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have had the honour to serve the crown ; justice, the equity, the policy, the expeif I could have submitted to influence I diency of the act, to another time, I will might have continued to serve ; but I only speak of one point, a point which could not be responsible for others - I seems not to have been generally under- · have no local attachment, indifferent whe- ftood, I mean the right---some gentlemen ther a man had been rocked in his cradle ( alluding to Mr. N-G--t) seem to have on this or on the other side of the Tweed, considered it as a point of honour ; if and I fought for merit wherever it was to gentlemen consider it in that light, they be found; it is my boalt I was the first lose all light of right and wrong, by fol. member that ever looked for it, and lowing a delusion which must lead to dewhen I found it in the mountains of the struction. north, I called it forth, and drew thence, “ It is my opinion that this kingdom into your service, an hardy and intrepid has no right to lay a tax on the colonies ; race of men ; men, who, loft by your at the same time i assert the authority of jcalousy, a prey to the artifice of your this kingdom over the colonies to be soenemies, had gone nigh to over-turn the vereign and fupreme in every circumstance ftate in the war before the last. These of government and legillation whatsomen, the last war, were brought to com ever ; they were subjects of this kingdom bat on your fide ; they served with fideli- equally intitled by your laws to all the ty, as they fought with valour, and con- natural rights of manhood, and the pecuquered for you in every part of the world. liar privileges of Englishmen; equally

Detested by the national reflections bound to its laws, and equally participatagainit them, which are unjust, ground. ing of its constitution. The Americans less, illiberal, unmanly. It was not the are fons, not bastards of England, but country of the men by which I was mor. according to the constitution of this free ed; but the man of that country wanted country, taxation is no part of the gowisdomn, and held principles incompatible verning or legislative power ; taxes are with freedom.

the voluntary grant or gift of the com“ It is a long time, Mr. Speaker, fince mons alone ; in legislation the three I have attended the parliament. When estates of the realm are all concerned ; the resolution was taken to tax America I but the concurrence of the peers and the was ill in bed when the act passed, I was crown to tax is only necesary to clothe ill in bed; if I could have endured to with the form of law, the gift and grant have been carried in my bed, fo great was of the commons alone. the agitation of my mind for the confe “ In antient days the crown, the baquences, I would have solicited some kind rons, and the clergy, gave, and granted hand to have laid me down on this floor, to the crown ; they gave and granted to have borne my testimony against it-it what was their own. At present, tince is now an act which has passed.

the discovery of America, the commons “ I would speak with a decency of eve- are become the proprietors of the lands; fy act of this house, but I must beg of the crown has diverted itself of its great this house, indulgence to speak of it with estates; the church (God bless it) has but freedom,–1 hope a day may be appoint- a pittance ; the property of the lords, ed to consider the state of the nation, with compared with that of the commons, is as respect to America ; I hope that all gena drop of water to the ocean ; and this tlemen will come to the debate, with that house represents those commons, and those temper and impartiality which bis majes- proprietors virtually represent the rest of ty recommends, and the importance of the inhabitants : We therefore, in this the subject requires ; a subject of greater house, give and grant, what is our own ; importance than ever engaged the attenti- but in an American tax, what do we do? on of this house, that subject only except. We your M-----y's commons of Great ed, when, near a century ago, it was a Britain, give and grant to your M—, question whether you yourselves were to what ? Our own property ? No; we give be bound or free.

and grant to your M—y, the property “ In the mean time, as I cannot de. of your M---y's commons in America, pend on health for any future day, such an absurdity in terms. This distinction is the nature of my infirmity, I will beg between legislation and taxation, is essen10 lay a few words at present; leaving the tially necelary to liberty ; the crown and


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the peers, are equally legiNative powers those of that gentleman, that they are lo with the commons. If taxation, then, conformable he said) " is a circumstance be a part of fimple legislation, the crown that affects me with most sentible pleasure, and the peers have rights in taxation, as and does me the greatest honour. Biit well as yourselves, righes which they will two things fell froin that gentleman claim, which they will exercise, whenfo- which gave me pain, as whatever falis ever the principal can be supported with from that gentleman, falls from lo great power. There is an idea in fome, that a height as to make a deep impresion : I ihe colonies are virtually represented in must endeavour to remove it. It was obthis house, I would fain know by whom jected, that the notice given to parliaan American is represented here? Is he ment, of the troubles in America was not represented by any knight of the thire of early ; I can assure the house the first acany county in the kingdom ? would to counts were too vague and imperfect, to God tbat refpe&table representation were be worthy the attention of parliament, augmented to a greater number ! or will 'tis only of late they have been precise and you tell him he is represented by a repre. full. An over-ruling influence has also sentative of a borough ; a borough which, been hinted at; I have seen nothing of perhaps, was never seen by its represen- it. I feel nothing like it. I disclaim it tative; a borough which, perhaps, no for myself, and, as far as my discernman ever saw; this has been called the ment can reach, for all the rest of his rotten part of the constitution, it will not M -y's ministers. I did not ride inprobably endure for another century; if to place upon a stalking horse.” it does not drop off of itself, it must be It Mould have been observed, that Mr. amputated : But the idea of a virtual re- P-tt, speaking of liberty, said it had been presentation of America in this house is made use of as a stalking horse to ride inthe most contemptible notion, that ever to place. (P. 117, 1. 39.) entered into the head of man, it does not 1. Now I am in, were I sensible I had deserve a serious repetition.

