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any pecuniary advantage whatever, and was content with an exceedingly insignificant salary during the remainder of his life, and even after he was become too infirm to continue his manual labour, which he had prosecuted with unabating industry as long as he was able. It is indeed difficult to avoid thinking he did this longer and more unremittingly, than his religious connections should have permitted, unless they were poor in the extreme. What wonder will be felt by some of our well-stalled teachers, who wear (teretes atque rotundi) the finest of non. con. cloth, and have a very large calendar of saints' days of the festive kind, to hear of a man who preached four or five times a week, laboured at his manual employment till oppressed with fatigue by the evening of almost every day, even when approaching to old age, and notwithstanding all this was sometimes doubtful on the Saturday whether a dinner could be provided for the Sunday?
The Diary describes in the plainest language a mind habituated to affliction, deploriug the slowness and difficulty of Christian attainments, and refenin^ in an unusual degree every concern to the divine disposal, in the wisdom and mercy of which it maintained an immovable confidence. There is such a complete sameness throughout this diary, that we think the editor would have incurred no blame if he had closed the extract at the end of three months instead of seven.
The whole of it exhibits one signal circumstance of practical superiority over most Christians, and most ministers.—Mr.T. rose often by 4 o'clock in the morning, generally before 5, even in the winter.
We know no reason why a man should not have very good thoughts on the road between Plymouth and Exeter; and we are certain that no man ever tried more diligently for it than Mr. Tanner. With all possible respect for our worthy friends in that quarter, we think it may really be doubted whether any of them ever made so resolute an effort for this purpose, in walking, riding, or driving, between the two places before mentioned. Every object and occurrence which presented itself to the traveller, was made to suggest some spiritual analogy, which was pursued and dilated in a manner (allowing for the great difference between a cultivated and an uncultivated mind) that hears a distant resemblance to Hervey's Meditations. Many of these spiritual analogies will of course be far-fetched, and not very judicious; but we have it on such good evidence that many worthy men carry their minds miles and leagues to very little purpose, on the roads of each county of England as well as on those of Devonshire, that we are inclined to be exceedingly lenient to what may sometimes be a forced method of getting instruction, and an uncouth manner of recording it. It is a question for the consciences of our readers, whether their thoughts are always "so well employed in their walks, as those of the traveller who makes the following reflections. • •
'My way lay through a church-yard. The church stood at some considerable distance from any dwelling. I stopped and reviewed it a little. Its situation bore an awful aspect, surrounded with dead bodies of men and women, who once stood up to worship God, and must ^ereafter, by the voice of the archangel, and the trump of God, be called up from their dormitory, to take their doom, before that tremendous Judge of quick and dead, who will give to every man according to his deeds. As I viewed the church, I was astonished to think of the ignorance of mankind under the character of Christians, who, like the Jews of old, cry the temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord are we ; so people point at such a pile of building as this, which is no more than mortar, stone, and wood, and very strenuously cry the church, the church! _ It appeared to me like a house uninhabited, very lonely indeed; but glory be to God, I was led to see that the Most High dwelleth not in temples made •with hands, ActSy vii. 48. The Apostle says to every believer, Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and thai the Spirit of. God divelleth in you, 1 Cor. iii. 16. and your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost, chap. vi. 19. and again, Te are the temple of the lining God; as God hath said I will dwell in them, and walk in them: J will be their God, and they shall be my people, 2 Cor. vi. 16. And the Apostle Peter tells us of what materials the church of Christ is built, Ye also as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, 1 Pet. ii. S. And when Paul and Barnabas were going from Antioch to Jerusalem, they were brought on their way by the church, Acts xv. 3. Then I blessed God that He taught me that Christ's true church was founded and built on himself, the rock, Matt. xvi. 18. And all Christ's true worshippers worship God, (whether in this house, or any other,) in spirit and in truth.
