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the end of November there suddenly Sans Culontes -we hold in prifons. Thefe fettled on the levels near Chichefter a Jarter never lived so well in tbeir lives most prodigious number of web-footed before : they are allowed evere day three birds; a migration thought by Tome to quarters of a pound of good beef, 'twa : foreshew hard weather ; buis perhaps, pounds of bread with all ihe finest of the it might be owing to the perpetual can flour in it, the bran alone being extracts nonading in the Low Countries, where ed, two quarts of strong well-retifed probably those forts of birds breed, and foup, one pound of cabbage with the where there is not, ar present, any reft heart in luded, and a quart of good beer. either for man, beasi, or fowl.
As a Frenchman can live upon one Generally speaking, the weather con- pound of meat for a week, this allowance tioued dry and bright through all No. is over. p'enreous, and the prisoners lell vember, and during part of December more than hilt of it. With the money: On the 4th of the last-named month so obtained they buy as much stronge. there was ice for the first lime, and ice beer as they can get leave to have brought occurred again the next day. On the them. The wounded are allowed two joth the weather Secoin formy and wet. quarts of beer a-day, bread made of she ,
It seems extraordinary, that, after so fineit four alone, and such other articles dry a fummer, and during fo fair of diet as are judged by the surgeons an autumn, the conftitutions of men mon beharing their fituation. Such is the Thould difpofe towards putridity; ret manner in which Englihinen are at this such was the fact, a virulent and redious juncture treating their natural, incetekind of putrid fever, in some cales ac. rate, and unalterable, enemies; for, such companied by a sore throat, and in the natives of France of all descriprions others by a nervous fever, pievailed are, and ever will be, whatever may be generally, insomuch that many people, faid to the contrary by our fine folks in died; the union of the iwo fevers was favour of the Emigrants, or by our De. dreadful in the extreme.
mocrats in favour of the Sans Culottes ; Very unfortunate it is, that, in the a fact that will be one day exemplifica year after the prevalence of the contagion by the French Royalitts and Patriots comamor.g the hogs, 10 great a call thould promising their differences, and turning arise for those animals at the Vidłualling. their arms united agaiott England and office; and that that demand should be her Allies, but more particularly against more considerable than it ever had been England. Although I am a Gimple rura in any preceding war. This incrcaled tick, time will prove me to be a prophet demand is owing to the unprecedented at least as good as old Nixon, one of pumber of comin. fioned thips, and to whose prophecies is likely to be again the idea lately taken up, that pickled- verified, viz. “ There will be a winter pork answers better on-board the thips council, a careful Christmas, and a than fali-beef. Thele circumstances bloody Loot!" A SOUTHERN FAUNIST. have raised fwine to such an immoderate price, that, hould a strange hog.herd MEMOIR RELATIVE TO WEIGHTS bring lome to sale in these parts, he AND MEASURES. By M. PELLIZER, would find that he might adopt the old
certain rule has huberto beco adage of, “ I have brought my hogs to a found, by which a fiandard might fine market !" literally, A healthy be eftablished in order to fix true weights yearling pig, of the bangling.ear breed, and meatures all over the world; but, here sells for 31. 105. unfacted!
