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this object. This sentiment, indeed, which his knowledge of such productions to a point is but too natural to the heart of man, dnes which will force him to attempt to become not originate in the democratic principle, but himself an artist. What he will originate, if that principle applies it to material objects. originality be any longer possible, remains to Many of those who had already contracted a be seen; what he has done is sufficient to taste for the fine arts are impoverished; on prove that he is not going to be satisfied with the other hand, many who are not yet rich an occasional view or an imperfect reproducbegin to conceive that taste, at least by imi- tion of the treasures of European galleries. tation; and the number of consumers in- ! We must hardly quit the Federal City withcreases, but opulent and fastidious consumers out mention of one of its most important cenbecome more scarce. The productions of tral advantages, the National Observatory, artists are more numerous, but the merit of which the country owes to that very original each production is diminished.” This ora- person, Mr. John Quincy Adams, who undercular writer, whose vaticinations on the New went, in his advocacy of it, an amount of dériWorld are always worthy of respect, did not, sion which was almost persecution, but which could not, take into account circumstances only incited bis bull dog pertinacity to a which have arisen as unexpectedly and as more fixed determination. Up to his day, much without precedent as the general con- the Americans were entirely dependent on dition of the people whose tendencies he Europe for nautical data and meteorological analyzed with so much philosophical acumen observations. At present, under the care of twenty years ago. The increase of wealth | Lieutenant Maury, the whole round of neces- . since that tiine has been such as no theories sary instruments, and the skill required for had supposed, and foreign travel has become their best use, are at home, and constantly the every-day occurrence among people who occupied in valuable labors. The great equado not even belong to the wealthy class. torial telescope, in its revolving dome, is but That proximity to Europe which M. de one of the grand and costly appliances already Tocqueville thought would tend to render collected in this great building, which scornthe American satisfied with imported works ful unbelievers used to call Mr. Adams' “ lightof art, bas but warmed his taste and increased house in the skies.”



Henry, LORD BROUGHAM, philosopher, law- ardor to the study of mathematics; and about reformer, statesman, and critic, has, in these a year after his matriculation transmitted to various characters, drawn upon himself, per: the Royal Society a paper on an optical subhaps, more public attention than any man of ject, which that learned body adjudged his times. Mr. Henry Brougham, father of worthy of a place in its “Transactions." his Lordship, was educated at Eton, England, After leaving the university, he made a tour and distinguished himself there as a classical in Holland and Prussia, and on his return scholar; his verses may be found in the settled down for a time in Edinburgh, prac“ Musæ Etonenses." He was entered at tising till 1807 at the Scottish bar, and Gray's Inn, and appears to have kept some enlivening his leisure by debating at the celterms, but was never called to the bar. ebrated Speculative Society. While travelling in Edinburgh, he became While thus nerving himself for greater acquainted with Miss Eleanor Syme, niece to efforts, he was called to appear before the Robertson, the historian, and having married House of Lords as one of the counsel for Lady that lady, he took up bis abode in the house Essex Ker, whose family laid claim to the of the Earl of Buchan, No. 19, St. Andrew's dukedom of Roxburgh. Square, where the subject of this sketch was In 1807, he permanently left his native born.

city ; was shortly called to the bar by the The young Henry received his preliminary society of Lincoln's Ion, and soon acquired a education at the high-school of his native considerable practice. In 1810, he addressed city; and at the early age of fifteen entered the House of Lords two days, as counsel for its university. He devoted himself with great | a body of English merchants, who were ng

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grieved by the orders in council issued in retal- , whose favors, it had been the custom to beiation of Napoleon's Berlin and Milan decrees. lieve, were not to be accorded to any candi

In 1810, he entered Parliament for the date not boasting high birth or splendid conborough of Camelford, then under the influ- nections. He was triumphantly returned to ence of the Earl of Darlington, and attached Parliament, and took his seat, the acknowhimself to the Whig opposition. Here his ledged chief of the liberal party in the energies were directed chiefly to the slavery House of Commons. Flushed with success, question, in conjunction with Clarkson, Wil- he vigorously attacked the Cabinet, and while berforce, and Grenville Sharpe.

indignantly alluding to the Duke of WellingIn 1812, Parliament was dissolved ; and on ton's imprudent declaration against all recontesting Liverpool with Mr. Canning, he form, he exclaimed, pointing to Sir Robert lost the election, an event which excluded him Peel, Him we scorn not—it is you we from Parliament for four years, during which scorn; you, his mean, base, fawning parathe lately-repealed corn laws were enacted. site !" "The calm and ordinarily impertur

