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demand of the Porte, all the points of the , from destruction, and the enemies' feets have disempire which their troops shall have occu- appeared. As a worthy recompense for so brilpied during the war. By the fourth article liant an action, we send you the Order of St.
Andrew. the treaty remains open for the signature of
NICHOLAS. the other Powers of Europe who may wish St. Petersburg, April 21 (May 3). to become parties to it; and the fifth and last article guarantees to all the subjects of the Porte, without distinction of religion, The governor of Moscow had caused a Te equality in the eye of the law, and admissi- | Deum to be sung in honor of the victory (?) bility into all employments. To this treaty gained by the Russians at Odessa; the fact are attached, as integral parts of it, several being, that in consequence of the atrocious protocols. One relates to the institution of conduct of the military authorities of Odessa, mixed tribunals throughout the whole em in firing upon an English flag of truce, a divipire; a second is relative to an advance of sion of English and French steam frigates 20,000,000fr. jointly by France and England; appeared before Odessa. On their arrival and a third relates to the collection of the the greatest terror pervaded the city. The taxes and the suppression of the haratch or wealthy hired all the post-horses to remove poll-tax, which, having been considered for a to the interior, and the inhabitants sought relong time past by the Turkish Government fuge in the neighboring country; but the as only the purchase of exemp:ion from mili- English and French steamers having withtary service, leads by its abolition, to the en drawn, after taking a survey of the roads, the trance of Christians into the army.
alarm subsided, the population returned, and The Russians continued to prosecute the the shops were re-opened. On the 21st of war eagerly on the banks of the Danube, but April, however, the appearance of tbirtyany temporary success was more than coun- three sail on the horizon created still greater terbalanced by subsequent and more brilliant terror, for it was evident that they were comTurkish victories.
ing to avenge the insult above alluded to, and General Luders, at the head of 50,000 men, which, even at Odessa, was the subject of succeeded in crossing the Danube, and in och universal reprobation. The next day nothing cupying the Dobrudscha in force. Fatal could exceed the consternation, everybody step! for a frightful pestilence, arising from being in constant apprehension of a catasthe marshes of this unhealthy district, in a trophe. The fears redoubled when, after a few weeks decimated his troops, and the sur. bombardment of eight hours, the gunpowder vivors were so debilitated by sickness and magazine blew up, and the military stores scanty fare, that they might have been driven were seen on fire. The sight of wounded into ihe river almost without the power of soldiers brought in from the batteries, and resistance,
the brutality of the governor and his forces On the 5th of May the Invalide Russe towards the inhabitants, were not calculated published the following varacious decree of to allay their terror. This affair produced The Emperor of Russia, addressed to Gen. great discouragement among the troops, and eral Osten-Sacken :
an excellent effect on the population, who On the day when the inhabitants of Odessa, to protect them; and that, if the city were
perceived that the Russian army was unable united in their orthodox temples, were celebrating the death of the Son of God, crucified for the re- not reduced to ashes, it was solely owing to demption of mankind, the allies of the enemies of the generosity of the allied Powers. His holy name, attempted a crime against that The satisfaction derived from the severe city of peace and commerce, against that city punishment thus administered to the Russians where all Europe, in her years of dearth, has always found open granaries. The fleets of France total loss of an English frigate (the 'i'iger) of
was, alas ! more than counterbalanced by the and England' bombarded for twelve hours our batteries and the habitations of our peaceful citi. 1275 tons, and carrying sixteen guns. This zens, as well as the merchant shipping in the har. sad disaster occurred near Odessa, on the bor. But our brave troops, led by you in person, 12th of May, in consequence of her taking and penetrated by a profound faith in the supreme the ground while in chase of two small RusProtector of justice, gloriously repelled the attack sian vessels. The wreck was attended with of the enemy against the soil which, in apostolic the death of her gallant captain (Giffard) and times, relieved the saintly precursor of the Christian religion in our holy country,
a midshipman, and the loss of her crew of The heroic firmness and devotion of our troops,
226 men; for, being attacked while lying in inspired by your example, have been crowned an utterly defenceless condition, they had no with complete success, the city has been saved I choice but to surrender.
