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forming the operation which they sometimes require. To this succeed directions for the performance of various important operations, including the several kinds of lithotomy, amputation of limbs, and the application of the trepan, which will reward the attention of the student with the most beneficial information.
The instructions are generally accompanied by copious and judicious illustrations in the text and in the numerous excel- • lent plates ; and they are confirmed by rational deductions from the anatomy of the parts.
Art VIII. A Letter to John Scott Waring, Esq.; in Refutation of his "Observations on the present State of the East India Company, with prefatory Remarks on the (pretended) alarming Intelligence lately received from Madras, of the (assumed) general Dissatisfaction among the Natives, &c." With Strictures on his illiberal and unjust Conduct towards the Missionaries in India. 8vo,.pp. 82. Price 2s. Hatchard. 1808.
Art. IX. An Apology for the late Christian Missions to India: comprising an Address to the Chairman of the .Eaat India Company, in Answer to Mr. Twining; and Strictures on the Preface of a Pamphlet by Major Scott Waring; with an Appendix, containing Authorities, principally taken from the Reports of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge. By Andrew Fuller, Secretary to the Baptist Missionary Society. 8vo, pp. 119. Price 2s. 6d, Burditt, Button, Williams and Smith. 1808.
Art. X. A Letter to the Rev. John Owen, A. M. in Reply to the Brief Strictures on the "Preface to Observations'on the present State of the East India Company." To which is added a Postscript, containing Remarks on a Note printed in the Christian Observer, for December, 1807. By Major Scott Waring. 8vo. pp. 118. Price 2s. 6d. Ridgway. 1808.
A S far-as we know, these three pamphlets were published in the order in which we have placed them, and in which we shall make a very few remarks on each, combined with some of the most appropriate quotations.
The anonymous author of the first informs us, that he has spent more,than twenty years in various situations in India, with an extensive scope of observation. His knowledge of the subjects connected with the curious question at present before the public, does not appear to be the result of a systematic study of any of them, nor to have been acquired with a view to a literary or religious application. As a man of sense and seriousness, however, he could not be in India, without giving some attention to the character and institutions of the inhabitants, nor in England without acquainting himself with the Christian religion; nor could he, as a resident of the east, have been contemporary with so large a portion of the events affecting the connexion between the two countries, without having many important' facts of the history distinctly in his memory. Thus far prepared for the controversy, he meets with the Major's pamphlet, and, perhaps in rather too much haste, composes a refutation, which, as coming from an advocate more versed in general topics connected with the subject, than qualified for a special pleading, might be expected to involve, with its useful statements, some inaccuracies relative to various particular points of the question. The author seems not to have been informed of there being more than three missionaries in Bengal, or of a missionary having been actually sent to Buenos Ayres, or' that the title of British and Foreign Bible Society means but one society. His opinion of the facility of inducing great numbers of Hindoos to embrace the. Christian faith, and of the general candour, attention, and encouragement, with which zealous missionaries will be received among them, would seem to indicate his not having had opportunity or time to read the Periodical Accounts of the Baptist Mission, in which it is not dissembled that the conversion of those pagans is a work of immense difficulty, and that the Christian agents must expect to meet with just as much inattention, perversencss, or malice, as among other heathens. Indeed we are compelled, by very many concurrent testimonies, to adopt a much less favourable idea of the Hindoo character, than that entertained by our author. Near the beginning of the pamphlet, a series of observations on the Madras Proclamation, is so negligently and indistinctly expressed, that we are not sure we comprehend their object. In another part, the pretence of the worthy junto who have brought this question before the public, that the Hindoos must all hear of the printing of so many bibles in their language, and must necessarily be alarmed at hearing of it, is answered by the fanciful and far-fetched suggestion, that they 'might conceive that these bibles were chiefly intended for the assistance of the Europeans in learning the language of the country. In accounting for the mutiny at Velloie, we think he makes too light of the effect which, even had there been no predisposing causes, would have been the natural consequence of the violent provocation offered to the native troops in the military orders; at the same time he presents in a very strong light those general causes, which were imperfectly unfolded by Major S. W. himself.