before it can be fixed, clear and distinct Notwithstand ng this scarcity of hogs, ideas must be had of what is demanded. one cannot but contemplate with wonder First of all, measures of length muit the quanrity of provisions that England be diftinguished from weights. A mtais effording : ficets are plentifully view sure is nothing elle but a dift.ncc in : alleil, camps are properly supplied, and strait and known line, lituated betwist an host of alicns are liberally fed, with two points. The opening of a pair of the produce of this little ille! We feed compailes, of parallel points, carried all the Emigrants, the Jews expelled from over the world, would always be the France, the prisoners on parole, and the Same. But this kind of mealure would * A wasp was discovered this month in it would be necellary to see it, in order
be indeterminate and inconvenient; and Otiery St. Mary', on the wing; and on the 27th the robins were a n.elodious as in the
to get acquainted with it. The rod of month of March, and the flower, called a pendulum which beats the seconds re. Heart's Eare, in full bloom F, SAERDON. quires the same length, all over the 5
earth, to produce every where the same as from these two dimenfions, length movement, measuring time equally, and and breadth, depth cannot be phyli. may be taken as a fandard for measures, cally separated, it follows, that the latby dividing it into three equal parts, ter, by multiplying the surfaces, comwhich might be called feet. This mea-' poses folids, and produces in bodies anfure would be known and fixed all over other kind of weight, called specific the world (see the Supplement). The gravity, and essentially belongs to depth, accidents which happen to this measure wbich is the same thing as height. These when made of metal, in growing longer two sorts of weights can no more be phyor thorter in the different climates of fically divided into bodies than the three the earth, would not hurt the equality dimensions among themselves; but they of length when the pendulum measures are diftinguilhed in the bodies by the time truly; and the subdivisions which different effects they produce. The ef would be given to the foot would be fects of the weight of mals are differeot equally fixed and known. This rod or from the effects of that of specific grapendulum is, by the present measure, vity. Nobody has ever been able to three feet eight linesFrench measc discern the effects of specific gravity in
But it is not so wish weights. Weight folid bodies. Archimedes found the is nothing else but the tendency all bo. means of knowing its difference iu boe dies have to descend to the centre, dies but by plunging them in water, la though some other body keep it off. this manner it may be seen how much
This tendency is then a necesiary refult more mass or density there is in a body from the mass or collection of corporeal heavier than another which is not som particles which happen to be in every and which differs in specific gravity; for, body, and which alone causes the mos the heavie?? body, taking-up lefs (pacco tion of bodies towards the centre, pro
removes also less water; and the diffe. vided there be no other body residing to rence in the weight is equal to che quan. this tendency, or that no other motion uiry of the water removed, in an invert be given. Hence it is necessary that the ed manner. bodies which contain more parts in the
Fluid bodies have also the tivo sveights fame space fuall weigh heavier, and juil now mentioned, those of mass and those which contain less hall weigh ipecific eravily. Torricelli was the firft, lefs. Hence it follows, that bodies among the moderns, who observed the weigh equally in their elements, as etti Ets of specific gravity in fluids, and they do not weigh differently, but in who perfected the art of hydraulics, in proportion to the parts, the densiy, the fewmg that Auids may be fucked up mais, they contain in the lame space. wards, to the height only which repre.
The longitudioal measure inay be sents the specific gravity of each duid, adopted to all bodies, every way and The diffcience there is between the arbitrarily, as not one fingie physical weight of folid bodies to that of fluid effect is known to depend from a given bodics exists but in the manner by which measure, except the length of the reg. Nature expresses them; for, all Ruids are dulum. But there are three only which seen to weigh equaily, from bottom to produce the effices in bodies, either in top as from top to bottom, which is themselves or relatively to other bodies. commonly called resistance, without These three measures or dimensions are, their deviating, at the same time, fron the lengib, ibe breadıb, and ibe dapıb, the general law of univerlal tendency to which are inseparable properties to all the centre. From this fingularity of bodies. They can be neither separated fluids tollends thuis intimite'y-plain truth, nor physically divided among them; and that all fuids are in equipoise below where one of these three dimentions their level, aru produce no os hur effc&t phyfically meets, the other two muit but that on their schliance from below meet also, though the human under- upwards. [bare fhown, by my hig. 1tanding may consider them te parate. diaulic experiments, publithed some Length and breadth being unequivocal, years ago, biat truth which destroys the and of the fame analogy, they produce preiluse of the atmosphere as a thing in bodies the first aggregation or multi- mollible to a fluid in equilibrio. plication of paris which form surfaces. The height where a luid keeps ittelf is From this aggregation of parts come to