In 1816, the Earl of Darlington's influence bable baronet leaped from his seat, and, in was again employed to procure him a seat in his most contemptuous manner, angrily deParliament—this time for the borough of clared that he was the parasite of no man Winchelsea.

living. The scene which followed terminated In 1820, Mr. Brougham, who had been in the usual parliamentary manner. The appointed Attorney-General, had the honor Tory Ministry was very shortly compelled to of conducting the defence of Queen Caroline, resign. in which he was successful

, and became, in In the new Whig Cabinet which was to consequence, a popular idol. In the same succeed, it was naturally expected that year, he introduced a bill to provide gra- | Brougham would find a place. The country tuitous education for the poor of England was, therefore, somewhat mystified by seveand Wales, the provisions of which have not ral eager and uncalled-for declarations on his yet ceased to excite discussion, from the gen- part, that under no circumstances would he eral power they were designed to give to the take office, and particularly by his notice in Church of England clergymen of every par- the House, that he would bring on his ish in the direction of free education. reform notion, whoever might be in power.

Believing, when Mr. Canning took office, It was asserted by his enemies that he was in the spring of 1823, that he had resolved standing out for terms. His name, however, to sacrifice the cause of Catholic emancipa- appeared duly in the ministerial list, and tion, which he had always maintained in great was the astonishment of Whigs and words, Mr. Brougham accused him in the Tories that the tribune of the people had House, on April 17, of the “most monstrous become at once a lord and a chancellor. In truckling for office that the whole history of the Upper House his appearance was dreaded political tergiversation could present.” At as the spectre of revolution. For a long the sound of these words, Canning started time bis Lordship took no pains to conciliate to his feet, and cried, “It is false !" A dead these fears, but rather seened to wanion in calm ensued, which lasted some seconds. the indulgence of an oratory so strange as his The Speaker interposed his authority, the to the floor of the House of Lords. In the words were retracted, with the aid of friends debates on the Reform Bill, he found many the quarrel was composed, and both gentle opportunities of inveighing against prescripmen were declared to have acted magnani- tion to an audience every member of which mously, as they shortly after shook hands in sat in his place by hereditary privilege; and the House.

it was with peculiar unction he told them From this period till the reform crisis of more than once, that the aristocracy, with all 1830, Mr. Brougham labored energetically their castles, manors, rights of warren, and and fearlessly in the cause of freedom and rights of chase, and their broad acres, reckthe rights of conscience. In the struggle of oned at fifty years' purchase, “ were not for 1829, which ended in the emancipation act, a moment to be weighed against the middle he bore an honorable part; and in support- classes of England.' This declaration is the ing the Wellington and Peel Cabinet on this key to his political career; it was the power question, increased still more his popularity. of the middle classes rather than that of the He was member for Knaresborough, when multitude that he sought to raise. the death of George IV. occasioned a general During and after the passing of the Reelection; and he had sufficient confidence in form Bill, he exerted himself to realize a public opinion to offer himself to the con- favorite idea of law-reform, which has since stituency of the great county of York, a body found its nearest expression in the county courts now established. In June, 1830, he Inconsistency is the first feature in this introduced a measure, the declared object of statesman's character, which the brilliancy of which was to bring justice home to every bis talents only makes more apparent. He man's door, at all times of the year, by the es- has written to depreciate the negro's capacity tablishment of local courts. By this bill the for civilization, and yet toiled for years to prolaw of arbitration was to be extended; a gen- cure bis freedom. In 1816, he endorsed the eral local jurisdiction established, and courts protectionist fallacy, and wailed over the ruin of reconcilement were to be introduced. A resulting to agriculture from an abundant succession of bills for reforming proceedings barvest; in 1835, he was opposing the cornin bankruptcy were afterwards introduced by laws; and in 1845, again inveighing against Brougham, who, from his accession to the the Anti-corn-law League, and calling for the House of Lords to the last session of Parlia- prosecution of its chief members. In 1823, ment, has labored for the improvement of the he hurled the thunder of bis eloquence upon law, with a zeal almost reaching enthusiasm. Austria and Russia, “the eternal and impla

