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Louis Philippe, with his brothers, sisters, and I in Sicily, in 1810; and this occurrence afgoverness, witnessed the destruction of the forded him as much enjoyment as an exile Bastille; and he was so excited with wild could sustain, until the year 1814 brought delight at the spectacle, that even the Count- i with it the downfall of the Empire. On a ess counselled him to moderate the public May morning of that year he left Palermo ; manifestation of his enjoyment.
and, not many days afterwards, the porter of He became as democratic as bis sire. He the Palais Royal was surprised at seeing a surrendered his titles, took the post of door goodly.looking man pass the portals, advance keeper in the Jacobin Club, snubbed his to the staircase, and, falling upon his knees, mother, called Madame de Genlis “dear kiss the ground, while he sobbed with hystermamma," and declared that there were but two ical excitement. The strange comer was the things on earth which he loved, and those Duke of Orleans. His first personal visit in right dearly; namely, the new Constitution Paris was paid to Madame de Genlis, who reand herself. He fought for the Republic at ceived him like a school-dame, and hoped Valmy and Jemappes, and fled from it as that he “had given up all idea of becoming soon as he saw that the scaffold was likely to King." He also called upon the leading libbe his reward, if he tarried within the frontier. erals of the day; and, even then, Lafayette He would not serve under Austria against said of him, that he was "the only Bourbon France; and so, penniless and disguised, he compatible with a free constitution." These became a wanderer. He travelled on foot words were the seeds whence sprang “the through Switzerland, under the name of best of Republics" in 1830. Corby; rejoined his sister, Adelaide, for a Then came the “ Hundred Days," the issue brief interval; when, being discovered by the of which Louis Philippe tranquilly awaited Government of the Republic, the fugitives at Twickenham. After the crowning day at were compelled to separate.
Waterloo, he repaired again to Paris; and, in Prince did not abandon Switzerland, but pro- the House of Peers there, he took so decided cured an engagement in an academy at Rich- an opposition standing against the Court, that erau, where, as M. Chabaud Latour, he taught the King withdrew from the Princes of the the mathemathics to very soft-looking boys, blood the courtesy privilege of sitting in the if they at all resembled those in the famous Senate. picture in the Palais Royal, at £60 per annum. The Duke had his revenge when the little His whereabout being again discovered, he Duc de Bordeaux was born,—the son of an was forced to depart. He traversed the already slain sire. There appeared at the porthern countries of Europe, and ultimately time, in the “Morning Chronicle," a strongly sailed from Hamburg to the United States, worded protest against the legitimacy of the where, in the same year, (1796.) he was little Duke. The King charged Louis Phijoined by his young and princely-hearted lippe with being the author of the protest. brothers, Montpensier and Beaujolais. After The latter vehemently denied the charge; but a four years' sojourn beyond the Atlantic, he republished the protest itself in 1830, when the exiles landed at Falmouth. The Princes his partisans were placarding the streets with whom we have last named died early, their the assurance that he had not in him the blood constitutions having been destroyed by the of Bourbon, but that of Valois. Long before rigors of their captivity, under the Republic, the death of Louis XVIII., he appears to at Marseilles, and by the sufferings endured have discussed, with the coterie at Lafitte's, by them in an attempt to escape. During the advantages of a monarchical change in the succeeding eight or nine years, the Duke France; and these discussions never failed to of Orleans was chiefly in England, and never be marked by his assurances, that if he could idle. He proposed to Canning to take the com- ever wish to become King, the general mand of an expedition to prevent the French good, and not self-interest, would be the pafrom getting possession of the Ionian Islands; rent of such wish! In the mean time, he and he was sorely tempted into taking an ac- good-humoredly abided his hour. His house tive part against Napoleon in Spain. Luck hold was the only "decent" one, in the proper ily for him, he did not assume arms against sense of the word, that had ever been held his country; and, as he could not attain by a Duke of Orleans. He himself was much greatness in the field, he resolved to help given, indeed, to " nearness; himself thereto by marriage. In 1809 he es- lated the expenses of his children's table with poused the Princess Maria Amelia of Naples, a saving minuteness, which shows how adwhose mother was the sister of Marie An- mirably nature bad qualified him to be the toinette. A son was born of this marriage, I head of a cheap boarding-school. He knew
