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confideration an account of the immense I never did, or ever can, allent; but I think fums annually fubscribed by the rich for the it far too excellent to be amended by peafupport of hospitals, infirmaries, dispensaries, fants and mechanicks. I do not mean to for the relief of sufferers by fire, tempests, fpeak of pealants and mechanicks with any famine, loss of cattle, great fickness, and degree of disrespect ; I am not so ignorant other misfortunes; all of which charities of the importance, either of the natural or must cease were all men on a level, for all social chain by whiclı all the individuals of men would then be equally poor; it cannot the human race are connected together, as but excite one's astonishment that so foolith to think difieípecifully of any link of it. a fyftem should have ever been so much as Peasants and mechanicks are as useful to the mentioned by any man of common sense. It state as any other order of men; but their is a system not practicable; and, was it utility consists in their discharging well the practicable, it would not be useful; and, was duties of their respective stations. It ceases it useful, it would not be just.

when they affect to become legislators, “But some one may think, and, indeed, it when they intrude themselves into concerns has been studioully inculcated into the minds for which their education has not fitted of the multitude, that a monarchy, even a them. The liberty of the press is a main limited one, is a far more expensive mode of snpport of the liberty of the nation; it is a civil government than a republick ; that a blefling which it is our duty to tranimit to civil lift of a million a year is an enormous posterity; but a bad use is sometimes made fum, which might be saved to the nation. of it; and its use is never more pernicious Suppofing that every Thilling of this sum than when it is employed to infuse into the could be saved, and that every Thilling of it minds of the lowest orders of the commuwas expended in supporting the dignity of nity disparaging ideas concerning the Conthe crown, both which suppositions are en ftitution of their country. No danger need tirely false, still should I think the liberty, he apprehended from a candid examination the prosperity, the tranquility, the happiness of our own Conftitution, or from a display of this great nation, cheaply purchased by of the advantages of any other; it will bear such a fum; ftill should I think that he to be contrasted with the best : but all men would be a madman in politicks who would, are not qualified to make the comparison ; by a change of the Conftitution, risk these and there are lo many men, in every combleffings (and France supplies us with a proof munity, who wish to have no government at that infinite risk would be run) for a paltry all, that an appeal to them, on such a point, saving of expence. I am not, nor have ever ought never to be made. been, the pation of corruption. So far as « There are, probably, in every governthe civil lift has a tendency to corrupt the ment upon earth, circumstances which a judgement of any member of either house of man, accustomed to the abstract investigaparliament, it has a bad tendency, which I tion of truth, may easily prove to be deviawith it had not. But I cannot with to see tions from the rigid rule of strict political the splendour of the crown reduced to no justice; but whilft these deviations are eithing, left its proper weight in the scale of' ther generally not known, or, though the Constitution should be thereby destroyed. known, generally acquiesced in as matters A great portion of this million is expended in of little moment to the general felicity, I paying the salaries of the judges, the inter cannot think it to be the part, either of a preters of our law, the guardians of our lives good man, or of a good citizen, to be zealous and properties! Another portion is expend- in recommending such matters to the discused in maintaining ambafiaors at different fion of ignorant and uneducated men. courts, to protect the general concerns of the “I am far from insinuating, that the scination from foreign aggretlion. Another ence of politicks is involved in myftery; or portion is expended in pensions and dona- that men of plain understandings should be tions to men of letters and ingenuity; to men debarred from examining the principles of who have, by naval, military, or civil ser- the Government to which they yield obevices, just claims to the attention of their Jience. All that I contend for is this that country; to persons of respectable families the foundations of our Government ouglio and connexions, who have been humbled not to be overturned, nor the edifice erected and broken down by misfortunes. I do not thereon tumbled into ruins, because an acute speak with accuracy, nor on such a subject politician may pretend that he has discovered is accuracy requisite; but I am not far wide a flaw in the building, or that he could have of truth in saying, that a fifth part of the laid the foundation after a better model. million is more than fufficient to defray the “ What would you say to a stranger who expences as the royal household. Whiat a should deure you to pull down your house, mighty matter is it to complain of, that each because, forsooth, he had built one in France individual contributes less than six pence a or America, aicer, what he thought, a bete year towards the support of the monarchy! ter plan ? You would say to him, 'No, fir,