A division of the Black Sea fileet, consist- , deviation from the plan of operations origining of seventeen vessels, continued to watch ally contemplated, as it obviated the necessity the barbor of Sebastopol; while the British of any active co-operation with Omar Pacha's cruisers speedily captured every vessel that army on the Danube. An expedition upon carried the Russian flag. Another division, a gigantic scale was, however, planned, its composed of nine steamers, was despatched supposed destination being the Crimea and to the Circassian coast, to aid in the destruc. Sebastopol. It had been well, for many reation of the Russian forts, and to open a com- sons, that so long a period had not been pasmunication with Schamyl. Partly in conse- sed in inactivity at Varna, for sickness was quence of this movement, the Russians were making sad havoc among the officers and in compelled to evacuate all their positions, from the ranks; and the regiments which lest Batoum to Anapa, a distance of 200 leagues, England only a few weeks before in full and burning most of their forts, they retired health and vigor, now presented
a pitiable into Kutais. The Circassians thereupon made contrast to their former condition. The French a descent, and surprised and captured 15,000 had suffered still more; for, besides the loss prisoners in Sukkum Kaleh
of seven thousand men during their brief but On the 18th May the Charlemagne, Aga- ill-advised encampment in the Dobrudscha, memnon, Mogador, Highflyer, and Sampson, they were burying, for many weeks, more bombarded Redout-Kaleh, sparing only the than 100 daily; and the effect of this visitaCustomhouse and quarantine establishment. tion was telling fearfully upon the spirits of They then returned to Chouroucksu, and land- the survivors. ed 800 troops at Redout-Kaleh. These, Nor had the Baltic fleet, though in a much supported by 300 English and French, pur more temperate climate, escaped the scourge sued the Russians, in number about 2000, of cholera. We may mention, as a curious who fell back on Kutais, which was speedily fact, that the sailing vessels experienced a captured.
bappy immunity from the pestilence. On the 1st June Admirals Dundas and The result of the Baltic operations may be Hamelin declared all the mouths of the Da- given in a few words. The vaunted fleet of nube to be strictly blockaded, in order to cut the Czar, outnumbering that of the allied off all supplies from the Russian army in the powers, has been detained in captivity at Dobrudscha. Shortly after, the English | Helsingfors and Kronstadt, declining alike steam-frigates bombarded the forts at Sulina, every offer of battle, and unable to stay the and captured the commander, with all bis devastation that has been effected along the men and guns. A sad loss was experienced Finnish shore of the Bothnian Gulf. Scarcely by the British fleet, on this occasion, in the a Russian merchant vessel has escaped the death of Captain Hyde Parker, of the Fire- vigilance of our cruisers, and the whole line rand, who, while proceeding on an explor- of her coasts, up to the shoals of Kettle Ising expedition up the Danube, was fired land, have been shewn to be at the mercy of upon from a stockade fort, thought to have the allies. In a national point of view there been abandoned. The gallant officer, land. has not been much to boast of in the achieveing with his men to storm it, fell-shot ments of so stupendous a fleet. But there through the heart by a rifle-ball.
have been individual acts of valor as bright While prize after prize continue to arrive, as any that adorn the pages of our naval bisin rapid succession at Portsmouth and in the tory.' Prominent among these is the exploit Thames, English troops, of all denominations, of the Arrogant and Hecla. were “mustering in hot baste" at Gallipoli, While the Arrogant was reconnoitring Scutari, and Varna, Lord Raglan, as com- Hango Bay she was joined by the Hecla, six mander-in chief, occupying in the first in- guns, commanded by Captain Hall, so well stance, the palace so recently tenanted by the | known for his services in the Chinese war. Russian Ambassador at Constantinople. Early on the morning of the 20th May they
On the 14th June the Duke of Cambridge came within range of a battery, against which with his staff, the brigade of Guards, and the the Hecla opened fire, which was quickly reHighland brigade (42d, 79th, and 93d regi. turned. The Arrogant aided the Hecla, and ments,) arrived at Varna, where a numerous dispersed the defenders of the fort, blowing Anglo-French army was already encamped. gun-carriages to fragments and dismounting It is probable that the unexpected and retro- the guns. The town of Eckness was descried, grade movement of the Russians upon the and the ships having been joined by the Pruth-intelligence of which reached the al- Dauntless, the Arrogant ran up alongside of lied generals about this time-occasioned a a bark, took her in tow, and steamed away with her. The ships were studded with Mi- | forts, and at a distance of 2500 yards from nié balls. The Arrogant had one man shot the western fort, (called Fort Tzee.) A Rusthrough the heart, and another, badly wound-sian earthwork, carrying six guns, had been ed, lived only till next day. The Hecla lost placed on the eastern promontory of this bay; one man. Captain Hall landed with his ma- but this battery was dismounted by the fire rines, and hoisted an iron gun into his boat, of the Amphion and Phlegethon. Meantime, which he placed on board the Hecla. They 11,000 men were landed in the space of three joined the fleet on the 21st. The commander- hours and a half. The Russians made no atin-chief telegraphed, “Well done, Arrogant tempt to oppose the operation. The British and Hecla."
