primary object. The following extracts, from a treatise of Tindal's in answer to Sir Thomas More, will exhibit his sentiments on this subject.

'Mark, therefore, the way toward justifying or forgiveness of sin, is the law. God causeth the Jaw to be preached unto us, and writeth it in our hearts, and maketh us by good reasons feel that the law is good, and ought to be kept, and that they which keep it not are worthy to be damned. And on the other side, I feel that there is no power in me to keep the law, whereupon it would shortly follow that I should despair, if i were not shortly holpen. But God, which hath begun to cure me, and hath laid that corrosive unto my sores, goeth forth in his cure, and setieth his Son Jesus before me and all his passions and death, and saith to me: this is my dear Son, and he hath prayed for thee, and hath suffered all this for tnee, and for his sake I will forgive thee all that thou hast done against this good law, and I will heal thy flesh, and teach thee to keep this law, if thou wilt learn. And I will bear with thee, and take all aworth that thou doest, till thou canst do better. And in the mean season, notwithstanding thy weakness, I will yet love thee no less than I do the angels in heaven, so thou wilt be diligent to learn. And I will assist thee, and keep thee, and defend thee, and be thy shield, and care for thee.' pp. 284, 285.

* Hereof ye see what faith it is that justifieth us. The faith in Christ's blood of a repenting heart toward the law, doth justify us only, and not all manner of faiths. Ye must understand, therefore, that ye may see to come out of More't blind maze, how that there be many faiths, and that all faiths are not one faith, though they are called with one general name. , There is a story-faith without feeling in the heart, wherewith I may believe the whole story of the Bible, and yet not set mine heart earnestly thereto, taking it for the food of my soul, to learn to believe and trust God, to love

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