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of men; it adapts itself to understandings of every degree of strength, and to dispositions of every complexion. Its promised rewards are of certain attainment, and lie within the reach of the "high and low, the rich and poor." But the chief good of Aristotle is confined to men of talents, and those who enjoy, or expect to enjoy, the advantages of a plentiful foriune, numerous friends, flourishing families, and a high reputation. If there be any so aspiring, as to desire a more than usual portion of pure and exalted pleasure, let them, before they give indulgence to such ambitious views, inquire whether nature has endowed them with a vast and comprehensive mind. Can they discover the connexion between truths which lie at a distance from each other, and with a spring of thought light upon a conclusion at once, to which common minds must pass slowly and by many gradations? Can they look beyond the outward appearance and superficial qualities of objects, and penetrate into the real substance and hidden essence of their natures? Disregarding the visions of the material world, have they wings to soar into the etherial regions of abstruse speculation, and float with sublime rapture on metaphysical clouds among Categories, Predicables, and Predicaments? Perhaps they cannot do ail this. Pauci quos sequus amavit
Jupiter. Then they must not ambitiously hope to obtain the highest degree of happiness. But what if I can subdue the vehement passions of my nature, and give reason the sovereignty in, my bosom? Then you may promise yourself a subordinate measure of enjoyment, provided you inherit glory, possessions, friends, and some other requisites from your parents, or find yourself in the way to acq'uire those advantages by personal qualities of your own, or a favourable conjuncture of events. This is a system suited to Aristotle and his all-conquering pupil; but we cannot recommend it to the teachers or learners of Christianity.
Some of the particular rules of this system are as highly deserving, as its general principles, of reprehension by the Christian moralist. The rich man is informed that magnificence is a virtue, and is exhorted to expend his gold in sumptuous edifices, public shows, and gorgeous feasts. But the character which Aristotle takes the most pains to describe, is the magnanimous man. There are strong reasons for supposing that the philosopher was in this part tracing his own. likeness; and we must therefore make some allowance for the high toned panegyric which he bestows on the virtue of magnanimity. In his view, it enhances and adorns every other, and is in itself the perfection of moral excellence. Adjusting our opinions and feelings by the standard of the Scriptures, we confess that we deem this magnanimous man, who at Athens, and in the court of Alexander, was the great exemplar of virtue, to be in plain terms, a proud, unsociable, 'unbending, disdainful, selfish being. But let the reader judge for himself.
'If the magnanimous man is pleased indeed, it is because men pay him every honor that they are capable of; and in as great a degree as they are able.' p. 142.
'He rejoices indeed when he confers benefits, but is ashamed when he receives them. For to confer benefits is the province of one who surpasses, but to be benefited of one who is surpass'd. He also thinks greatly of himself, and is indignant at sustaining the lesser part.' p. 144.
'To transcend those in an elevated rank is both difficult and venerable, and on this account it is adapted to the magnanimous man; but to surpass those of the middling rank is easy, and contains nothing great. Besides it is not ignoble to behave with dignity among the former, tho' it is foolish to do so among those of mean rank. Just as if any body should display the strength of his body among the infirm, or such as are worn out with disease and old age.' p. 145.
It must be confessed, that Aristotle's definition of the chief good is admirable; and in developing it, he eminently displays his argumentative and discriminating powers in their most successful function, that of analysis. It is a curious fact, that his general description of happiness exactly corresponds to the perfect bliss of the celestial state. He affirms the chief good to be "the best energy of the soul, exercised according to the rules of virtue, in a perfect state of being." The noblest energy of the soul, is obviously the exercise of pure and exalted love .toward an infinitely perfect Being, who commands our admiration and affection, not only by the essential excellences of his character, but by displaying his perfections in promoting our own happiness. The principles and rules of virtue must invariably be observed, when the will of an infinitely perfect Being, who is the object of reverence, adoration, and gratitude, prescribes and ratifies every moral, obligation. That state of being is truly perfect, where our faculties will be enlarged and have full scope for their exercise; where we shall be placed beyond the reach of sin and misery, and engaged in services and enjoyments suited to the nature, and adapted to satisfy the large desires, of an immortal and glorified spirit. The definition of Aristotle, however, is of no use in his own system, except to show its weakness and inefficacy. The explication which he gives of it, in the subsequent detail, is totally subversive of its direct and obvious meaning. In short, the definition of happiness, understood according to his own interpretation, is a mere pomp of words, an idle embellishment of a deformed morality. He has, by means of a well conducted analysis, arrived at a definition, which, if properly explained and applied, is just, admirable, and sublime. But his own description is still mysterious to himself. It is like the general expressions of an unknown quantity in Algebra, which are useless until some intelligible 'value is given to the symbols.
We have dwelt so long on the inexpediency of the present translation, that but few words must be added on the manner in which it is executed. We cannot praise the version. As it was designed for those who are ignorant of Greek, such terms should not be employed as require a Lexicon to explain them. Some words merely exchange the Greek for the Roman character: Orectic, Practic, Doxastic, Dianoetic, Psychical, Dikaioma, and other expressions of the> same puzzling cast, must be incomprehensible to those who are only acquainted with modern languages and modern dictionaries. The style is incomparably cramp and stiff, and reminds the reader, at every clause, that it is something done into English. It is devoid of that freedom, ease, and spirit, of which even a work of this kind is capable, and which it peremptorily demands as an antidote to the dryness of the matter. With so much censure, we can only mix the faint praise, that the sense of the original is preserved; which the translator evidently understood well, and to which ho seems to have given a degree of attention that would have been laudably employed on a worthier subject.