and French marines, 600 of each flag, were But these successes were followed by a re- conveyed to the north of the forts, and landverse sufficient to cast a shade upon their ed behind them. The next four days were career of triumph.
employed in preparing for the attack. The Admiral Plumridge's flying squadron of position of the batteries were selected, sandpaddle steamers, consisting of the Lenpard, the bags and gabions were prepared, and the sailVulture, the Odin, and the Valorous, had ors brought up with great labor some long been up the Gulf of Finland, and had des. 32-pounders, which were placed 800 yards troyed forty-five vessels, of from 1200 tons from the round fort. On the 13th, the fire to 100 tons, and .£300,000 worth of tar, tim of the French battery opened on Fort Tzee, ber, saltpetre, and tallow. On the 7th of June and the bombardment was sustained in the the Vulture and Odin were sent in Gamla- most brilliant manner for twenty-six hours. Karleby, (64.50 north) where they had to A remarkable fact is, that this French battery anchor five miles from the town. Their boats consisted of only four 16-pounders and four were sent in under the command of the first mortars—a force quite inadequate to breach lieutenant (Mr. Charles Wise) of the Vulture, a granite tower: three of the enemy's guns who was surprised by a large force of regular were dismounted through the embrasures, troups, armed with rifles and field guns, and the fire of the French rifles on these wholly concealed and protected by strong apertures was so severe, that the Russians wood stores, so that not a man was seen. The had difficulty in loading their guns, and sufconsequence was, a murderous onslaught. fered most severely. This accounts for the The loss from the Vulture was one man kil- large proportion of the enemy killed and led and one wounded, and a paddle-box boat, wounded in Fort Tzee. Eventually this part with one master (Mr. Murphy,) twenty-seven of the work was taken by the French Chasmen, and the boat's 34-pounder carronade, seurs, on the morning of the 14th, by a coup “missing, captured, or sunk.” The loss from de main. Meanwhile, the British battery, the Odin was three officers killed and three | under the orders of General Jones, was in
First-lieutenant Lewis, R. M., one mid- process of construction—a work of greater shipman, and fifteen men were wounded. time and difficulty, because it consisted of The wounded were all out of danger. 32-pounder guns dragged up from the ships.
But the most important operation in this This battery was manned by marine artilleryquarter was the attack, on the 15th August, men: their practice was excellent, and in upon Bomarsund, since it proved unans wer- eight hours and a half one side of the tower ably, not, as some of our contemporaries have was knocked in. The effect of the breaching erroneously and complacently affirmed, that batteries erected by General Baraguay d'Hilwooden vessels can cope satisfactorily with liers against the principal fort was not tried, granite walls, but that the heavy artillery because the place capitulated before the alwith which English ships are now provided, tack bad been carried to the last extremities. can dismantle or demolish a battery at a dis. In fact, it was wholly untenable from the motance far greater than ordinary guns can carry. ment that the round forts commanding the Scarcely any of the ships came within range rear of the position were in the hands of the of the forts, but deliberately pounded them allies. 10 powder from a distance of a mile and a In the fort taken by the French the Rushall, as securely as though they had been sian loss consisted of fifty killed, twenty practicing at targets. The following are the wounded, and thirty-five prisoners ; on the details of this important capture :
side of the French, Lieutenant Noulfe and “ The disembarkation of the troops took two chasseurs were killed; 115 Russians place on the morning of the 8th August. were made prisoners. The Hon. George The landing-place chosen was a bay about Wrottesley, Lieutenant of the Royal Engithree miles broad, to the south-west of the neers, was killed. Captain Ramsay, of Her
Majesty's ship Hogue, was slightly wounded. the Russians were always repulsed with loss. One of the English marines was also killed. The amount of the killed is not accurately Several French soldiers were killed by mis- known. take, in an accidental encounter during the During the attack made on Silistria on the night. Two screw guard-ships, the Hogue 29th, the Russians had 180 men killed and and the Edinburgh, and steamers, bombarded 380 wounded. Both parties displayed indethe forts for five hours, throwing their shot scribable animosity. Lieutenant General Sylwith great effect from a distance of 3000 van fell at the head of bis troops. Colonel yards.