« You, Sir, resided in India, if I am not misinformed, upwards of twenty years; and so have I; and during that period we have had sufficient opportunities to study the character and disposition of the natives. We have contemplated the great and astonishing changes and revolutions that have been effected there within the last twenty years. In this general convulsion, in which the events that I am about to enumerate, followed each other with so much rapidity as to defy the distinction of dates, the Rajah of Tanjore was deposed, and his successor delivered up his country to the Company; the kingdom of Mysore was conquered, and became subject to the rule of the Company; the Carnatic was revolutionized, and its government is now administered by the Company; the Mahrattas submitted to our arms, and a large, portion of their territories now yield obedience to the government of the Company; the Rajah of Travancore, the Nizam, and many other princes of different note and power, ceded certain districts of their respective dominions, for defraying the expences of subsidiary troops that reside among them, belonging to the army of the Company.
«In these vicissitudes, the subjects of the states affected by them participated; and their miseries were equalled only by their sorrows. They viewed the thrones of their sovereigns totally divested of their ancient splendour, and the power that supported them humbled to the dust; and they looked upon themselves deprived of their natural protectors, and ruined in their fortunes, as the slaves of Europeans, and subjected to all the violence of their passions. Hope no longer afforded them "a consolation, and they ruminated on the gloomy prospects offered them by despair. Let Britons, whose bosoms glow with loyalty toward their king, and those who have lived long enough in India to know the character /and feelings of the natives, say whether I have exceeded probability in what I have premised. And did not the idea at any time present itself to your reflections, that such calamities, and such impressions, were of themselves sufficient to excite alarms and jealousies of the "most serious nature," throughout Hindostan? And did it never reach your information, that amongst other outrages, not possible to be prevented in Asiatic warfare, "the, laws, religion, and customs" of the natiyes were often violated, and their temples plundered and polluted. And did your imagination, which is "tremblingly alive" to other «onsiderations, sink into a profound apathy while regarding those deplorable occurrences? or did it gently hint that they were calculated to rouse the indignation of the natives, and excite them to plots and stratagems for our destruction? that the Vellore mutiny was a component part of one of those plots, and that it had prematurely discovered itself?
'I will take up the subject where you left it. By these revolutions and changes in the different native governments, the nobles, and others who held high offices under them, and men of rank and fortune in private life, were deprived of all their honours, and reduced to penury and want. The generals and commanders of armies were dismissed, and the armies themlelves disbanded. As to the lower orders of the people, their wretchedness, produced by the disorders and tumults that surrounded them, and the plunder and rapine that raged among them, need not be described.
* The great body of the soldiery, and vast numbers of every other description, who could no longer exist in their own country, sought amongst foreigners the means of subsistence; and they carried with them the deepest hatred ag»i«st the Company, whom tl«?y considered as the authors of all their miseries. I allude chiefly to emigrants from the Mysore, the Mahratta States, and £he territdries of the Nizam. Many of them found a welcome reception in the woods of our Poligars, whose animosity towards us was at least as furious as their own, and with infinitely more reason. They had been cruelly persecuted during the Nabob's administra'ion, and that of the Company had increased their sufferings. They had been pillaged by the rapacity of those whose duty it was to have protected them; and having, by such proceedings, and others of a like disgraceful atrocity, been forced into rebellion, thousands perished by the sword; others were banished from their native 'homes, and many of their chiefs terminated their existence on the gallows.
