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its nature and use, than for explaining the motives which induce us to notice it. It is indeed a work of no little importance in the pursuits and amusements of astronomy ; for, though it cannot boast the advantage of minute detail, the special adaptation to nautical purposes, and the sanction of the Board of Longitude, which are peculiar to the " Nautical Almanac," yet, being considerably cheaper, and more commodious, it is much better suited for general circulation, (t is highly desirable that a work of this kind should be compiled and edited by com ctvjnt and careful persons. A regular perusal of the successive impressions enables us to assert with confidence, that, in both respects, there is ample room for amendment; and it is partly from feelings of vexation at trie continual mistakes into wh;ch we have been led by consulting it, and partly from a s nse of our duty as guardians of the interests, of science, that we now advert to the unpardonable inaccuracies with which this Ephemerls is, year after year, presented to the public.
We are far from imputing blame to the Worshipful ."ompany of Stationers, who are the proprietors of the work, or to Mr Hansard, t!ie printer. The pap:r is excellent, much better, indeed, than formerly; and the typographical execution is highly respectable, it will gratify us to perceive, in the next impression, that the more important requisites are supplied with equal propriety.
As we have been at the pains to draw out a List of the principal errors that have attracted our notice in the Ephemeris for 1808. and shall insert it at lengt , for the satisfaction of the public, it will be dnnecessary to make many comments on particular instances of carelessness. Several of them are not of primary importance, and some mi~ht easily escape the observation of a negligent editor But we are completely at a loss to frame any excuse for such an omssion as that of the Signs :n the table of Mercury's heliocentric longitude, for nine months together, from the first of Afirilxa the t-nd (;f the year! and are unable to imagine any negl'ct half so gross and ridiculous, except the omission of the years in a table of chronology. It is impossible there should be one blunder more obvious a -d disreputable than this; yet the reader will observe several others of no little importance. In the Speculum Phanomenorum, for instance, Herschel is said to be stationary, Jan. 8th, instead of Feb. 8th. In the last three days of the year, there is an error of a degree in Jupiter's longitude An eclipse of Jupiter's first satellite, Jan. 8, is promised at 57 min. 34 sec. past 12 at noon, which should have been 5^ min. 34 sec, a difference that would produce an error of not less than half a degree in determining ,he longitude. of a place. There are some other inaccuracies which we could not so well notice in a list of errata. There are twenty or thirty, we suppose, of one class; we mean those, where 'he times ov sunrise and sunset are stated differently, in periods of the year when the sun's declination s nearly or precisely the same; a flagrant ex .mple will be found in the difference of three minutes between Feb. 16 and Oct. 26, on which days the times should correspond to less than a minute. It is rather curious, too, that these discrepant risings and settings disagree also with those deduced from the tables of the Sun's serai-diurnal Arcs, pp. 40—43.
Tagt pected to produce annually, in his turn, under the penalty of forfeiting half a guinea, an essay on some subject n lated to the art; and an original architectural design with critical illustrations, under the penalty of forfeiting two guineas. The contents of this first volume are four essays; one by Mr. Edmund Aikin on Modern Architecture, as compared with ancient; one by Mr. Samuel Beazley, Jun. on the Rise and Progress of Gothic Architecture, a neat comprehensive sketch ; one by Mr. J. Woods, of considerable imerest, on the Situations and Accompaniments of Villas; and another by the same gentleman briefly stating the law and practice relative to Dilapidations. In all the Essays, the candid artist^ though he may not constanlly acquiesce, will discern diligence and talent, and the unprofessional reader will be gratified with pleasing information and intelligent remarks.
Art. XVIII. Strict Fidelity and Holy Fear: a Sermon on the muchlamented Death of the Rev. Cornelius Winter, preached at the Interment, in the Independent Meeting, Painswick, Jan. 19, 1808. By William Bishop (Glocester.) Published at the Request of the Church. 8vo. pp. 35. Price Is. Williams and Co. 1808.
rPHIS is an animated and very interesting sermon, though not wholly free from literary or logical inaccuracies. The venerable servant of God to whom it refers, was of that order of human beings which it is delightful and salutary to hear celebrated. His character is described with a warmth of reverential friendship that forcibly excites the reader's sympathy, and in language that, in reference to most other persons, would be liable to the suspicion of flattery. The biography of this excellent man, who shared, at an early period of his life, in the friendship, the journeyings, and the labours of George Whitfield, is in the hands of Mr. Jay; we shall therefore make no other remark, at this time, on his character, or his death, than that they are eminently adapted to awaken the emulation of the Christian and the envy of the Sceptic. He died Jan. 10, 1808, aged 65.
The text of this impressive and sensible discourse, is Nehem. vii. 2, He was a faithful man, and feared God above many. The distribution of the subject is copious; and several of the passages, if we had room, could not fail to gratify our readers.
Art. XIX. A Dialogue bet-ween a Lady and her Pupils, describing a Journey through England and Wales; with a Detail of the Manufactures of each City and Town, and Descriptions of Natural History. Designed for Schools in general. By Mrs. Brooke. Second Edition, considerably enlarged; together with an introductory Account of England, and of the British Empire, by John Evans, A. M. 12mo. pp. 37*. Price 6s. Symonds. 1808.
rPHE journey here described is supposed to be made over a map. To suppose the possibility of making an actual tour through England, without procuring more accurate and more useful information, than that which is contained in this volume, would be utterly impracticable. The sole point of intelligence that our readers may depend on finding, concerning " each (every) city and town" that is here named (forborne market towns are not mentioned) is, the computed distance from London; and this is often notoriously wrong. The writer's ignorance of manufactures, and the unparalleled obscurity and confusion of the style, usually render the descriptions unintelligible, and frequently ludicrous. A few hearty laughs, on occasions of this kind, are the only recompence that we have obtained for our trouble in perusing the volume; and, therefore, the only gratification that we can promise our readers, if they are inclined to undertake the same labour.
