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of maritime communication through this agency, especially as a means of promoting safety to life.

39. Inland stations are stations which can not transmit Inland stations, messages to vessels at sea or on the Great Lakes and whose operations can not affect the transmission of messages between ship and ship or ship and coast. This may be due to their geographical location or to their range, dependent on power and aerial, or conditions. In some instances actual inspection may be necessary to determine whether a station should be licensed as a coast station or an inland station. An operator or owner in doubt as to the classification of his station should communicate the facts to the radio inspector of his district when applying for a license.

40. Stations are bound to give absolute priority to calls Wave Lengths, of distress from ships, to similarly answer such calls, and to take such action with regard thereto as may be required.

41. The working of stations shall be organized as far as possible in such manner as not to disturb the service of other stations.

42. All coast stations (par. 38), excepting general and restricted amateur stations, are required to be able to transmit on the wave lengths of 300 and 600 meters for the purpose of transmitting or relaying distress messages or signals and messages relating thereto, if necessary.

43. Coast stations primarily intended for long waves and long-distance transmission may install an auxiliary antenna and auxiliary transmitter to comply with the short wave length requirements.

44. The international standard wave length is 600 meters, and the operators of all coast stations are required, during the hours the station is in operation, to "listen in at intervals of not less than 15 minutes and for a period not less than 2 minutes, with the receiving apparatus tuned to receive this wave length, for the purpose of determining if any distress signals or messages are being sent and to determine if the transmitting operations of the "listening station" are causing interference with other radio communication.

45. General public service may be defined as "paid General public business," conducted on commercial wave lengths between ship and shore or ship and ship.

46. Limited public service may be defined as "paid business" between certain designated land stations, ships or lines of ships, and must be conducted on some authorized wave length other than 300 or 600 meters.

47. All special service must be conducted on some authorized wave length other than 300 or 600 meters, not interfering with general public service.

48. Limited commercial, special amateur, and all stations which have no authorized rates, shall not transmit or accept public correspondence from other stations, except in case of emergency.

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49. If a general public-service coast station also maintains a limited commercial service with other stations on land or with vessels at sea, the limited commercial service must be conducted on some authorized wave length other than 300 or 600 meters, but this service can be authorized on a general public-service coast station license without stating the specific hours, it being understood that the limited commercial service is conducted only when no general public service business is on file.

50. If a general public-service coast station also maintains a public service between fixed points on land, the service between the land stations must be conducted on some authorized wave length other than 300 or 600 meters, and a separate form, No. 761, should be submitted covering “Limited public service,” giving the exact hours of such service.

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CLASSIFICATION OF LAND STATIONS AND GRADES

OF OPERATORS REQUIRED.
51. Both coast stations (the words “coast stations,"
"shore stations," and "coastal stations” are used inter-
changeably) and inland stations are divided for the pur-
poses of the administration of the act into the following
classes: (1) Public-service stations, (a) general, (6)
limited; (2) limited commercial stations; (3) experi-
ment stations for the development of radio communica-
tion; (4) technical and training school stations; (5)
special amateur stations; (6) general amateur stations;
(7) restricted amateur stations.

52. Class 1.—(a) Public-service stations, general, are

those open to general business between coast and ships General public.

and include those operated by common carriers under the
act of February 4, 1887, to regulate commerce, amended
June 18, 1910. They are required to maintain a constant
service when open. Every coastal station open to public
service shall at all times be ready to receive messages of
such wave lengths as are required by the international
convention in force.. (Sec. 4, first regulation, act of Aug.
13, 1912.) The station rates are authorized in the license
and published in the Official Berne List. Whenever such
stations do not insure à constant service, transmitting
and receiving day and night without interruption, the
Secretary of the Navy is directed to open naval radio
stations within 100 miles thereof to public business. (Sec.
4, eighteenth regulation, act of Aug. 13, 1912.) The Sec-
retary of War, is authorized by the act of May 26, 1900
(31 Stat., 206), to open Alaskan military stations to pub-
lic service.

53. General public service shall be conducted only by
operators holding commercial first-grade licenses or

higher.
Limited public. 54. Class 1.-(6) Public service stations, limited, are

reserved for a limited public service, determined by the
object of the correspondence or other circumstances inde-

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pendent of the system employed. Stations of this class
transmit and receive public messages to and from certain
stations only, which are designated in the license. The
rates are authorized in the licenses, and if not published in
the official list they may be obtained from the licensee.

55. The service of limited public service coast stations
shall be carried on by commercial first-grade operators or
higher.

56. The service of limited public service inland stations shall be carried on by commercial second-grade operators or higher.

57. CLASS 2.—Limited commercial stations are not open to public service and are licensed for a specific commercial service or services defined in the license. Stations of this class must not transmit to or accept public messages from other stations. No rates are authorized.

58. If a coast station, the operators shall hold a commercial second-grade license or higher. (Par. 57.)

59. CLASS 3.- Experiment stations.-The Secretary of Experimental. Commerce is authorized by section 4 of the act to grant special temporary licenses" to stations actually engaged in conducting experiments for the development of the science of radio communication, or the apparatus pertaining thereto, to carry on special tests, using any amount of power or any wave lengths, at such hours and under such conditions as will insure the least interference with the sending or receipt of commercial or Government radiograms, of distress signals and radiograms, or with the work of other stations." Applicants for such licenses should state any technical result they have already produced, their technical attainments, etc. The fact that an applicant desires to experiment with his equipment does not justify or require a license of this class. Most experiments can be made within the limitations of general and restricted amateur station licenses or by use of an artificial antenna to prevent radiation.

