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was executed, for the use of the Alexandrian library. About the same time, the poets Aratus, Callimachus, Theocritus, . Lycophron, and Apollonius, produced their works, many of which still afford pleasure to the classical reader. Dr. Gillies has very properly introduced several biographical sketches in different parts : be is happy, we think, in the following character of Lycophron.
• The dimmest star in the poétic pleiades is the muddy and mysterious Lycophron. Neither the oracular responses of Delphi, nor the Sibylline verses, nor other parallel productions of priestcraft and superstition, had yet been combined among the Greeks, into any long continued texture of prophetical poetry. At length the Cassandra of Ly. cophron made its appearance, in the same age when the Hebrew volumes, being first unrolled to profane view, might be expected to excite this unequal competition and feeble rivalry of the muses But the hallowed strains of Sion, defying imitation in their awful sublimity, are far surpassed by Lycophron in elaborate darkness. By Cassandra,' or Alexandra, for his prophetess had both names, heroes and gods are de-, noted by their emblems or atchievements; a legendary tale is substituted for the description of a country; events are crow ed in endless succession; the bounds of space and time are enlarged and contracted at pleasure ; and even the distinct provinces of oựr senses, of all things the most clearly separate in themselves, are amalgamated and confounded in the melting furnace of an over-heated fancy. Amidst all this wilderness of disorder, Cassandra, commencing with the ill-fated voyage of Paris to Lacedæmon, sketches out however the general history of the Trojan war, expatiating on the disasters which followed it. She next adverts, in the darkest imagery, to the two great original causes of hostility between the eastern and western continents, the rape of Europa, and the expedition of the Argonauts; and then traces these original land. marks and exuberant fountains of fable, through all the occurrences con. nected with them, down to the Ptolemean age. After repeated perusals, Lycophron, according to associations, created by differences of studies and pursuits, will appear to some readers altogether unworthy of the pains necessary to be bestowed on him ; by others, when its difficulties are surmounted, the Cassandra will be prized as a rich mythological epitome, in the richest and most beautiful of all languages. Vol. i. pp. 618-620. · In morality, the kings of Egypt had little to boast over their neighbours in Asia and in Europe. Both Ptolemy Soter and Philadelphus allowed themselves in polygamy, which had become the common practice of the Grecian kings, and to which incest was commonly joined. The subsequent Syrian and Egyptian monarchs, indeed, more frequently espoused their sisters than any other females, and withheld none of the sensual indulgences of Asiatic luxury from their de. praved and wayward appetites. The consequence of this relaxation of morals, was obvious in the debased and des. picable character of both sexes; the degeneracy of the
princes naturally followed the unworthiness of their mothers, Nothing either of wisdom or of valor could be expected from princes moulded in the haram, and whose tender years were entrusted to women without estimation, or to emascuJated slaves. So debased, indood, was the character of this miserable race, as to justify the strong langnage of Plutarch, who calls the last of the Prolemys and Seleucidæ, “ worms and venomous reptiles growing out of the carcase of Alexan. der's once flourishing enpire." (in Alexand.)