“ That the Constitution of this country is my ancestors have lived in this manfion comso perfect a, neither to require or admit of fortably and honourably for many generaany improvement, is a proposition to which tions; all its walis are strong, and all its


timbers found. If I should observe a decay that the Constitution was in great danger. in any of its parts, I know how to make the Whether, in fact, the danger was great or reparation without the affittanceof strangers; small, it is not necessary now to enquire; it and I know ton, that the reparation, when may be more useful to declare, that, in my made by myself, may be made without in- humble opinion, the danger, of whatever jury either to the Irength or beauty of the magnitude it may have been, did not origibuilding. It has been buffeted, in the course Jiate in any encroachments of either the le. of ages, by a thousand storms; yet still it gislative or executive power on the liberties stands unthaken as a rock, the wonder of or properties of the people, but in the wild all my neighbours, cach of whom righs for fancies and turbulent tempers of discontented one of a (milar construction. Your house or ill-informed individuals. I sincerely remay be suited to your climate and temper ; joice that, through the vigilance of Adminis. this is suited to mine. Permit me, however, tration, tius corbulency has received a check. to observe to you, that you have not yet The hopes of bad men have been disappointJived long enough in your new house to be eil, and the underitandings of mistaken men sensible of all the inconveniences to which it have heen enlightened, by the general and may be liable; nor have you yet had any unequivocal judgement of a whole nation; a experience of its strength; it has yet sus. nation not more renowned for its bravery tained no shocks; the first whirlwind may and its humanity, thouşlı justly celebrated scatter its component members in the air; for both, than for its loyalty to its princes, the first earthquake may shake its founda. and, what is perfectly confiftent with loytion; the first inundation may sweep the alty, for its love of liberty, and attachment fuperstructure from the surface of the earth. to the Constitution. Wise men bave formed I hope no accident will happen to your it, hrave men have bled for it; it is our part house ; but I am satisfied with mine own.' to preserve it.

R. LANDAFF. “ Great calamities, of every kind, attend London, Jan. 25, 1793." the breaking-up of eltablished governments; yet there are some forms of government, 143. Dialogues on the Righes of Britons, be. especially when they happen to be badly tween a Farmer, a Sailor, and a Manufac. administered, so exceedingly destructive of turer, Dialogue I. the happiness of mankind, that a change of SUBJECTS, in themselves the most them is not improvidently purchased at the important, and, to Englishmen, pecu• expence of the mischief accompanying their liarly interelting, are seasonably and as subversion. Our government is nint of that

greeably discussed in these Coostitutional kind. Look round the globe, and see if you Dialogues; and feldom have we seen so can discover a single nation, on all its furface, so powerful, fo rich, so beneficent, so

much good sense and useful matter confree and happy, as our own. May Heaven veyed in so pleasing a form. avert from he minds of my countıymen the The Farmer finds the Manufaturer Nightest wish to bolinh their Conftitution! in a situation which is thus described : Kingdome,' observes Mr. Locke,'hive

“ But if you (to Manufa&turer) have been been overturned by the pride, ambition, and studying Mr. Paine, I am not at all sure turbulency of private men; by the people's prised that your mind is become restiers, wantonness and defire to cast off the lawful your hands idle, and your circumstances authority of their rulers, as well as hy the embarrassed. These are the Rights which rulers' insolence, and endeavours to get and

he endeavours to establish among the laboexercise an arbitrary power over the peo. rious part of the community: he seeks to ple.' The recent danger to our Constitution infuse the poison of discontent into their wao,

in my opinion, small; for I considered" minds, in order to make them his tools ca its excellence to be so obvious to men even

promote confusion.” of the most unimproved understandings, that

The Manufacturer, like many others I looked upon it as an idle and fruitiers effort, either in foreign or domestic incen)

of the same class, had been persuaded diaries, to endeavour to persuade the bulk of that we are not only without our Rights, the people to consent to an alteration of it but that we are even destitute of a Con, in favour of a republick. I knew, indeed, stirution in this couotry. that in every country the flagitious dregs of “ Manufacturer. But I wilh to know whore a nation were always ripe for revolutions : this famous Constitution is to be found. I but I was sensible, at the same time, that it have seen a copy of the late Constitution of was the intereft, not only of the opulent and France, in a neat little book, containing the powerful, not only of the mercantile and whole complete from beginning to end, and middle clailes of life, but even of honeft la I dare say the next will be drawn out and bourers and manufacturers, of every sober published in like manner : but I have never and industrious man, to resist the licentious had a copy of the English Constitution put principles of such pestilent members, Malll into my hands, nor have I heard of any such call them? or outcasts of society. Men bety thing being kept at the Tawer, or any where ter informed, and wiser than myself, thouglit elle.