From 1830 to 1834 he shared the early cable enemies of freedom ;" and in 1850 was popularity and subsequent discredit of the praising their clemency, and even urging an Whig Cabinet, but in the poor-law debate alliance with the Czar. He is now the chamdrew upon himself a peculiar measure of re- pion of aristocracies, but in 1848 sought to probation, by a frequent, minute, and evi. become a citizen of republican France. dently complacent iteration of the Malthusian His literary and scientific labors can only doctrines embodied in the new bill, and was be slightly sketched. Having enrolled his attacked with vigor and virulence by The name with scientific writers, in 1802 he beTimes. He denounced, in the most explicit came a contributor to the Edinburgh Review, terms, all establishments offering a refuge then just started by Jeffrey and Smith, and and solace to old age, because that is before continued for many years some of the most all men; he thought accident-wards very pungent criticisms in that renowned work. well; dispensaries, perhaps, might be tolera- In 1803, he published his treatise on the ble; but sick hospitals were decidedly bad colonial policy of the European powers, a institutions.

brilliant performance, to which the progress The energetic repressive policy pursued of events has left but one utility, that of a towards Ireland, and the prosecution and way mark in the development of Brougham's transportation of the Dorchester laborers, opinions. In 1821, he took a very promi. were defended by Brougham, and drew down nent part in the movement originated by much unpopularity upon the Whigs; and on Dr. Birkbeck for naturalizing the mechanics ' Nov. 4, 1834, upon the death of Eurl Spencer, institutes in England, speaking and writing the King took advantage of the altered pub- in their favor. He was the principal founder lic feeling to dismiss the Whig Cabinet. of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful

On the construction of the Melbourne Ca- Knowledge, and composed several of the binet, Brougham was left out of the ministe. treatises in the series, as well as articles for rial combination, and has never since served its Penny Magazine, with a special view to the crown in the capacity of an adviser. His the wants of the million. On his loss of parliamentary career was henceforih one of office in 1834, he bethought himself of makdesultory warfare ; at one moment he was ing a reputation in metaphysical as well as carrying confusion into the ranks of his old natural science, and undertook to illustrate friends, the Whigs; at another, attacking the and expand Paley's great work on “ Natural close Tory phalanx. He several times brought Theology," with less success than his talents forward the subject of the corn-laws, whose had justified the world in expecting. He iniquity he exposed with great power and has further published Lives of the Statesfervency, and fought the battle of repeal men of the Reign of George III. ;" and also with eagerness and irregularity to the last. three or four volumes called “ Political Phi.

The session of 1850 exhibited his Lordship losophy." A volume of "Speeches at the as the same eccentric, inscrutable speaker as Bar and in the Senate" belongs rather to

He both supported and attacked the oratory than to literature. Great Industrial Exhibition, then in projec- His Lordship, except during the sitting of tion for the following year; deprecated the Parliament, resides chiefly at Cannes, in the commission of inquiry into the state of the south of France, where he has a château. universities of Oxford and Cambridge ; and His last winter, however, was passed at attacked with almost wild fury those who Brougham Hall, where he was detained by were seeking to abolish expensive sinecure the state of his health. appointments.


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In 1847, a certain Count Leopold Ferri G. Now, we think it an immense mistake died at Padua, leaving a library entirely to maintain that there is no sex in literature. composed of works written by women, in Science has no sex: the mere knowing and various languages, and this library amounted reasoning faculties, if they act correctly, to nearly 32,000 volumes. We will not hazard must go through the same process, and any conjecture as to the proportion of these arrive at the same result. But in art and volumes which a severe judge, like the priest literature, which imply the action of the in Don Quixote, would deliver to the flames ; entire being, in which every fibre of the nabut, for our own part, most of those we should lure is engaged, in which every peculiar care to rescue would be the works of French modification of the individual makes itself women. With a few remarkable excep- felt, woman has something specific to contions, our own feminine literature is made tribute. Under every imaginable social conup of books which could have been better dition, she will necessarily have a class of written by men; books which have the same sensations and emotions—the maternal ones relation to literature in general, as academic —which must remain unknown to man; prize poems have to poetry : when not a and the fact of her comparative physical feeble imitation, they are usually an absurd weakness, which, however it may have been exaggeration of the masculine style, like the exaggerated by a vicious civilization, can swnggering gait of a bad actress in male never be cancelled, introduces a distinctively attire. Few English women have written so feminine condition into the wondrous chemismuch like a woman as Richardson's Lady try of the affections and sentiments, which

inevitably gives rise to distinctive forms and * 1. Madame de Sablé. Etudes sur les Femmes combinations. A certain amount of psychoillustres et la Société du XVII siècle. Par M. Vic- logical difference between man and woman tor Cousin. Paris : Didier.