but the mete effect of specitic gravity, bodies the weight of mals and incerti. The height at which Auids keep themtude, in which all bodies ought to be felves changes according to the change equal in proportion to their mais. But which happens co budies in their speciño
gravity; and this specific gravity changes 44 ounces of lead to the cryftal, I foard in proportion to their being distant from that at the top of the feeple of the Cato the centre of ibe cortb. So ibat I lay vary the two weights had loft their e
il down as an invariable rule, that the quilibrium, that the lead very fenfibly Jerther a body removes from the centre of weighed the heaviest, norwithftanding she eartb, the more it weighs, in wbat. the cryftal had been loaded with fome ever latitude of the earib you please. All lead; and that, having descended to the fuids demonftrate this rule, and the ba- borders of the Seine, the two weights rometer especially, which descends in had resumed their equilibrium ; confethe tube in proportion as we ascend a quently, the specific graviry of bodies hill, and ascends in proportion as we changes in proportion to their ditance defcend, by reason only of the augmenra- from the centre of the earth, as the bor. rion or diminution of its specific gravity. ders of the Seine and the top of the fees
Nature, being every where the same, ple of the Calvary demonstrate it. ought to preserve at Paris the same laws This discovery naturally induced me one wishes her to have at the 45th de: to construct a new instrument, which I gree of terrestrial lati ude. Convinced shall call a Metrometer, or Regulator of of this truth, and of all others which Weights ; which, without cealing to be my former experiments had presented a barometer, will, at the same time, be me with, I applied to two ingenious a certain rule for making weights of an artists in mathematical instruments at entire equality, not only in a certain Paris; the one made scales for me, with country but all over the earth. The che utmost nicety and all the precaution Mercury in the barometer varies of amy dehign required. We equipoised at bout four lines by the pressure of a pound his houfe two weights, the one of lead, weight, of whatever density or speciác the other of German glass. We ascendo gravity it be. But this effect totally deed, all three, the top of the tower of the pends, in respect to its identity, on the cathedral of Notre Dame, and there we measure which will be given to the cafound the cryftal weighed heavier than vity of the system of the barometer, the the lead. The barometer marked two measure of which ought to be previoufly lines and a half (Paris measure). This fixed upon. height appearing to us not fufficiently The principal effect this inftrument elevated to make a good experiment, we will have is, to set a hand going, so went to the Calvary, where the baro. that a certain given weight will force meter marked five lines and a half, and this hand to describe a circle of about 24 where we conttantly found the cryttal fect; half the weight 12 feet and a weighing heavier than the lead. This grain, 2 degrees and a half, or thereabout, effečt is fimple and natural. The atmo of the circumference of that circle. sphere being less refiftible above than The same motion of the hand of this below, it reñlts more below than above inftrument, at the same height of the to the body, which is molt expanded, as barometer, will produce, all over the is the cryftal in its tendency to the cen surface of the earin, the same weights tre of the earth. Consequently, beirg and this is what is required. weighed above, the atmolphere refifting Supplement for the Longitudinal Measures. Jels to thar body, it shews the overplus of the mass it wanted to equipoise be
I have given, in my Memoir on Weights low. This experiment is proved under and Measures, the length of the pendu. the recipient of an air-pump, when the lum, which bears the feconds, in all the moft expanded body weighs heavier in Jatitudes of the earth, at Cayenne, as the vacuum than in the atmosphere.
Paris, and in Lapland, as a set rule. My This experiment, which, at firft fight, reason for it is plain; time being every contradicts my principles on the distance where of the same duration, the instru. of the centre of the earth, which thewed ment which measures it exa&ly in one me that, in weighing directly the two place ought to be the same every where; bodies, I did but try them as weights of and, if the length of the pendulum is, at mals, and not as weights of specific gra.