Fostanda and Count Orloff, the son of the The large fortress did not surrender till Adjutant - General of the Emperor, were the 16th. General Bodisco and the Vice-wounded. The latter was shot through the Governor Turuhielm, with the whole garrison eye, and subsequently died. of 2000 men (the materiel and provisions,) The Russian General of Infantry, Soltikoff, became prisoners of war, and were sent on also died of his wounds; and bis aid-de-camp, board the fleet.
who was wounded by his side, underwent the The two forts taken were blown up. The amputation of his right arm. main fortress was much injured. The loss of On the evening of the 29th May, at six the allies is put at 120 killed and wounded. o'clock, a Russian division made a still more
The Russian officials are reported to have vigorous assault upon the entrenchments. taken to flight, pursued by the peasantry. A Three storming parties of 10,000 men each proclamation was read in eleven parishes, by were formed, with a battalion of engineerorder of General Baraguay d'Hilliers, freeing sappers, with fascines and scaling ladders, at the Aland Islands from Russian dominion, their head. Before the men set to work they and placing them under the protection of the were addressed by Prince Paskiewitch, who Western Powers.
urged them to exertion, “ as, is they did not Many pages might readily be filled, were succeed in taking the fortress, he should be we to enter into the minute details of all the obliged to keep back their rations.” After conflicts that have taken place during the this encouragement, two corps proceeded topast five months upon the Danube alone.wards the forts of Arab-tabia and Yelanli: Compelled, as we are, to pass over in silence the third corps was to act as a reserve. After all these passages of arms, our present sketch a terrific cannonade the storming parties adwould be imperfect, did we refrain from al- vanced, but were received by the Turks with luding to the memorable defence of Silistria, such a well-directed fire, that for a time they by far the most brilliant incident of the war. made but little progress. The Russians, how
The town of Silistria is situate on low ever, fought bravely, and having managed to ground, and is surrounded by a wall, and scale the breastwork of one of the batteries, crowned with forts. In 1828 there was a a regular band-to-hand fight took place. At height which commanded the town, and which last the Turks were victorious, and the unforrendered its capture much less difficult. The tunate beseigers were knocked into the ditch Turks, however, have taken the precaution to with the butt ends of the Turkish muskets. construct on it a considerable fortress, the The Russians had evidently lost courage, and, Medjidié. As the Russians did not carry on when they returned to the attack, it was only the siege in a regular manner, they required because they were forced to do so by their from 60,000 to 70,000 men to invest it. The officers. When there was literally no more attack commenced on the 11th of May. As fight in the men, a retreat was sounded, and they held a few small islands in the Danube, the Russians carried off as many of their dead and, besides, as the side of the town which and wounded as they could. The Turks, after looks to the river is the weakest, they suc- their enemies had retired, picked up 1500 ceeded in establishing a bridge, by which they dead bodies, a great number of guns, swords, were enabled to throw on the right bauk of drums, musical instruments, and the colors of the river 24,000 men. All their efforts were a battalion. Hussein Bey, the commander of directed towards the fort Arab-tabia, which the two forts, displayed the most daring couthey unsuccessfully bombarded for nineteen rage, as did a Prussian and two English ofdays. Mussa Pacha, commander-in-chief ficers. (formerly a pupil of the Artillery School of Three mines were sprung before Silistria, Metz,' made a sortie, which completely suc- without doing any damage to the walls. The ceeded, and in which the Russians had a Russian storming columns were prepared to great number of men killed and wounded. mount the expected breach, but were attacked The assault was attempted three times, but on three sides by the Turks. A fearful
slaughter took place, and the Russians fled | 60,000 in the direction of Sebastopol : at the in terrible disorder. Three Russian Generals same time intelligence was received by the one of whom was General Schilders, were commanders of a signal victory obtained by severely wounded, and all the Russian siege Schamyl at Tiflis, over the Russians under works totally destroyed.