done so, I would turn the reins, and ride “ The commons of America, repre- out again.” sented in their several assemblies, have Mr. P-it, in answer, said, “ The ex. ever been in the possession of the exercise cuse is valid ; if it is a just one, that of their conititutional right of giving and must appear from the papers now before granting their own money, they would the House, – the gentleman has spoken have been flaves if they had not enjoyed of riding into place, and riding out of it; at the same time this kingdom, as the place ; my advice to him is not to be ridfupreme governing and legislative power, den." has always bound the colonies by her In the interval, Mr. Gr-nv-lle had re. laws, by her regulations, by her restric. covered himself; he avoided medelling tions in trade, in navigation, manufac- with the doctrine of taxation being contures, in every article whatsoever, except fined to the house of commons, and be. that of taking the money out of their poc- ing grounded on the free gift of the colkers, without their content. Here then I lective body, through the inedium of the would draw the line,

representative, neither did he attempt to

defend the virtual representation of Aineri" Quam ultra, citraque nequod cona.ca, but began with centuring the present fiftere reEtum.

ministry severely for delaying to give earlier

notice to parliament of the disturbances in Mr. P-it spoke some time after, but in America; he said, they began in July, and a voice so low that none but those who now we are in the middle of January, sat near him could distinguish what he “ lately they were only occurrences [the said. A considerable pause ensued ; Mr. word used in the k--g's speech, DecemC-nw.y then got up, and said he waited ber 17th] they are now grown into difto see whether any answer would be given turbances, to tumults, to riots, I doubt to what was advanced by the right ho- they border upon open rebellion ; and if nourable gentleman, reserving himself in the do&rin I have heard this day be expectation of a reply ; but as none had confirmed, I fear they will lose that name, been given, he had only to declare, thal to take that of a revolution ; this governhis sentiments were entirely conformable to

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ment over them being dissolved, a revo " Ungrateful people of America ! lution will take place in America. bounties have been extended to them,

" I cannot understand the difference when I had the honour to serve the between internal and external taxes, they crown, while you yourselves were load. are the same in effect, and differ only in ed with enormous debts. You have

given bounties on their lumber, their “ That this kingdom is the sovereign, iron, their hemp; many articles you have the supreme legiNative power, over Ame- relaxed in their favour ; the act of rica, is granted, it cannot be denied, and navigation, that Palladium of British taxation is a part of that sovereign power: commerce : and yet I have been abused in it is, it has been exercised over thole, who all the public prints, as an enemy to the were not represented; 'tis exercised over trade of America. I have been particularly the East India company merchants of Lon. charged with giving orders and instrucdon, the proprietors of the stocks, and over tions to prevent their Spanish trade, and many great and manufacturing towns; it thereby stopping the channels, by which was exercised over the palatinate of Dur- alone North America used to be supplied ham, and bithopric of Chester, before they with cash for remittances to this country. fent any representatives to parliament: Í I defy any gentleman to produce such appeal to the preambles of ihe acts which orders or instructions : I discouraged no gave them representatives ; the one in the trade but what was illicit, what was proreign of Henry the eightli, the other of bibited by act of parliament, I desired a Charles the second."