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" Sailor. Nor I neither; but though I ne vails in this country is thus happily dever faw a plan of it, I always understood scribed by the Farmer : that it was made of the best materials; that

“ All persons, whatever their birth, their it was a long time in building; and that, be- ftation, or their circumstances may he, are ing well put together, it has weathered many of equal consequence in the eye of the Law. a hard gale."

The rights of an Englishman are not the The Former, after tracing the outlines rights merely of the wealthy and the great, of tbe Confitution, and thowing that it but of all withoat distinction. The same had “luck its roots deep among the laws extend their prote&tion alike to all; foundations of the common law,” that it and whether a nobleman strikes a labourer, was recorded in the facute.book, “The or a labourer a nobleman, it is equally a vioregifier of our privare rights,” and de- lation of the law, and the fame justice is lineared in the history of the country, open to both. The grand prevailing princithus proceeds:

ple of our Conftitution is, to provide as mucha “I hope I have made it appear that this as possible for the peace, security, and happi. Conftitution is authenticated by written ness of every individual, in whatever itate vouchers, and those of a much more respect. or condition he may appear; and the effenahle kind than any new-fangled code pro- tial rights of Human Nature, which it is the duced by Fancy and never confirmed by object of Society to protect, are as facred in Practice. But the grand excellence of the the person of the lowest as of the highest. British Constitution Nill remains to be no. No man, however rich or great, can oppress ticeul; namely, that it exists not merely up. the poorest subject in these realms ; go ftaon paper or parchment, but in actual prac. tion or wealth can furnish the least protectice; its benefits are hourly experienced ; tion from the penalties of the violated laws, it is to be found in enjoyment; it is best or prevent an injured citizen from obtaining known ty its effects, as a tree by its fruits; redress for his wrongs. Such are the im and no more requires a pompous description portant and invaluable privileges of Britons ; to convey an idea of it: value than the genial while the grand bulwark of all, Trial by warmth of the sun, or the benevolent show. Jury, protects the enjoyment of our rights ers of heaven. The actual advantages pof- from every danger, and forms the cornerLelled hy Englishnien, as their sure and un

stone of our liberties." alienable birthuight, afford the most forcible We like these cialogues so we!), chat and the most feeling description of the Con- we shall probably embrace a future occaA tution, and exbibit to the eye and the heart fion to relume this article. Magna Charta, the Habeas Corpus Act, the Bill of Rights, and all the other sources and 144. An Account of the Life, Writings, and Lifeguards of our liberties in their noblest

Inventions of John Napier, of Merchitten. form: and these advantages are peculiarly By David Stewart Earl of Buchan, and manifest in that liberty and that security Walter Minto, LL.D. Illufrated with which every individual enjoys in this coun.

Copper Plates. 17,8. try, which are the grand objects of society,

ABOUT twenty years ago, the noble Earl and the most valuable blessings it can

tells us, "he thought it would be easy to bring bestow."

together a groupe of learned men, who would From the manner in which the Eng.

dedicate a part of their leisure to erect litelish Contjution grew, an occasion is rary monuments to the enemory of their ile taken to make the following just re- lustrious country men, whole lives had not A.&tion :

hitherto been written, or sufficiently illus. “The makers of Constitutions may hence trated ; and he wished such mononients to derive a very useful lesson, and learn the difo be fashioned and executed by men personference between theory and practice. If all ally ominent in the departments which disthe philosophers in the world were to assem. tinguished the subjects of their biographical ble, in order, at once, to frame a Conft.qu'ion research, and not by the affiftants of a book for a country, however beautiful and alluring seller or compiler, who cannot be expected, their plan might be in appearance, there is however faithful and accurate, to he ani. very little chance that it would íais the man mated with that love to the subject which ners, the habits, and the national character, the Italian artist considers as the soul of his , of the people, or that it would be practicable enterprize, and the source of its perfection. when it fhould come to be tried. But the In this expectation he has been disappoincFrench, desp sing even the advantage of calm ed." His Lordthip las not fucceeded in ex. and orderly discuffon, began with removing citing such a spirit of enquiry as Sir John all those powers and authorities which, how Sinclair has done. His plan would have ever in forde instances abused, were the only furnished many valuable articles to the BioSecurity for order, and attempted the great grapbia Britannica; "these articles, written work of forming a Constitucion in the midst with care and with zeal, so as to support of tumult, riot, and confusion."