"Having written my minutes,-1 set out again on my journey as fast as I could, it being winter, very dirty, wet and cold; my thoughts were directed to meditate a little on the season. I was led to see that winter (though not so comfortable and pleasing to the flesh,) was as useful and profitable as the summer; for in the womb of the earth the corruption of the old seed is the begetting or production of the new; and as it springs up, the blade is prevented from displaying that gaiety, splendour, and vigour, which otherwise it might- have done, by reason of the frost, snow, and cold: yet, although it doth not grow tall above the earth, its root spreads under the earth, and shoots forth more blades for a larger increase in harvest. In the progress and efforts of nature, I saw the works of divine grace in my own experience j for when "the seed of grace was first sown in my heart, it soon made a promising appearance; but, alas! winter quickly came, and frowned upon me. I then cut a very mean figure in the church, and less in the world. Still, blessed be God, I found it was rooted in my heart, and spread in divine knowledge, under the teachings of the divine Spirit: and I grew strong in *he Lord; in hearing the word, digesting it, secret ejaculations, and meditation; so the production of that blessed seed sown of God in me, sprung up in many blades, and eai s, and I trust will end in a plentiful harvest."
From this specimen it may be rightly nidged, that the yolume is better adapted to gratify a particular class of Christians, than to promote religious improvement on the large scale. The venerable writer died March 24, 1805, aned 87.
Art., VII.. A System of Operative Surgery, founded on the Basis of Anatomy Vol. I. By Charles Bell. pp. 448. Price 18s. bds. Longman and Co. 1807.
CONSIDERING the very accurate knowledge of Anatomy, and of the principles of Surgery, which is essentially necessary to him who presumes to perform the capital operations, there is reason to rejoice that they are comparatively so rare as generally to fall into the hands of the most eminent men in the profession. But this cannotvalways be the case; in many situations remote from the schools of surgical practice, in naval engagements, on the field of battle, and in provincial places, there is sometimes a sudden occasion for efforts of superior skill and address from persons imperfectly tutored by experience. To surgeons who have had little opportunity of exercising their judgement in cases that require decisive and difficult measures, and indeed to all young practitioners, such a work as Mr. Bell's will be a valuable acquisition. They may consider it as performing the functions of a skilful companion, attending them to the scene of operation, ready to direct their judgement, and guide their hands, in most of the perplexities to which they may be reduced. It is designed says the author,
« to present to the student, and to the surgeon, such clear, short, and strong views of the objects of our operation; of the manner of operating; and of ihe difficulties which may unexpectedly present themselves— as an experienced surgeon would wish' to impress on the mind of one in whom he is much interested—such a view, in short, of operative surgery, as, without putting aside the information gained in general study, mny guard against the distraction of difficulties and doubts, when the knife is actually in the hand.' p. viii.
The work commences with observations on wounds; in which those distinctions are noticed which arise 1st. from the instrument, and the degree of force with which the injury is inflicted; and, 2dly, from the part which is struck. The following observations on wounds accompanied with contusion, are here given, not only as a specimen of our author's manner, but as containing that kind of information which is likely to be of use to general readers.
« If a man has been struck on a fleshy part with a mallet, or if he has been struck with a brick-bat; or if he has been thrown from his horse, and has fallen on his buttocks—the effects are these: a bruising of the •oft parti; an injury and benumbing of the nerves; and a rupture of the lesser blood-vessels of the part which produces an ecchymoais, or extravasation of blood into the cellular membrane.
'Even in this simplest kind of wound, there are circumstances which i careless observer may neglect. To the full effect of a blow it is necessary that the resistance should be equal to the velocity of the impelled instrument; but where the parts yield, the shock is diminished, and the injury less considerable. Now, the integuments being soft and elastic, while the bone is firm and resisting, the injury sometimes falls upon the surface of the bones; or at least the soft parts immediately attached to . the bone, are more injured than the elastic and yielding parts which lie more upon the surface. The consequence of this is that sometimes concealed suppuration arises from bruises of fleshy parts, in which there appears little outward mark of injury.