necessarily arises out of the difference of 2. Portraits des Femmes. Par C. A. Saint-Beuve. Paris : Didier.

sex, and, instead of being destined to vanish 3. Les Femmes de la Révolution. Par J. Miche- before a complete development of woman's let

iniellectual and moral nature, will be a perVOL XXXIII.-NO. IV.


manent source of variety and beauty, as long | unburied ; and here, we suppose, the quesas the tender light and dewy freshness of tion of preëminence can only lie between morning affectus differently from the England and France. And, to this day, strength and brilliancy of the midday sun. Madame de Sévigné remains the single in. And those delightful women of France, stance of a woman who is supreme in a class who, from the beginning of the seventeenth of literature which has engaged the ambition to the close of the eighteenth century, of men ; Madame Dacier still reigns the formed some of the brightest threads in the queen of blue-stockings, though women have web of political and literary history, wrote long studied Greek without shame ;* Madunder circumstances which left the femioine ame de Staël's name still rises first to the character of their minds uneramped by lips, when we are asked to mention a woman timidity, and unstrained by mistaken effort. of great intellectual power; Madame Roland They were not trying to make a career for is still the unrivalled type of the sagacious themselves; they thought little-in many and sternly heroic, yet lovable woman; cases not at all of the public; they wrote George Sand is the unapproached artist, letters to their lovers and friends, memoirs who, to Jean Jacques' eloquence and deep of their every-day lives, romances in which sense of external nature, unites the clear dethey gave portraits of their familiar ac- lineation of character and the tragic depth quaintances, and described the tragedy or of passion. These great names, which mark comedy which was going on before their different epochs, soar like tall pines amidst eyes. Always refined and graceful, often a forest of less conspicuous—but not less witty, sometimes judicious, they wrote what fascinating -- female writers; and, beneath they saw, thought, and felt, in their babitual these again are spread, like a thicket of hawlanguage, without proposing any model to thorns, eglantines, and honeysuckles, the themselves,—without any intention to prove women who are known rather by what they that women could write as well as men, stimulated men to write, than by what they -without affecting manly views, or sup- wrote themselves—the women whose tact, pressing womanly ones. One may say-at wit, and personal radiance, created the atmoleast with regard to the women of the sev- sphere of the Salon, where literature, phienteenth century—that their writings were losophy, and science, emancipated from the but a charming accident of their more trammels of pedantry and iechnicality, encharming lives, like the petals which the tered on a brighter slage.of existence. wind shakes from the rose in its bloom. What were the causes of this earlier deAnd it is but a twin fact with this, that in velopment and more abundant manifestation France alone woman has had a vital influence of womanly intellect in France? The prion the development of literature; in France mary one, perhaps, lies in the physiological alone the mind of woman has passed like an characteristics of the Gallic race the small electric current through the language, mak- brain and vivacious temperament, which pering crisp and definite what is elsewhere mit the fragile system of woman to sustain heavy and blurred; in France alone, if the the superlative activity requisite for intellectwritings of women were swept away, a seri- ual creativeness ; while, on the other hand,

would be made in the national his- the larger brain and slower temperament of tory.

the English and Germans are, in the womanly Patriotic gallantry may perhaps contend organization, generally dreamy and passive. that English women could, if they had liked, The type of humanity in the latter may be have written as well as their neighbors ; but grander, but it requires a larger sum of conwe will leave the consideration of that ques. ditions to produce a perfect specimen. tion to the reviewers of the literature that Throughout the animal world, the higher might have been. In the literature that the organization, the more frequent is the actually is, we must turn to France for the departure from the normal form; we do not highest examples of womanly achievement often see imperfectly-developed or ill-made in almost every department. We confess insects, but we rarely see a perfectly-deveourselves unacquainted with the productions loped, well-made man. And, thus, the phy. of those awful women of Italy who held professional chairs, and were great in civil and canon law; we have made no researches Le Fevre) sent her a copy of her edition of "Calli

* Queen Christina, when Mde. Dacier (then Mlle. into the catacombs of female literature, but machus," wrote in reply:-“ Mais vous, de qui on we think we may safely conclude that they m'assure que vous êtes une belle et agréable fille, would yield no rivals to that which is still l n'avez vous pas honte d'être si savante"

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