themselves, in an isolated state, by the public The true political equality which pre. favour, would have been taken up by suble



quent editors into that great repository of of the Apocalypse. His “plain disco. biographical learning, in a highly-finished very” that the Pope was Antichrist was ftate. With respect to the biography of printed 1593, and translated into French Scotland, one of the judges* there, who

in 1603. “With respect to his fanciful would have done it honour, in its best days, by calculation of the completion of the pro. his virtue, his attention to the dignity and phecies concerning the duration of the duties of his station, and the useful employ- world, the year in which this monument ment of his leisure, has generoudy offered, is erected to his memory (1978) immeby an advertisement annexed to the Annals of the Lives of John Barclay, author of the diately succeeds ibat fired for ibe end of Argenis, and some other learned Scots, to

the world, and, no doubr, must be the forward the undertaking I wish to promote. year of judgement, with respect to the 1 Aatter myself that this article of Napier, in authenticity of his discovery, and the the Biograpbia Scotica, will be considered, in merit of those arguments which are Some respects, as a specimen of the plan I brought forward to support his claim" have described; for it certainly has been (p. 14, n.) His wonderful invention written con amore.

In the scientific part I to kill 3000 Turks without the hazard have received the affistance of a gentleman of one Christian, of which he made an who deserves to be better known on ac- experiment, by the destruction of a great count of his mathematical learning, and the

many head of cattle and sheep, but iuf. accuracy with which he treats the subjects fered it humanely to die. with hiin, of his enquiry. If the following publication thould have been at least examined, as should have the good fortune to meet the it rests only on the ipse dixit of the creapprobation of the learned world, it is my intention to give an account of the lives and dulous Sir Thomas Urqhart. See p. 15, writings of Andrew Fletcher, of Saltount,

Mr. Briggs, mathematical professor and John Law 1, of Laurieston, on the fame of Gresham-college, visited him every plan. The first undertaking will furnish summer in Scotland, where he died in me with an opportunity of representing the 1617, aged 68, and was buried in the antient Conftitution of Scotland in what I family-vault at Edinburgh, without any apprehend to be a clearer light than has hi

He was twice married, and therto been offered, and of treating the left five fons and fix daughters. His causes and conferiences of the Union be- biographer proceeds to describe the state tween the two kingdoms; and the other of arithmetick before Napier's discovery. will open an ample field for exhibiting the He then describes what are called Na. disorders in the finances of France, occafioned by the expensive wars of Louis XIV. inches fquare, each face divided into 10

pier's bones, rods, or parallelopipeds, 3 and the Miffisippi scheme, and for explain; equal parts, of which 9 are fquare, and ing by what means they have been gradually in the middle, and half of the roth at remedied, and brought to a state which has enabled that nation not only to bring her

one extremity, or the top, and half ac naval force and her trade to a dangerous ri- the other extremity, or the bottom. valship with this country, but to obtain that Every one of these squares is cut by a credit by geed faith which, in former times, had diagonal from left to right, upwards. given so decided a superiority in Britain. If Ac the top of each face is fome one of separate lives of illustrious persons should be the 10 digits, 0, 1, 2, 3, &c. Another written on the plan i propose, and were contrivance his multiplicationis accompanied by portraits, elegantly engraven promptuarium, a box of 200 figured la. by the best artists, and the whole executed melle, in inches long and 1 broad, each in a similar manner, in the same quarto fize, divided into 11 equal parts, of which 10 and with the same type and paper, they in the middle are square, and two-thirds would gradually form the noblest work of the with at one extremity, and onewhich has been offered to the republick of third at the other : every one of these Jetters in any age or country.” Advertisement. squares divided by 9 less'; 100 lamella Napier was born in 1950; his father,

are each one-fourth of an inch thick, Sir Archibald, being matter of the mint, and the other 100 one-eighth. Another and his mother, Janet, daughter of Fran- of his inventions was local arithmetick, cis Bothwell, one of the lenators of the by means of counters properly placed on College of Justice. He was educated at

a' chess board. The hint of the rods, St. Andrew's, and there, about 1566, and the promptuary, which is only an when he could not be above 16, began improvement on them, is taken from the to turn his thoughts to the explanation Abacus Pyibagoricus, or common multi* Lord Hailes.