Prince Bebutoff. They lost on this occasion The continued hombardment, besides de- many men and horses, seven guns, 3000 tents, molishing every house in Silistria, had reduced all their ammunition, baggage, provisions, and the fort of Arab tabia to such a mere heap retreated in some disorder from Kutais and of ruins, that it could not have held out for Kars to Tiflis. four-and-twenty hours longer. Yet so dis- On the 14th September, 58,000 men were comfiled were the enemy by their last repulse, safely landed at Eupatoria, about forty-five that on the following day they raised the siege miles N.W. of Sebastopol. They subsequently and beat a precipitate retreat. Mussa Pacha, | advanced some distance inland without meetthe gallant defender, was unfortunately killed ing with any opposition. by the fragment of a shell, almost the last The place of debarkation had many advanthat was fired against the devoted town. tages. It is a small town, containing only
This reverse at Silistria, coupled with the 4000 inhabitants, weakly defended by a garadverse issue of negotiations with Vienna, led rison of about 12,000 men, and in no condition to the evacuation of the Principalities by to resist an invasion such as this. The comthe Russian forces, who shortly after hastily manders had intended in the first place to have abandoned Bucharest, and retreated, exhaust-thrown up entrenchments sufficiently strong ed, dispirited, and demoralized, upon the line to secure the place ; but having experienced of the Pruth, retaining, however, the strong. no resistance, the troops marched at once holds of Matchin, Isaktchi, and Tultcha; so towards their destination. In this march they that, in fact, the possession of the Lower proceeded for about eleven miles, along a Danube is in their hands, the communication slip of land, having on the left the salt lake, of Austria with the Black Sea is interrupted, i Sasik, and the sea on their right. The coast and the navigation closed.
is unfavorable for constructing a place of Though, as a contemporary has observed : arms; one therefore was established nearer
Sebastopol. The cumbrous machine of the Russian army The country traversed is fertile, and well has broken down when brought into active work- supplied with water by three rivers, the Alma, ing, and the inexhaustible resources, the world- the Katcha, and the Balbek. On the left, or famed diplomacy, and the troops to be counted by southern bank of the latter stream, the first millions, are not likely to protect their owner from bankruptcy and defeat: On the other hand, the obstacles encountered were the outworks reWestern Powers have as yet struck no successful cently thrown up by the Russians, and an old blow; a spell seems to hang over all their efforts ; star fort. Having surmounted these, the and even though Sebastopol and Helsingfors may allies found themselves in possession of the fall
, it is likely that the humiliation of the Czar high ground commanding the rear of the dewill be chiefly due to the failure of his own move- fences on the northern shore of the inlet, and ments, the depreciation of Russian currency, stoppage of trade in Riga and Odessa, and the dise they were scarcely adapted to resist a strong
attack. tress which must visit every class from the failure of their accustomed support. Yet what has been
As the Black Sea expedition was departing gained during the war is immense. Whether in- from Varna for the Crimea, the Baltic fleet, or dividual plans have been successful or fruitless, the greater part of it, received orders to " bear whether the predictions and prophecies have been up" for England, all further intention of fulfilled or falsified-yet a comparison between striking a decisive blow in the North having the position which Russia held twelve months ago, for the present season been given up. and that which she holds now, is enough to show
It will have been seen from this brief and that the year has not been spent in vain. Russia may be unassailable, but she may perish in her necessarily imperfect sketch, that the war assaults on others.
thus undertaken by Russia was purely an
aggressive war ; was preceded by wanton proWe have now brought our summary down vocation and by territorial encroachment; that to the departure of the Anglo-French expe. the occupation and assumed protectorate of dition from Varna; from that period the re- the Principalities by the Czar is at an end; cord of the war becomes the history of the that his claim to the protection of the memday.
bers of the Greek Church in Turkey is at On the 4th September, 600 vessels sailed least suspended ; and that England and from Varna, bearing the combined army of France retain possession of the Black Sea,