Welt-India Merchant, Mr. L-g, a He then quoted the statutes exactly, de- gentleman of character, and well known fired they might be read, which being in this city, may be examined; he will done, he resumed his discourse.

tell you, I offered every thing in my pow" When I proposed to tax America, I er to advance the trade of America. I asked the house, whether any gentleman was above answering anonymous calumobjected to the right? I repeatedly asked nies, but now it becomes ine to wipe off it, and no man would attempt to deny it; aspersions.” (See p. 566, 695.) protection and obedience are reciprocal; Here Mr. Gr-nv-lle cealed, several Great Britain protects America, America members rose up to speak; Mr. P-tt is bound to yield obedience ; if not, tell seeming to rise, the house was so clamome, when the Americans were emanci- rous for him that the speaker called it to pated? When they want the protection order. of this kingdom, they are ready enough Mr. P-tt then began by prefacing, that to ask it. That protection has been al- he did not mean to have gone farther on ways afforded them in the most full and the subject that day, that he designed onample manner : the nation has run itself ly to throw out a few lints, which geninto an immense debt, to give them that tlemen, who were so confident of the protection, and now they are called upon right of this kingdom to levy taxes on to contribute a small mare towards the America, might consider, might reflect public expence, an expence arising from upon in a cooler manner.

That the right themselves, they renounce your authority, was at least equivocal: but, since the geninfult your officers, break out, I might tleman who spoke lait, had not stopped on almost say, into acts of open rebellion. that ground, but had gone into the

“ The feditious sport of colonies owes whole, into the justice, the equity, the its birth to the faštions of this house. policy, the expediency of the ftamp.act, Gentlemen are careless of the consequena as well as into the right, he would folces of what they say, provided it answers low him into the whole field, and combat the immediate purpose of opposition. his argument in every point. He was We were told we trod on tender ground, proceeding, when lord S-ra-ge got up, we were bade to expect disobedience : and called both gentlemen to order : he what was this but telling the Americans faid, that both had departed from the to land up against the law ? to encourage matter before the house, which was the them with expectations of support from k--g's speech ; and that Mr. P-It was hence : let us only hold out a little, they going to speak twice in the same debate, would say, our friends will soon be in though the house was not in a compower.



Mr. G-.-.e On---w said, they were upon a general principle, a constitutional both in order, as there was nothing laid principle, it is a ground on which I stand but what was fairly deducible from his firm, on which I dare meet any man. M's speech and appealed to the The gentleman tells of many who are taxspeaker. The speaker decided in Mr. ed and are not represented. The India comOn---w's favour.

pany, merchants, ttockholders, manuface Then Mr. P-tt said, “ I do not appre- turers: Surely many of these are repiclenihend I am speaking twice,I did expressly re. ed in other capacities as owners of lands, Serve a part of my subject, in order to save or as freemen of borougls. It is a misthe time of the house; but am compelled fortune that men are not actually repreto proceed in it. I do not speak iwice; I fented; but they are all inhabitants, and as, only finish what I had deligncdly left im- such are virtually represented. Many have perfect; but thould the house be of a dit. it in their option to be actually represented. ferent opinion, far be it from me to in- They have connections with those who dulge a with of transgressing against elect, and they have an influence oyer order ; if it be your pleasure I am silent." them.---The gentleman mentioned the Here he paused ; the house resounding stockholders, I hope he does not reckon with, Go on, Go on, he then proceeded : the debts of the nation, as part of the

Those gentlemen, who have charged national estate. Since the accellion of this house with giving birth to sedition in King William, many ministers, some America, have spoken their sentiments of great, others of moderate abilities, with freedom against those unhappy peo- have taken the lead in government.": ple—that Freedom has become their crime, (He then went through the list of them, and I am sorry to hear the liberty of bringing it down to himself, giving a speech, in this house, imputed as a crime ; Mort sketch of the character of each] but the imputation shall not discourage “ None of these ever dreamed of robme: It is a liberty which I mean to bing the colonies of their constitutional exercisc. No Gentleman should be afraid rights, it was reserved to mark the æra to exercise it; it is a liberty by which the of the late administration ; not that there gentleman who calumniates it, might were wanting fome, when I had the bohimself have profited, he ought to nour to serve his M

-y, to propose have profited, and to have defifted to me the burning' my fingers in the from his projects. The gentleman tells American ft-p.act; with ihe enemy us America is obftinate ; America is al- at their backs, with our bayonets at their most in open rebellion. I rejoice that breasts. In the day of their distres, perAmerica has resisted. Three millions of haps the Americans would have fubinitted People, fo dead to all feelings of liberty to the imposition, but it would have as voluntarily to submit to be llaves, would been taking an ungenerous and unjust adhave been fit inftruments to make sayes of vantage.. - The gentleman boasts all the rest. I come not here armed at of his bounties to America; are these all points with law.cases and acts of par- bounties finally intended for the benefit liament, with the statute book doubled of this kingdom ? if they are, where is down into dog's ears, to defend the cause his peculiar favour to America ? If they of liberty : If I had, I should myself have are not, he has misapplied the national cided the two cales of Durham and Chef. treasure. ter; I would have cited them to have I am no courtier of America, I dhewn even in arbitrary reigns, parlia, fand up for this kingdom, I maintain, ments were ashamed to tax the people that parliament has a right to bind, to without their confent, and allowed them restrain America. Our legislative power representatives. Why did the gentleman over the colonies is sovereign and fuconfine hintelf to Durham and Chester ? preme; when it ceases to be lovereign and he might have taken a higher example in fupreine, I advise every gentleman to fell Wales: Wales, which never was taxed his lands, if he can, and einbark for that by pariiament until it was incorporated. country. When two countries are con. I would not debate a particular point of nected, as England and her colonies, taw with the gentleman. I know his abi- without being incorporated, the one muit lities, I have been obliged to his diligent neceilarily govern tie orier. If the greate researches; but for the defence of liberty er must rule the lefer, and to rule it, March, 1766.