Had the logarithms + How this has been done, see p. 52.

remained undiscovered, the promptuary | We Mall soon present our readers with would, in all probability, have become an account of this life by another hand.



universally familiar to those who were 146.' The Scripture Doctrine concerning tbe engaged in tedious calculations. In Corning, of Christ unfolded, on Principles section III, the author "proceeds to un

which are allowed to be common to tbe Jews fold the logarithms, the discovery of

borb in anticnt and modern Times; in answer which has juftly entitled Napier to the

to the Objections of Mr. Gibbon and Dr. Edname of tbe greatest mathematician of bis

wards on this Subject. To wbich is added, country. Euclid and Archimedes appear

An Appendix, containing some Remarks on ibe

Miracles of the Gospel, in reply to an Objection to have been very well acquainted with

of the latter of these Writers. Part I. By the correspondence of an arithmetical to

N. Nisbett, M.A. geometrical progreffion; and, had the

MR. N, whom we have before had latter been furnished with tables of

occafion to commend, supports, with logarithms, he would have known how much ingenuity, the opinion that the to have used them; but it appears not

xxivth chapter of Matthew is one contithat he was pollelled of any principles nued prediation of the destruction of which could lead him to the formation

Jerusalem, exclusively of the day of of logarithms. This lection concludes

judgement. with vindicating Napier as the first inveator of them, against Wood and Kep

147. A candid and impartial Reply to tbe Rev. ler, who ascribe them to Longomonta Dr. Priestley's Letters addregled by bim to be nus of Denmark, and Byrgius of Heffe. Members of the New Jerusalem; in wbich Sect. IV. contains Napier's method of bis Objections are fairly considered, and the constructing the logarithmic canon, or Doctrines contained in the Theological Writings canon mufius. Sedt. V. the common of the Hon, Emanuel Swedenborg vindilogarithms discovered by Napier, and pre cated from Reason and Scripture. By J. pared by Briggs, and the methods pro Proud, N. H. M. pofed by Napier for computing them. MR. P, a minister of the SwedenborSect. VÍ. Improvements on them, after gian church, sets out with an appeal to Napier's death, by Mercator, Halley, realon and scripture, and profeffion of Coies, and o:her mathematicians of the great respect to Dr. P; but ends in such first note. Seči. VII, treats of the use of visionary flights of mysticism that there the logarithm. Then follows an appen- seems no ground to conclude he will indix, contajoing, 1. an analytical theory duce any change in his antagonist's fenof the logarithms; 2. a table of Napier's timents. logarithms; 3. trigonometrical theo. rems; 4. the hyperbola, as connected 148. Conversations on Christian Įdolatry, in the with the logarithms; s. properties of

Year 1791. Publisbed by Theophilus Lindo the logarithms; and, lantly, a list of

sey, M. A. books quoted or consulted to elucidate IT is not easy to conceive what end the life and writings of Napier. There

can be answered by annexing to the worare five plates of logarithmical figures; thip of the majority of Christians an apand prefixed is a portrait of Napier, en

pellation which, according to Mr. L's graved by Bengo, from a drawing by

own construction, is harmless; but, be. Brown, in the possession of Lord Buc ing used in a morc obnoxious senle, inay chan, which does not eminently express embitter the minds of men, and particu: the grave and sweet countenance of his Jarly of religious disputants. The pamother portraits (p. 19).

phlet contains a recapitulation of the

fcripture arguments for Unitarianism, 145. Several Discourses on Special Subjects, and a wish to see Dr. Clarke's reformed preacbed before the University of Oxford, Liturgy brought into general use. Dr. and on or ber Occafions. By William Parker, Disney announces his reformation of the D. D. Chaplain in Ordinary to bis Majesty', Liturgy. Restor of St. James, Westminster, and F.R.S. 2 vols.

149. A Sermon, preached at Barnstaple, May A Republicacion of the able desences 26, 1791, at ibe Visitation of ibe Rev. of revealed religion and the Mosaic hila

Thomas kalguy, Arekdeacon of Winchera tory against Bolingbroke, Morgan, and

ter. By Edward Saller, M. d. Domeftis other infidel writers, and against Mid

Claplain to tie Duke of Gloucester, Pier dleton, a sceptical member of the Ellab

bendary of York, &'. 1.amcat. To there are added fermons

CONTRARY to the plan of the

French Revolutionists*, Mr. S. very on particular subjects and occasions, and an explanation of the difference between

* See before, p. 57, Rabaut de St. Etienne's the old and new style.

history of it.


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