60. Experiment stations may be operated by a person holding an experiment and instruction grade license or higher.

61. Class 4.- Technical and training-school stations Technical. will be licensed, according to the degree of technical training attained and imparted and to local conditions.

62. The grade of operators required will be specified when the license is issued.

63. Class 5.--Special amateur stations may be licensed Special ama by the Secretary of Commerce to use a longer wave length and a higher power on special application. Applications for this class from amateurs with less than two years' experience in actual radio communication will not be approved. The application must state the experience and purpose of the applicant, the local conditions of radio communication, especially of maritime radio communication in the vicinity of the station, and a special license will be granted only if some substantial benefit to the art or

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to commerce apart from individual amusement seems
probable. (Sec. 4, fifteenth regulation, act of Aug. 13,
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64. Special amateur coast stations must be operated by
a person holding a commercial second-grade license or
higher. Inland stations may be operated by persons hold-
ing amateur second-grade licenses or higher.

65. CLASS 6.-General amateur stations are restricted to a transmitting wave length not exceeding 200 meters and a transformer input not exceeding 1 kilowatt. (Sec. 4, fifteenth regulation, act of Aug. 13, 1912.)

66. Class 7. Restricted amateur stations, within 5 nautical miles of a naval or military station, are restricted to a wave length not exceeding 200 meters and to a transformer input not exceeding one-half kilowatt

. (Sec. 4, 67. Amateur first or second grade operators or higher are required for general and restricted amateur stations.

68. The license does not specify the number of operators required, but provides that the station shall at all times while in operation be under the care of an operator licensed for that purpose. The grade and number of operators as required by law is determined by the service

of the station. Special stations.

69. Special stations for exceptional distances are land stations designed to carry on transoceanic radio communication as between the United States and European countries, or between the Pacific coast and Hawaii, or from the United States over similar long distances at sea to another land station, or (inland) to carry on radio communication overland over exceptional distances. These stations will all come under one of the classifications named above and the license will indicate the stations for which communication is authorized and indicate the range.

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REGULATIONS COMMON TO LAND AND SHIP STATIONS.

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Official list.

70. Any change in the characteristics of the radio apparatus or service of the station must be authorized by the Secretary of Commerce.

71. Every land and ship station open to general public service shall have, as a part of the station equipment, a copy

of the Official Berne List of Radiotelegraph Stations and supplements thereto, as issued to comply with section 2 of the act of July 24, 1910. Information concerning the use of this list and method of procuring it is given on page 72, paragraph 196.

72. The service regulations of the London convention, Article VII, paragraphs 1 and 2b, require a reduction of power or range under certain conditions. A proper resistance, impedance coil, or reactance regulator in the primary circuit is recommended. In certain cases the reduction of voltage or decreasing of coupling may be approved upon recommendations of radio inspectors.

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Reduction power.

73. Persons or corporations holding licenses for radio Stations out of

commission. stations, either land or ship, should, if practicable, submit the license to the radio inspector for the district, whenever the station or vessel goes out of commission for a period exceeding three months. The Commissioner of Navigation should be notified promptly of any intention to suspend or discontinue the service of any commercial station.

74. If there is no intention to resume the same service or if the station or vessel will enter a different service from that indicated by the license, the radio inspector will submit the license to the Bureau, together with a statement of the facts. Otherwise the radio inspector may retain the license in his files for safekeeping until the date of its expiration, when it will be forwarded to the Bureau for cancellation.

75. When the station goes into commission the owner may apply to the radio inspector for the return of the license. The radio inspector will satisfy himself that the station corresponds to the schedule of the station as shown in the license, and if so, the license will be returned. 76. Stations desiring to conduct tests should com

Testing. municate with the radio inspector by letter or telephone, stating the probable length of time that will be required. Stations conducting such tests or temporary experiments should "listen in," to determine that no interference is being caused, and during the tests should "listen in” frequently for the interference signal, “Q R M." Stations conducting tests should transmit their official call signal frequently. Attention is invited to the act of August 13, 1912, section 5:

That every license granted under the provisions of this act for the operation or use of apparatus for radio communication shall prescribe that the operator thereof shall not willfully or maliciously interfere with any

other radio communication. Such interference shall be deemed a misdemeanor, and upon a cony tion thereof the owner or operator, or both, shall be punishable by a fine not to exceed five hundred dollars or imprisonment for not to exceed one year, or both.

77. The Department holds that interference caused by tests of the character described above (par. 76) is "willful” when no “listening in” precautions are taken and the call signal of the station sending is not repeated at intervals.

APPLICATIONS FOR SHIP AND LAND STATION LI

CENSES, RENEWALS, AND DUPLICATES. 78. The act does not apply either afloat or ashore to— Apparatus ex

. (a) Apparatus for radio communication which merely receives radiograms and is not equipped for sending; (6) apparatus for the transmission of radiograms exclusively between points in the same State, if the effect of such transmission does not extend beyond the State (so as to interfere with the radio communication of other States), or if the effect of such transmission does not interfere with the reception of radiograms from beyond the

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