" and he regu. if not every thing, at least a little of every | He was the last of the Dukes of Orleans, thing; and he loved to teach others, in order and perhaps the most amiable. The Church, that he might exbibit his own knowledge. indeed, hated him, because he had married a We have already alluded to the pride with German Lutheran Princess, and would insist which he used to speak of his "august an upon her religious feelings being respected. cestor, Louis XIV.” “ Yes, Dumas!" said He had been to pay a visit of duty to his royal be, one day to the Secretary, who has since parents, when, on his return, the horses of his turned historian,“ to be descended from Louis carriage took fright, and in leaping out he was XIV., even ouly through his bastards, is, in killed. He left heirs who, now in exile, are unmy eyes at least, an honor sufficiently great wisely taught to consider themselves the heirs to be worth boasting of !” He was charita- of their grandsire's greatness and their father's ble upon impulse, rather than principle; but prospects. They could not well hope for a his promised liberality often became “fine by greater heritage of woe, seeing that, since degrees, and beautifully less," when its hour the days of Louis XV., no French Monarch, of expected realization approached.
save Louis XVIII., has died
the throne. It was only a few days previous to the The Sixteenth Louis perished on the scaffold; outbreak in 1830, that he was playing with the Seventeenth in the Temple; the leaders the youthful Duke de Bordeaux in the gar- of the Republic were murdered by their dens at St. Cloud. His affection had never rivals; the Emperor died upon a distant rock; been so expansive. Not many months before, Charles X. breathed his last sigh at Goritz; he had refused to accept the office of a and Louis Philippe expired in 1850, also in Twelfth-Night King, at Court, because it exile, at Claremont. 'Wbat a warning to savored, as be pleasantly said, of treason. those who, since the death of the last-named He ever professed too much, just as his King, have been eager to reign! What a wretched father conspired too much; and he warning even to him who, most daring, has was most affectionate to the son of the Duke de been most successful ! Berri, at the moment that he was about to rob Eighteen Princes have borne the title of him of his birth-right. He, too, had infirmity Dukes of Orleans. Four were of the elder of purpose. He was concealed when his sister branch of Valois. Five were of the An. Adelaide accepted the office of Lieutenant-goulême branch of Valois; the other half of General of the Kingdom," preparatory to a the eighteen princes were members of the further step. His own hesitation was re- House of Bourbon. Of all these, who had markably unheroic. When the Duke de Mor. grown up to manhood, two alone may be said lemart repaired to him in Paris, be found the to have been distinguished for eminent rePrince stretched on a mattress on the ground, spectability of character,--the son of the reeking with perspiration and anxiety. No Regent, and the son of Louis Philippe, King human power, he told the envoy of Charles of the French ; but even the reputation of X., should induce bim to accept a throne to these was not unsullied. The greater numwhich he had no right. A few days after, ber perished miserably. The first Philip was he bad shipped the elder Bourbon branch in killed by excess, Louis was murdered, Charles two vessels, bound for England. A third slowly killed by his quarter of a century's accompanied the exiles; and when the latter captivity, and Louis (the first Duke who inquired the object of this third, they were reached the throne) perished through profitold that the ship of war had orders to fire gacy. Of the second Valois branch, the first upon the vessels which bore the fugitives and who had worn the ducal title was killed, the their scattered fortunes, if a landing were at- second and third died prematurely, the fourth tempted on the coast of France. Such was perished a moody maniac, and the fifth was the last “Good Night!” of the courteous assassinated; and of the last five three were Orleans to the ancient monarchy.