Paris, 3 feet 8 lines 16 long, it will be vity. lo consequence, I took up the of this very same length at Cayenne and Jaiter in making the same experiments in Lapland, where the pendulum would in water. I weighed then the crystal
not niealure time exaâiy, were it either aod lead on the borders of the Seine, in shorter or longer than 3 feet 8 lines two vessels filled with water; and, ha• This affertion is absolutely contrary ving put them in cquipoise, in adding to the opinion of the Academy of Sci.
ences at Paris, according to M. de la I thought, having found it in the Lande, in his Abrégé d'Aftronomie, No manner of measuring geometrically the 606; in which he affirms, that the terreftrial semidiameter, by means of length of a pendulum ought to be, for two perpendiculars, of about 1000.00 its measuring time truly at Cayenne, or 2000 feet in length, the two inferior under the Equator, 3 feet 6 lines ; ends of which should be where the cire, at Paris, 3 feet 8 lines for at Ponoi, cumference of the earth is, on the seas in Lapland, 3 feet 9 lines I?
Dori and the shore at high-water, the two superior, difference in these two extremes is 2
ends thould mark a fecond circumfe. lincs to
rence. In drawing to these points two I lay down as a fa&t, that this diffe. inferior and superior cords, the diffe or contraction of the metal the pendu. which, with the fame difference of all rence proceeds only from the expansion rence of the one to the other would give
a length towards the fide of the angles : lum was made with, from the false mea- the parallels to one of the perpendicu. fure made use of to ascertain its length, lars, would inter feet the other, the disa and not from the variation of the mea. fure requisite for the pendulum to mea
tance of these cwo perpendiculars should
be at lealt 100 feet asunder. This geo: fure time,
The truth of this is clearly demon. metrical operation (notwithlanding all frated by the first experiment of this the difficulties attending it) would be kind made in 1642, by Mr. Richer, of more sure than the measuring an arch.
of nine degrees on the meridian. I the same academy. He carried to Cayenne a clock which marked the seconds thought to have found in geometrical with exa&tness at Paris, and this very thumb-nail, taken 8, 16, or 24 times,
figures, formed after the length of the clock happened to go Nower at Cayenne, which figures might correct themselves, by two minutes in 24 hours. Mr. R. thortened its pendulum, to make it beat tion of the angle, which should be set
a greater or smaller quantity in a variathe seconds at Cayenne ; confequently; for a given quantity; but I could not the heat of the climate had lengthened convince myself of the certainty of this the pendulum to more clian what was
operation, on account of the extreme requifite for beating the seconds.
difficulty of the art of true division. The same gentleman took with great care, at Cayenne, in an iron rod, the These difficult operations led me to length necessary to make the pendulum make experiments on the dilatation or beat the seconds at Cayenne; and, ha expansion of metal; and it is that which ving brought that rod to Paris, he found gave me the means of having a true the length required for beating the se. ttandard in all the climates of the earth; conds at Paris had got thorter by one and ic will serve likewise to prove against line * and is quarter, which was the ne. the wrong alTertions of the Academy at cessary measure to beat the seconds at Paris,--that the pendu’um is not of a Paris.
different length, under any climate of the From this fact of the most authentic earth, when it beats the seconds truly. experiment that had been inade among I do not know, in all nature, any the moderns, and which clearly thews measure which deserves more than an equal length to be as neceslaryto beat another to be called natural, except the the seconds at Cayenne as at Paris : the length of the penduluin, which produces contrary of this has been concluded by the natural effect of measuring rime; the Academy of Sciences.
that is to say, the day or diurnal mo. In later rimes experiments have been tion of the earth. The measurement of made with the Paris foot to know the the semidiameter of the terrestrial çire length of the pendulum which bears the cumference is an operation too dispro-, seconds at Cayennc, under the Line, portionate to ine faculties of man to be at Lapony, and ar the Pu'ar circle; but abie to make it with a geometrical preihac inftrument being exposed to the cision; and this is the very precision excess of the heat and cold of those two
which is sequired. It is this precision stimates, the measure receives the lame I propole in the dilatation of the two influence as the weather; in confe: metais together, yet separate from one queoce of which, it is impullible to find another, and at full liberty, to the end true mealute,
that any one, with his own eyes, may
fee by how much bis measure varieda * A line is the ikh of an inch Paris meas, and know how co bring it back so ips
true length, were it displaced but an is evident that the same measure has hundredth part of a line.