Such was the state of the Greek kingdoms when they fell under the dominion of Rome ; and such, too, was the state of Arme itself, at no lony interval of time, when the “ Sun of righ:eousness arose" to dispe} the darkness which had so long bunghied the heathen world ; to exbibit vice in its native detorinity; and point out the only path to true morality and Fuappiness.. . Our liinits will not permit us to take notice of the interesting struggle for liberty exhibited by the virtuous Achæ. als during this turbulent and Aagitious period of history; nor of the progress of the Romans, from their obscure original, till they obtained the dominion of the world. The achieve. ments of this gigantic power form the chief subject of the last volume, and give that part of the work a pleasing appearance of unity, of which the precediug details are unfortunately destitute. Dr. G. professes to have bestowed considerable attention on the ruder Asiatic tribes. We shall select his account of the Parthiaus, so celebrared for their long protracted struggles with the Romans, for our läst extract :
• They had been formed, as we have seen, from a mixed assemblage of Scythian, or Sclavonian tribes : each tribe consisting of warriors and horsemen, slaves to their Chieftains, and of miserable peasants, who sometimes served on foot, but were of no account in the state or army. With the growing prosperity of the empire, these military slaves contimually augmented by purchase and propagation, as well as by conquest, and were trained by their masters to war and horsemanship, not less carefully. than their own children; the chieftains or nobility vieil with each other in bringing to the standard of their King well disciplined squadrons, at once their property and their pride, so that Parthian armies, amounting to fifty thousand cavalry, sometimes did not contain four hundred freemen. Uncouth as such institutions may appear to the civilized nations of Europe, they long prevailed in modern times among the Mamelukes of Egypt; and the founder of the Russian greatness, when he set himself to improve an empire, comprehending the original scats of the Parthians, found an army of 300,000 men, compos:d of slaves of the nobility. Although we have seen that agriculture and commerce were not neglected by she humbler subjects of Mithridates, yet the flower of his nation is described as constantly employed either in hunting parties, or is military
expeditions, and always on horseback, even in the streets of their cities. On horseback they visited, feasted, and celebrated all their public solem, nities. Besides the equestrian archers, who fought flying, and wearied out an enemy by often renewed assaults, they had heavy cataphracts, or cuirassiers, clad in the steel of Margiana, a province inimediately eastward of Parthia, armed with long lances, and bearing a wonderful resemblance in all points with the chivalrous war.iors of the middle ages. In those ages, the institutions of Knighthood, in which combatants entered the lists on horseback, with extraordinary splendour, displaying more extraordinary valour and address, is said by an eminent historian to have occasioned the predilection for cavalry so long prevalent in modern Europe. But as this predilection appeared still more conspicuously, and continued still longer among the Parthians, it ought to be regarded, not as the consequence, but rather as the cause of knighthood and other corresponding distinctions, since in Parthia those only could wear the ring, the cincture, and the clasp, to whom the king assigned such ornaments as rewards for equestrian dexterity. Among this warlike people, collected from rude clans, into a great nation, some also appear to have been hereditary. There was an officer who acted as a sort of deputy to the king in mar. shalling the cavalry, and was entitled by his birth to crown every new sovereign. This officer was named the Surena : his dignity devolved from father to son: when Parthia was governed by weak princes, the power of the Suren2 proportionally rose in the scale; and from his right of officiating at the ceremony of coronation, we shall find examples in which he presumed to dispose of the monarchy. In adorning themselves and their horses, the Parthians, as they advanced in opulence, shewed the utmost extravagánce of Barbaric finery. Their dress consisted in the tiara, the double tupick, and the large pantaloon inclosing the legs and thighs, and defended towards the extremities with buskins of red leather, often studded with pearls. On public occasions they assumed the candys, which the Medes had borrowed from the Assyrians; a floating resplendent robe, whrise lateral openings allowed a free motion to the limbs, and displayed the richness of their inward attire, embroidered with gold, and dyed of various colours. Their cinctures, bespangled with gems, are compared by the poets to the flowery meadows of Sicily. 'Bracelets, necklaces, and ear-rings were ostentatiously worn by men ; whereas women could derive but little pride from female ornaments, being debarred from all public assemblies, and condemned to that humiliating servitude which universally takes place wherever polygamy prevails. Yet the sternest dominion of husbands and masters, the kings of Parthia often exercised over the bravest warriors, and proudest nobles. Whoever among them offended the king, had his head and right hand severed from his body. Terror was the principle of the government; ignorante e, presumption, fero. city, and unbridled luxury, were the national characteristics : and a people who obeyed only through fear, could not fail to domineer without mercy, when, having become the great paramount power in Asia, they were entitled, according to received maxims in that quarter of the world, to spurn all nativns as their vassals.' Vol. II. pp. 542-545. . . .