Kings. Again, of the Bourbon Dukes of By the elevation of Louis Philippe to the Orleans, the first died ere he left the nursery ; uneasy dignity of King of the French, the the next, Gaston, if public contempt could have title of Duke of Orleans fell to that young killed him, would so have ended his career; the Prince whose birth we recorded as having father of the Regent, and the Regent himself, taken place in Sicily, in 1810. He was were “suicides,” slaying themselves by prac. brought up, not among Princes, but among tices of vice; the fifth of the house died with the people. We have a lively remembrance decency; the sixth was the slave of excess, of his appearance among his fellow-pupils like so many of his predecessors, and he sufin one of the public colleges, and of the pop- fered accordingly; Philippe Egalité was the ularity with which the fact itself was hailed. I only one of the ducal line who suffered death at the hands of the executioner; his son, let us hope that it may not be said of these, Louis Philippe, the only one who encountered as was said of the Bourbons after the Rethe Inevitable in banishment; the last Duke storation, that during the days of their adverperished ignobly on the pavement of Paris. i sity they had neither learned nor forgotten Not one fell in the field or died of the effects any thing. But well may we say, should the . of over-zeal in the service of his country. I ducal line ever be restored : Should the line of Dukes ever be renewed, Ubi cras istud aut unde petendum.
from the Edinburgh Review,
EUROPEAN EMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES.*
Nations, like individuals, have their times , prefixed to modern editions of “Gibbon's for self-examination, when they pause, sur- Decline and Fall,” exbibiting the march of vey their positions, glance back upon the the barbarian tribes upon Rome. The expast, study the lessons of experience, and aggerations of the press have accustomed us gird themselves up for the future. In the to speak of the modern " Exodus” from summer of 1850, about a year before the famine, want, and plethora of labor, as if it last enumeration of the population of Great were a similar movement. As ship after Britain and Ireland, the Marshals of the ship leaves Liverpool, London, Havre, RotUnited States of America were occupied terdam, Hamburg, and Bremen, crowded simultaneously throughout the Republic in with emigrants for America, we picture that ascertaining the number, color, nativity, country yielding itself a prey to an ignorant sex, occupation, habits, and wealth of its peasantry. We see them in imagination scattered population, and in collecting infor- transferred to its shores, and invested, by the mation concerning its resources. The full magic of an oath, with the attributes of results of this work still rest in the official citizenship; and we turn with sorrow from receptacles; but the Report of the Superio- the contemplation of the probable andibilatendent made in December, 1852, gives tion of the principles of Constitutionalism in an abstract of what the “ Seventh Census” | the clashing of Democracy. Nothing can be will be when finished. The complete work, more unfounded than such fears. for some unknown cause, is yet unpublished. The United States Census of 1790, taken
A large part of Mr. Kennedy's Report is before any acquisition of territory, exhibited occupied with the subject of the foreign ima population of 3,221,930 freemen, and migration into the United States. Although 697,897 slaves. There were then thirteen incomplete, and sometimes, we believe, inac- States, in twelve of which it appears that curate, it furnishes the means for arriving at slavery existed : its feeble life in New York, conclusions as to what has been and is, and New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and gives us grounds for speculation as to what Rhode Island has long since been extinwill be.
guished. In 1803, the French province of Most readers are familiar with the chart Louisiana, including most of the country
west of the Mississippi, was added to the * 1. Report of the Superintendent of the Census Union. Florida was purchased from Spain for December 1, 1852; to which is appended the in 1819; Texas annexed in 1844; and New Report for December 1, 1861. Pripted by Order Mexico and California acquired by conquest of the House of Representatives of the United and treaty in 1848. Five slave States, two States. Washington : 1853.
2. Notes on Public Subjects made during a Tour free States, and six Territories have been in the United States and Canada. By Hugh Ser- created out of all this country. Two new MOUR TREMENHEERE London: 1852.
free States bave also been admitted to the 3. Reports of the Colonial Land and Emigration Union from the territory of New England Commissioners., Printed for both Houses of Par- since the formation of the Federation, and 5 liament.