been found which had been fixed upon Melbod.
at art, à linea. Ifthen the heat of the Take a very smooth brass rod, long climate, or the artificial heat, remores enough to be able to trace on it the the line of the brass rod from ihat of kength of a pendulum measuring time the iron rod, cool the tivo merals till cxa&tly, from the point of suspension to the two lines form bur one again. As de centre of gravity. This rod must these two lines ought to be as fine as be affociated to another of iron, of equal pollible, and she rio extremities of the kengib, like a fe&tor. Through the cen• rod extremely eveni, a good glass muf tre of the joints of these two rods a line be made use of 10 be able to discern is to be drawn across, at rectangles with them well. the two fides of the two rods. Conse If, on the contrary, the cold would quently, the inhde contact of the two contract the brass, and remove its line rods must be as perfect as possible, and from the line of the iron rod, ine in Aru. the surface of the two rods must make ment must be heated till the two lives but one, and a very smooth and even form but one, and consequently be at ene. In the two rods at the other point the fame distance these tivo lines bad of the other extremiry another trans. been tixed from that of the other end. verta! line, like the fift, muli be drawn, In order to deinonfrate it, these two which is to contain exactly, from the means of cold and beat may be emploi. other line, the length of the pendulum. e! in every climate, as they are in the In the two lines, and on the side of the place where the inftrument is made; isou, two hat role-diamonds may be set, for; in taking with a pair of compafics in each there is to be a point, wherein the length of the civo lines, and reo the very sharp points of the compafles moving them afterwards by heat or are to be placed, to avoid 1poiling the cold, the compasses will Mew by tow line by the repeated taking of the length. much they are displaced ; and every Jo the breadin of the iron rod a line, time the two lines form but ove it ex. from one end to the other, may be drawn actly answers the lergth taken with the and subdivided. The inftrument may compasses. It is then evident that, by - also be lain, as it were, in a loose wooden these means, the fame length will be had frame, so as to have both surfaces cx in every climate of the earth; confeposed to the impression of the climate.
quently, the fame meafure to which all In this situation it is evident that the others will be referred with the same two rods, joined at one end, will not be exactuels, the mistakes of the hand able to dilate or hurien themselves but excepted. at the opposite end. It is evident allu, Every mathematical infirumentmaker that the brais rod will dilate ittelf more will be enabled to make his io frumcous than the iron one, which will dilate al more correct, observing, by this infrue fo, by the fame cause which will dilate ment, the variations they experience ia the brass rod. Therefore, when the cold the construction by the varied influence wi'l thorren the iron rod, the brass one of the change of the variation of the will shorten too, but more, as brass is weather. more dilatable than iron. In both cases the transversal line, drawn to the centre Mr. URBAN, Adderbury, O&. t. of the joint of the two rods, will under: Y OUR, Literary Intelligencemis cer; verlal line, drawn at the of her extre- your readers, and, in common with mity of the inftrument, and which ends others, I am much pleased with it; and the length of the pendulum on the lanie thank you for this and numerous other furface of the iron and brals, will pre intances of Urbaniry exhibited to your sent an account of the greater dilatation zeal to oblige. lied with particular of the brass, rwo lines instead of one; pleasure the intelligence communicated that of the brass rod will go beyond that in p. 536, respecting the works of Pope of the iron rod by the dilatation, and the and Dryden, and rejoice to uodestand farne line more behind that of the iron they are in such good haods, especially rod by the contraction.
Dryden; as I believe it is in poifible to In these two contrary cases contrary procure a complete and uniform copy of caules must be made ute of to replace his Works. Boch, as cmincat authors, the two lives, in order to make but one delerve to be handed down to pofterity of them; and every time it is done, it with the most iplcadid advantages of