Art. XX. Essays nf the London Architectural Society, Royal 8vo. pp. 150. 4 plates.' Price 7s. J. Taylor, 1808.
IE Society from which this respectable publication originates, is but of recent institution; we commend the principles on which it is formed, and have no doubt its productions will be increasingly popular at it proceeds. The Society meets once a fortnight. Each member is ex
Art. XXI. A Letter to the Governor!, Legislatures, and Proprietors of Plantations; in the British West India Islands. By the Right Rev. Beilby Porteus, D. D. bishop of London, 8vo. ppT 48. Price Is. 6d. Cadell and Davies, 1808.
TN the calm and solemn decline of along and bright life, we find this venerable prelate still exerting his beneficent influence; and we should regard this pamphlet with unmingled pleasure, if we could reckon on its meeting with a reception corresponding to its value from the persons to whom it is directed. In recommending a plan for civilizing the negroes in the West India Islands, the Bishop confines himself, in the first place, and with very good reason, to the secular profit which it will yield the planters. The main point, to prove a measure right,, is to prove it lucrative. The policy of this plan is rendered obvious, not only by the superior value which in the Danish Islands is set on the converted and civilized negroes, but from the urgent necessity, arising from the Abolition of the Slave Trade, of encouraging the native negro population. The prosperity, and even the existence of the plantations, must depend in future on the increase of the native negroes by births ;• the licentiousness of the negroes is at present a fatal obstacle to this increase; and nothing but religious instruction affords any hope of restraining this licentiousness. The Bishop acknowledges the difficulty of finding "clergymen of character disposed to undertake foreign missions, and properly qualified for the due discharge of them;" as an easy, cheap, and efficacious substitute, he recommends the establishment of parochial schools in every parish of the IVe.st India Islam These schools, being conducted on the Madras plan, may be support at an expense comparatively trivial. As resources for defraying it, mentions a subscription in England, which he offers to commence, wit donation of 500/., and to reinforce with a like sum. if requisite; he looks with confidence to the support of the British Legislature, to the funds of the Society for the Conversion of Negro Slaves, of which he is President, and to the levying a very small parochial rate oh the Plantations. There, are some obstacles to the plan, beside the expense. As to the want time, the author exhorts the planters to allow the adult negroes the whole Sunday for themselves; this indeed they have now, but it is of necessity employed in cultivating their little patches of land for subsistence, and selling the produce at the public market held on that day: the market must, therefore be abolished, and a few hours allowed to the negroes in the courseof the week. This is however no difficulty, in regard to the children. Two other prevalent objections are noticed and ably confuted ; that a knowledge of reading lays the negroes open to the effect of pernicious books, and that.making them good Christians would make them bad slaves. Thi* part of the pamphlet deserves particular attention
Having demonstrated the policy and facility of establishing parochial schools, the worthy prelate enforces the duty of the proprietors with much force and fervency; and he exhorts them to emulation by the example of the Baptist Missionary Society (which is here spoken of a3 "the Asiatic Society," and " the Society formed in Bengal for the Translation of the Scriptures,") the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the African Institution.
It will give us sincere pleasure to find this excellent letter produce the same sensation in the minds of West India Proprietors, which it mnst infallibly excite among all intelligent Christians. And we earnestly hope that the spirit of opposition to His Majesty in Council, and to Christianity itself, which at this moment maintains an ascendancy in the Corporation of Kingston, which at this moment menaces the negro who shall pray or sing within hearing, or attend the preaching of missionaries, except in working hours, with whipping and severe imprisonment, may not be so prevalent among the Planters, as to frustrate the efforts of this exemplary Prelate. We cannot leave the subject without remarking the great importance of genuine religion in the schoolmasters: and the much g eater importance of it in the parochial clergy, who, it is suggested, would be Tisiting Superintendants of the schools; but to enter into detail, on a plan that is before a tribunal of West India Proprietors, would perhaps be impolitic, and is undoubtedly superfluous.
The appendix- contains a good sketch drawn up by Dr. Bell, of the new system of education for the poor, applied to the case of negroes,.
Art. XXII. A Letter to the King, on the SState of the Established church of England. 8vo. pp. 54. Is. 6d. J. J Stockdale. Ib08.
r| 'O qualify a modern pamphleteer or journalist to discuss the grounds of schism, and he interests of. the church, it seems chiefly neces-' aary that the should have preserved his mind ■ totally unbiassed by any authentic information on the subject; he must possess an entire ignorance of the distinguishing names, sentiments, and relative importance, of the several religious communities, with so much stupidity as not to see, or •o much pride as not to care, in what light this ignorance is regarded among liberal and intelligent men. In this qualification, the author before us is nearly as accomplished as his brethren. We cannot say, however, that he is wholly exempt from just ideas. He is apprized that one of the causes of dissent is, the unsuitable character and deportment of individuals among the clergy; this he exemplifies by some curious facts, and proposes to remove by some inadequate remedies. He is grossly mistaken in supposing that the state of the liturgy, and the orthodoxy of the articles, is in any material degree a cause of dissent; it is not the cause, we will venture to say, in one case out of fifty.
We have only to state further, that the author recommends the mor« liberal introduction of painting, music, and sculpture, into oui churches; and that he retails' nearly all the falsehoods and misrepresentations which
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