4. Letters on Irish Emigration. By Edward E. free and 4 Slave States from the country HALE. Boston : 1852.
west of the Alleghanies assigned to the Re
public by the treaty of 1783 ; thus making population, 28.81 per cent.; and the whites, in all at present in free States, with 142 38.28 per cent. representatives in Congress, and 32 senators; The regular decrease in the augmentation and 15 slave States, with 91 representatives of the free blacks is one of the remarkable and 30 senators.
features of the progress of races in America. The total population of the United States From 1790 to 1810, the Northern States, in 1850 was over twenty-three millions, of under the influence of climate and the spirit which nearly eighteen millions were native of freedom, engendered by the Revolution, whites, over two millions were foreign born, were emancipating, or preparing to emanci39,000 were of unknown nativities, and pate, their slaves ; and the ratio of increase 3,200,000 were slaves. It appears that be of the free colored population consequently tween 1840 and 1850, 1,569,850 foreigners greatly exceeded that of the whites or slaves. arrived in the United States, from whence The following decade the per centage diminwe should conclude, even in the absence of isbed; but was increased again, from 1820 other evidence, that the emigration before to 1830, by the entire abolition of slavery in 1840 was comparatively small. It began on New York, and a large emancipation in a large scale only in 1847. From 1820 New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia. In to 1830 the average number arriving was the succeeding decade it fell off again ; and only 20,000 a year; from 1830 to 1846, in the last, as we see, it fails to reach 11 per about 70,000 a year. In 1847, the famine cent.; and this, notwithstanding the manudesolated Ireland ; and the revolutions on mission of 1500, and the flight of 1000 slaves the Continent, which unsettled the channels a year, if the year 1850, for which alone of labor, followed the next year. The im- ) returns on this head are made, be an example migration increased, under the pressure, to of the general course of things. In some 240,000 in 1847, and to 300,000 in 1850 ; of the States-New York for instance-the and it is now estimated at the Census Office number has actually diminished; in others, that the total number of emigrants into the like the New England States—it has done United States since 1790, living in 1850, little more than remain stationary; while, together with descendants, amounted to in others, on the Canada borders, and with 4,304,416,” which we shall assume to be the strong abolition sympathies—Michigan and complete foreign addition to the population Ohio for instance—it has decidedly increased. of the country between 1790 and 1850.* There can be but one solution to this--the
All this bas, and is to have, a great effect degraded social position into which the Neupon the relations between slave and free gro is forced by the prejudices of the whites. labor. The free colored population ap- of the North, and particularly of European pears to have increased 10.96 per cent. immigrants. There is no physical reason during the decade just past. The slave why the black race bould not increase as fast, and faster even than the wh'te. The endure. The inveterate dislike of an Irishexperience of the slave States proves this, man to a negro is as well known as it is rewhere, in spite of a degradation for which markable. no amount of personal comfort can compen- But, while the free black of the North, in sate, they faithfully fulfil the Divine com- spite of his theoretically better condition, has mand to “multiply and replenish the earth.” barely held his own in some of the States, Sambo is naturally a jovial, good-natured, his southern cousin has been increasing his laughing fellow, full of fun, not without a family at a great rate. Whether it be that, relish for a practical joke, and ready always with plenty to eat, and in the absence of for a dance and a bit of banjo music in the care, his shackles sit lightly on him, or wheopen air—especially if Dinah be there, for ther it be that he stifles his sorrows in domeswhom it must be confessed he has a strong tic pleasures, we do not stop to inquire. It liking. He is too fond of his ease to be out appears that, from some cause, the natural of temper for a long time ; too much a man increase of the slaves has been as great, and of the world to work unless obliged to do so; greater even, than that of the whites ; so that, and by far too much a gentleman to trouble without foreign immigration, the relative numbis woolly pate with thinking a great deal. bers of the two races, and the relative weight of He is a bit of a "swell," we are sorry to the two sections of the Union, would not have say, and loves to deck his ebon beauties in been materially changed in the sixty years. bright reds, and blues, and yellows, but not We do not take into account the trilling difwithout a rude idea of taste and harmony of ference in the proportion made directly