< I have said, that in a contusion the nerves are injured. This also requires some further illustration. This injury of the nerves gives a degree of dullness to the sensation, which immediately succeeds the accident; but afterwards it is the chief cause of the inflammation and pain. Further, the most inexperienced man has seen the effect of what is termed a concussion of the brain, and knows that this injury of the substance of the brain is followed by an interruption of its function. Precisely in the same way does it happen, though in a less degree, in the concussion of the nervous system of a limb. Thus, large stones thrown with great force, spent cannon balls, the beam of machinery in full motion, striking a limb—are sometimes attended with little pain, swelling, or discolouration; and even gangrene precedes high action. It is the same effect which we every day see when a man lies with a bad concussion of the brain and bruise of the scalp. The low state of the system, proceeding from the injury of the brain, prevents the inflammation or swelling from rising sufficiently to shew us the place of the injury.
• If our patient has suffered contusion by falling, the first effect is a shock to the whole body; and there is sickness, languor, faintness, and debility: then succeeds pain, stiffness, and fever. The part injured swells slowly, and from the ecchymosis there is marbled, black and purple colour. Towards the fourth and fifth day, there is softness in the centre, and around it there arises a hardened ring of inflammation. This softness in the centre might be mistaken for suppuration, and a collection of pus: but it is not: and if it be punctured, the wound will not heal kindly.
1 The patient in this stage should be strictly attended to ; fo«" either there is an absorption of the extravasated fluid, and gradual diminution of the inflammation, or there is suppuration. If the injury is not very severe; if no parts are deadened by the bruise, and the extravasation is not too great—then the vessels throw out a serous effusion, which, diluting the extravasated blood, both are re-absorbed. This liquid state of the effusion resembles the effect of suppuration.
'If the excitement of the vessels be continued after this exudation of serum, the secretion from them changes 10 purulent matter, and the centre of the cellular membrane, with the skin above it, is absorbed. This stage is marked by the swelling, heat, redness, throbbing, fever, and pointing or rising of the centre of the abscess.
'Sometimes the shreds of cellular membrane are deadened by the bruise, or the high inflammatory action terminates in the death of some part ef it. Then a slough is seen in the centre of the abscess when h bursts. This slough is not to be taken away, unk-ss it confines the matter or is likely to become putrid; the living parts will be excited by the contact of the dead. The living part will consolidate, ulcerate, and forming, granulations, push off the slough.
'When the skin is bruised, and the blood extravasated under it, the parts will sometimes mortify: but this mortification is of a less dangerous kind than that kind of gangrene which 1 shall presently explain.' pp. 1—6.
Correctness of definition is, in every work of science, of so much importance, that we cannot avoid noticing the defective definition of a wound, which, according to Mr. Bell, " is an injury inflicted on the body by external violence;" is every injury inflicted on the body by external violence, a " wound?" The remaining observations in this part of the work, on carbuncle, abscess, sinus, and fistula, gunshot wounds, and the stopping of hemorrhages, are adapted to render valuable assistance to the student. We were however sorry to find the important subject of carbuncle, passed over in such a slight and unsatisfactory manner; nothing but the description of the disease is given, though so much useful information might have been furnished on the management of the system, and the treatment of the part. The short notices, regarding the stopping of haemorrhages contain many very useful directions, which should be strongly impressed on the mind of every practitioner. Of the great benefit with which the simple bandages described by Mr. Bell may be employed, with the graduated compress, there can be no question; but we are rather surprised that he has not noticed the utility of the forceps, while mentioning the mode* of securing a wounded artery.
In the directions for performing the operation of bleeding, and that for aneurism in the ham or arm, there is no particular occasion for comment. Mr. Bell appears to have appreciated very fairly the two modes recommended by Mr. Home and Mr. Whately in strictures of the urethra; and has Endeavoured to assign the proper cases to each mode of practice.
In the observations on herniae, the young surgeon will find some very valuable observations. Connected with these, there are some strictures on Mr. Astley Cooper's doctrine and prac-». tice relative to the same disease, with which we are by no means satisfied. Whether through a defect of precision, or through some misapprehension,' that gentleman's opinions are neither correctly stated, we think, nor fairly combated. We have no room to enter into the controversy, which will probably find an equitable tribunal in some publication appropriated to medical disquisitions. Ample and particular directions are given for the general treatment of hernia;, and forper»
Vol. IV, ' C c