Dr. Gillies's work is chiefly estimable as a faithful and comprehensive narration of events, during a very imporiant period, ia the history of buman affairs. We should be happy to add,
that it exhibited philosophic views of these events, investigated to their origin, and unfolded to their consequences. But if he has contributed few discoveries, he has furnished a valuable collection of facts, to the science of general politics. His opinions, if not particularly original or sagacious, are mostly liberal and sensible. The style of his volumes will certainly not recommend them to popular favour. It is too declamatory to be precise, and too involved to be quite perspicuous; it is laboriously polished, and loaded with a pomp of epithets, but is rarely to be applauded either for beauty or force. It is with no reluctance that we avoid entering inta particulars : we shall not hold up to ridicule a work of very considerable merit and utility, the fruit of extensive erudition and continued industry, by collecting the instances of affectation ; such as, in describing Cleopatra's galley sailing up the Cydnus, “ Poetry has copied faithfully from history, a scene which cannot by fancy be embellished" or " battles deformed by fictions :"—of vulgarism, such as “ ruled with a high hand;" "cowed the courage of that barbarous enemy :"-of bad English, such as “ reigned (governed) the East,” &c. &c.:
of puerile alliteration, such as " the Argyraspides... seemed likely to occasion more mischief by mutiny, than benefit by bravery." The faults of the work will be readily pardoned by those who are capable of appreciating its merits. Art. VI. Discourses, Moral and Religious, adapted to a Naval Audience :
Preached on board his Majesty's Ship the Tremendous, John Osborn, Esq. Commander, during the Years 1802, 1803, and 1804. By the Rev. Robert Baynes, LL. B. 8vo. pp. 618. Price 12s, boards. Longman and Co. 1807. THAT so many thousands pass their days on the deceitful + ocean, is not among the smallest of the moral evils created by the lust of wealth and the rage of war., A ship crowded with males, who are compelled to a temporary celibacy, and deprived of the virtuous polish which the other sex imparts to social intercourse, while they are exposed to the company of vice in a situation which affords no retreat, becomes the crucible of the mind. If only the virtuous few can endure the fiery ordeal, what must be its effects on the refuse of the earth, who crowd the decks of a man of war? Yet in that situation precisely where the virus of human depravity is thus concentrated, religion, the only antidote, is almost entirely excluded. The day of sacred rest keeps alive a public sentiment of religion in the earth; but its return is scarcely perceptible on the waters. The institutions therefore of social worship, which contend against the atheism of the world, seldom employ their salutary influence where they are most needed.
Since both war and commerce are unhappily too much the rage, to leave any hope that the number of those who tenant the surface of the deep will be speedily diminished, we are glad to resort, for consolation, to any efforts which may be made toward rendering their mode of life less destructive to their own eternal interests, and less abhorrent from the purified feelings of the Christian. Such reflections give a pleasing interest to this volume of paval sermons. They might also attract peculiar attention on other accounts ; for if sermons preached at the drum head to the conquerors of Austerlitz would be deemed curiosities, how much inore the discourses pronounced on the decks of the British navy, to such heroes. as have hurled the thunders of Trafalgar? In every respect, therefore, the preacher now before us appears interesting, while inclosed in his wooden walls, encircled by his bluejacket audience, attempting to teach the art of thinking to the most thoughtless of mortals, and to melt into contrition the stubborn hearts of oak..
-" I fear,” says Mr.Baynes, sailors in general have not the opportunities of receiving either moral and religious instruction in a manner that might be wished though, of late years, there has been much improvement in this | respect ; and will be still more so, whilst the interests of Religion receive the fostering care and anxious attention of those, who to rank and consequence in their profession, add both wisdom, bravery, virtue, and Religion. But I yet fear, there are some brave and otherwise sensible and good men (but who, unfortunately, may not have been much in the way of religious instruction) that might advance their own apprehensions of the injury that might be derived to the service by cowing, as it might be termed, the minds of sailors with moral, and particularly, religious, impressions. But, I apprehend, wiser men will advance, that there can be no genuine, moral reason, why they, any more than any other set of men, should be denied due instruction in the paths of Virtue and Religion; and consequently, the almost only means by which they can experience that benefit and happiness, which is generally allowed, I believe, to be the result of honest, regular, prudent, and religious practices.' pp. 592, 593. .
The volume contains sixty-four discourses, two of which are introductory. There are five on the general design and 4 history of the Scriptures. About forty sermons are devoted to the consideration of sins and duties, in which a commendable share of attention is paid to their particular conVnexion with a seafaring life. The remaining discourses relate the history, and teach the doctrines, of the Gospel. The concluding aldress was delivered at the execution of three men for mutiny.
. The copious list of subjects, many of which are very appropriate, indicates a laudable anxiety in the preacher toadopt the example of him who said, “ I have kept back no-' thing that might be profitable to you ; for I have not shunned