by the colors — if such a thing may be seriously acquisition of territory, as the total dumber suggested; and so long as Dinah likes it, he of slaves and freemen was small in each case cares little whether it be according to the at the time of the annexation, and the effect rules of art. He has a certain natural deli- upon the general result was more than balcacy in the midst of his coarseness which anced by the abolition of slavery in the North. contrasts very favorably with the beer-drink. Annexation bas undoubtedly strengthened ing rudeness of the laborer of some countries the “institution," by giving it new States nearer the meridian of Greenwich, and a re- to govern and new fields to cultivate; but membrance of good treatment which insures not essentially by an actual addition to the his master against "strikes," as long as he number of slaves. Neither do we take into does not strike first. And when he and special account the larger percentage of the Dinah at length become one, there seems to slave increase from 1800 to 1810, created by be naturally no good reason why woolly, the prospective abolition of the slave-trade pated “piccaninnies” should not be as thick in 1808; because the proportion of slaves to around his cabin as cver carroty heads were whites of native descent, in 1810, was almost on an Irish potato patch. In Massachu- exactly the same as in 1850. In 1800 the selts, for instance, they would seem to have proportion was as 1 to 4.94; in 1810 as 1 to every thing in their favor—freedom, plenty of 4.78; and in 1850 as 1 to 4.76, deducting in work, equality of laws and rights; and yet each case the number of immigrants and his family has increased only 4.5 per cent. in descendants of immigrants since 1790 from the ten years. The truth is, free Sambo in the total white population. This great inthe United States, with all his freedom and crease of a population beld unjustly in a state political equality, has no reality of either. of bondage, with freedom and activity all His color stamps him for ever in unjust popu- around them, is a remarkable feature in bislar prejudice, which is stronger than law, tory, and suggests the possibility at some fuwith the caste of labor; and not laborer ture day of an attempt at a forcible reclaimalone, but degraded laborer, whose mother, cr of their rights, when they shall decidedly and brother, and cousin are slaves, and who outnumber their masters. If such a strugought to be one himself; and, if the truth gle should ever come, it would be shortmust be told, all this makes Sambo rather a lived and deadly, and would terminate only good-for-nothing fellow. He neglects his in the annihilation of the weaker black. family, is unthrifty, gets behind hand, and Before 1794 it seemed that this species of before long finds himself quite at the foot of labor was about to die out in the natural the social ladder. Meanwhile Pat has been course of events. In three of the Northern coming in from Ireland, and has stepped States it had perished ; in five more it lived over him; and, in astonishment at finding only upon sufferance; and in the South, pubsomebody underneath himself, he becomes | lic sentiment would have
* It appears by the last report of the Colonial turned by the United States authorities during the Land and Emigration Commissioners that the total same time, was 1,037,771, which agrees substanIrish emigration from 1847 to 1850 inclusive, was tially with the European statistics. The same Eu833,692, Dearly all of which was for North America. ropean authorities return the emigration of 1851 The Hacoburg Emigration Society report the Ger- and 1862 to the United States as follows: man emigration during the same time as 356,684, of which we assume 96 per cent. to have gone to the United Kingdom 267,357
244,261 same quarter. The Canada and New Brunswick Germany (estimated) 111,052 (settled) 144,628 immigration during the same period amounted to 210,904 ; and, assuming that the emigration from
378,409 388,789 the United States into Canada was equal to that The arrivals at New York alone, in 1852, were from Canada into the United States, which Mr. 296,438, of whom 118,134 were Irish, and 118,706 Keppedy justifies us in doing, we have as the total were Germang, being a decrease from the year beGerman and Irish emigration to the United States fore of 45,122 in the former, and an increase of from 1847 to 1850 inclusive, according to European 48,623 in the latter. authority,
Dr. Chickering, who is excellent authority, estiIrish
833,692 mates the foreign addition since 1790 at 5,000,000, German.
341,426 instead of 4,000,000; and the Hamburg Society
estimates the German element alone at 4,397,768,
1,175,118 a very wild statement. We have adopted the offiDeduct Canada and New Bruns
cial estimate in preference to Dr. Chickering's, but wick emigration :
210,904 the difference is of little moment, as the actual
foreign-born element remains at 2,000,000, and the 964,214
results we point out would be substantially the The total number of immigrants of all nations re- same in either event.