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as not to contradict the fundamental prin- in the public prints? It is a cominon mir. ciples that are common to both. If the fortune; the Spanish affair in the last gentleman understands not the difference war, I was abused in all the news papers, between internal and external Taxes, for having advised his Majesty to violate I cannot help it; there is a plain differ- ihe laws of nations with regard to Spain; ence between taxes levied for the pur- the abuse was industriouily circulated, pose of raising a revenue, and duties even in hand- bills : the adininiftration imposed for the regulation of trade, for propagated the abuse. I never comrathe accommodation for the subject, altho' dicted it I will not say what advice. in the consequences fume revenue might I did give the K--g, my advice is in wriarise accidentally from the latter. ting, figned by myself, and in poffeffion of

“ The gentleman alks, when the co- the crowii. But I will say what advice I Jonies were einancipated ? I desire to did not give the K--g, I did not advise know, when they were made flaves ? the Ko-g to violate any of the laws of naBut I dwell not upon words. While tions. I had the honour of serving his M2 “ As to the report of the gentleman's jesty, I availed myself of the means of preventing in some way, the trade for information, which I derived from my bullion with the Spaniards, it was spoken office : I speak, therefore, from know of fo confidently, that I own I was one ledge ; my materials were good, and I of those who did believe it to be true; the was at pairs to digeft, to collet, to con- gentleman must not wonder that he was sider them : I will be bold to allirm, that not contradi&ted, when, as a minifter, he the profits to Great Britain from the asserted the right of parliament to tax trade of its colonies, through all its bran- America. I know not how it is, but ches, is two millions a year. This is there is a modeity in this house, that does the fund that carried you triumphantly not choose to contradict a minister. I through the late War. Threescore years with gentlemen would get the better of ago, estates that were then at two thou. that modesty; if they do not, perhaps fand pounds a year, are now at three the collective body may begin to abate of thousand. Those estates then fold from its respect for their representatives. fifteen to eighteen years purchase, the " Lord Bacon has told me, that a fame may now be sold for thirty. You great question would not fail of being owe this to America ; this is the price agitated at one time or other; I was wilthat America pays you for her protection. ling to agitate that of the German war. And thall a miserable financier come with Nobody would object to it, one gentle. a boast, that he can filch a pepper-corn man only excepted; fince removed into into the exchequer, to the loss of millions the upper house by succession to an antient to the nation ? I dare not say how much baruny; he told me he did not like my higlier: It is possible these profits may be German war, I honoured the man for it, augmented, omitting the great increase of and was forry when he was turned out of people by natural population in the nor- his post. ihein colonies, and the emigration from " A great deal has been said out of every part of Europe. I am convinced doors, of the power and Itrength of Amethe whole commercial system of Ame- rica. It is a topic that ought to be caurica may be allowed to advantage; you riously meddled with. In a good cause, havė prohibited, when you ougbi to have on a sound bottom, the force of this counencouragedi'; you have encouraged when try can crush America to atoms. you ought to have prohibited ; improper the valour of your trvops, I know the skill reftrainis have been laid on the continent, of your officers: there is not a company in favour of the islands, You have but of fout that has served in Ainerica, out of two nations to trade with in America' which you may not pick a man of fuffici.' (would you had tirenty) let acts of pare ent knowledge and experience, to make liament, in consequence of treaties, re a governor of a colony there; but on a main. But let not an English minifter, dangerous ground, on the itamp act, become a cuiom-boufe officer for Spain, where so many here will think it a crying for any foreign power : much is wrong, injuitice (I am one will litt op my hands much may be amended for the general against it) in fuch a cause your fuccets Foud of the whole Does the gentlernan would be hazardous. Anstrica, if he complain that he has been miliepresented


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