Art. II. A Journey from Madras, through the Countries of Mysore, Canara, and Malabar, performed under the Order of the Marqui» Wellesley, Governor-General of India, &c. By Francis Buchanan, M.D. F.R.S. &c. Published under the Patronage of the East India Company. With a Map, and numerous other Engravings. 3 vols, folio, pp. 1530. Price 6/. 6s. Black and Parry, London. 1807. '"FHE quarrels of nations, like those of individuals, commonly become criminal in their progress, though at first they may have been just. The domination of the angry passions is usually the cause, but it is always the consequence of war. The principles which are called into action by hostile contention become evident in the ferocity of military proceedings, and in the merciless tyranny of the conquerors. Rarely indeed have the heroes of history, those punishers of mankind, been visited with a single thought of converting their success to benevolent purposes, of using with moderation what they termed the Rights of Conquest, of binding up the wounds they had inflicted, or of repairing the injuries of war by the measures of generous policy, and the arts of peace. To the beneficent principles of Christianity we arc beholden for whatever remission has taken place in the sanguinary violence of combat, for the more humane treatment of prisoners, for the prevalence of admission to the privileges of " parole," and for the regard which is paid to the welfare of the conquered. The dictates of true political wisdom in variably coincide, with the principles of religion; and we gladly recognize, in the work before us, an instance of attention to the condition of provinces, fallen into British hands by the events of war, that does honour to the prudence and philanthropy of the Chief Governor, from whom it originated.
The efforts of Tippoo Saib to undermine and subvert the British establishments in India, are weli known; he fell in the attempt; and a considerable portion of the provinces he had governed was retained bv the victors. But the mere possession of these provinces was of little at!vantage to the British East India Company; in order to appreciate their value, and form just maxims of administrative policy, it was necessary to understand the nature and quantities of their productions, their actual state of cultivation, the improvements of which it was susceptible, and the extent to which it might be carried. It was necesyary that the dispositions of the newly-acquired subjects s';ou!d be, ascertained, and their manners and character truly estimated. To promote their tranquillity and subordination, it was of importance to convince them of the solicitude felt by their new governors for their permanent welfare ; and to encourage the renewal of that industry which war had interrupted, it was expedient to take every method of assiirint' to them the quiet enjoyment of its fruits.
Influenced by such views, Marquis Wellf-sley commissioned Dr. Bucanan to 'isit and examine the provinces of the Mysore, which had never been accurately explored by Europeans., Dr. b. has eseeuted iiis commission with fidelity and judgement. Hi has amassed a copious sote of intere-ting information, answering to the intentions of his emphyers. The genera reader wdl undoubtedly complain oi the dryness occasional.1}'perceivable in these Repot I.-, and naturally inseparable from statistical details; but he shouk; recollect that they were not principally or primarily addr.-ssed to the public; and that he is admit' 'd to enjoy the gratification he derives from the other pails, by a liberality that deserves acknowledgement and enconiium.
Dr. B. was directed to attend particularly to the state and practice of agriculture in the various districts through which he passed ; he was to examine and report what vegetable productions were peculiar to the soil, or were cultivated for the support of the inhabitants; he was to inspect the implements used in husbandry, or in the numerous professions dependent on it, and to form an opinion on the merits of the prevailing- construction of their machinery. He was to observe the animals, especially the domestic, the qualities of the different breeds of cattle, the tenure and state of the farms, the order and the effects of climate and seasons, with the influence of these, and whatever other causes he could discover, on the general condition of the inhabitants. Specimens of such plants as were new and curious, were also desired by the Governor .General; and the Doctor considered his instructions to include such inquiries as he might be able to satisfy, concerning the history of the tribes, their distinctions of caste and religion, their customs and singularities, together with specimens and representations of antiquities. We arc obliged to him for, a most interesting picture of man, seen in various aspects,an any of which are very little removed from the state of. savage nature, yet strongly distinguished from each other. The manners of some, who value themselves on their refinement, appear to us utterly offensive to nature itself; and what they regard as the very essence of purity-, would be rejected with disgust by European nations. The higher classes of the natives, wherever he went, were distinguished by a haughty and insolent superstition; by a repulsive consciousness of hereditary dignity, and an overweening sanctity, wlych rejected industry from among its duties, and rendered them, not the members, but the excrescences of the community. This extreme of imagined holiness can be scarcely less injurious to the public welfare, than the other extreme of outcast degradation. Toowise, too contemplative, too pure, to be of use in the world, some forget the end of their existence as social beings, and pass it in total seclusion; while others wear out their days, in a condition barely elevated above the brutal, and divided between ignorant drudgery and sordid gratifications.
In execution of his instructions, Dr. B. quitted Madras, April 23, 1300, and, taking his course westward, passed Bangalore in his way, to Seringapatam. Hence he travelled to the confines of the Nizam's country, northward ; then having returned to Seringapatam, he.travelled southward, through the province of Karnata to Coimbetore, ant! Malabar , changing now his direction, he visited the towns on the const, travelling northward as far Ss the company's authority extends. He again returned to Seringapatam, and thence to Madras. As the Doctor's tour was performed under special protection, and by order of government, he enjoyed many peculiar and; important advantages. He was authorized to command information from the company's officers, and found ready access