« These people listened with every attention to the tales related by their new guests, with whom they made a common cause; and, uniting with the discontented people of the Carnatic, their countrymen and fellow-subjects, gave way to their thirst for revenge. Many of those Poligars were serving in our battalions, where they associated with men professing the same religion with themselves; and the rest, the Mahomedans, w re alike adverse towards us; and similar arts and persuasions were employed to corrupt both parties. It was intended by the confederates, that all who could be seduced to insurrection, should act upon a concerted plan, which was partly delineated in- a placard, that had been, some years previously, written and industriously circulated by one of the M.rawa chiefs. And, as necessary auxiliaries to such a measure, their emissaries and incendiaries from other quarters, some of them Frenchmen in the disguise of Fakeers and Saniassis, spread themselves over the coast; every where loading us with abuse, as usurpers and tyrants, and as guilty of every act of cruelty and oppre sion. And in this combination may be found the primary cause of the Vellore mutiny. But to render it still more complete, we will superadd to it the consideration, that the sons of Tififtoo, and their adherents, resided within the walls of that fortress, and that they had col. lected round them an unusual concourse of strangers, whom they main, tained from the superfluity of that abundance which the mistaken munificence of our government had. assigned to them. They took a very active and decided part in the bloody transaction You thought so once yourself; but now you " believe them innocent of the charge!" The evidence, however, that has been given of their guilt, puts the matter beyond a
'The General Orders, relative to the dress and appearance of the native troops when on duty, are to be regarded as an incidental cause, and probably would not have produced any serious effect, or, possibly, from what has since transpired, a single murmur, had not the minds of these deluded people been predisposed to the most horrid acts against us* But thus disposed, and left to the operation of their own judgment, without the means of consulting their leaders, they thought the opportunity which those general orders offered, too favourable to be neglected, and therefore began, on the spur of the moment, before all things were ready for an explosion. And it is my firm belief, that, had not the mutiny burst forth when it did, India would at this day have been nearly, if not entirely, wrested from our hands.' pp. 14,15, &c.
As to one circumstance in this representation, tke assertion
that an extensive and systematic conspiracy existed, the general explosion of which was prevented by the premature fury of the troops at Vellore, we acknowledge ourselves ignorant of the evidence by which it is to be sustained; there are not facts before the public, we apprehend, to authorize such an assertion; and it should not have been made without the most formal proof.
In speaking of the notion that, on being invaded by the missionaries, the natives of India will be dreadfully apprehensive they shall be denied an option between their superstition and Christianity, and that, they must be convinced these missionaries are agents of the government, our author shows, in a spirited manner, how inevitable it is for them to be smitten with this apprehension, through the palpable evidence of the facts before them.
* You bear testimony that even the people, which I must suppose, from ■what I have already remarked, must mean afeiv of the inhabitants of some little villages, have such an option, [that of allowing or not allowing the missionaries to continue aHd preach among them] and that they have occasionally carried its use to its extremity: for what other construction can be given to the following passages: "The converts are few, from the dregs of the people, and when they appear, even in the presence of the missionaries, they are reviled, threatened, and abused by the inhabitants," who had in one village tied up a convert and fed him with cow-dung; in another they obliged a missionary to cancel an agreement he had made to purchase a piece of ground for a school; ;;nd at a third, a considerable number of them mocked the rites of Baptism at the moment of their celebration; "yet the missionaries used no violence.''—And when the people
-find that they can thus scoff and insult the missionaries and the most sacred rites of their religion with impunity, is the idea to be suffered that they can be alarmed'at seeing those missionaries in their country? Men are not aft aid of others v horn they know they can disgrace and trample on at their pleasure. .And who will credit your assertions that such men, with such
, powrtful conviction to the contrary, can believe, or possibly imagine, that .government ever harboured any intention of compelling them to embrace Christian ty: and particularly when they have a perfect knowledge that the missionaries "were Driven out of Dacca by the chief magistrate and the collector of that place," two of the principal servants of the government? You would have the government shew by their actions, not by their words, that they have no intention to compel the people to Christianity; and pray what other act than that which we have just contemplated, can be. more decisive V p. S3.
The Major had reprobated thr: proposal of establishing freeschools in ln<iia, as a foolish and pernicious modern device for . converting the natives, observing that in 1793 the Court of Directors were prepared to petition against the adoption of a clause, proposed for that purpose in parliament By Mr. Wilberforce, had it not been withdrawn. The writer before us