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key-note of the theological course, the pre- of such numberless compromises-marked paration of which henceforth formed one of by such beautiful compensations--is sacrithe main labors of bis life. Fervent and ticed to the rigors of theory. Common even impassioned in evangelical tone-glow sense—that vivifying essence in all duty-is ing throughoạt with love and devotion to made to yield to abstractions. We believe the cross—it is at the same time eminently profoundly that such treatises, much as they rational, and, in a word, human in its sympa- are sometimes talked about, have exercised thies. It blends spirituality and reality, but little actual influence in moulding the faith and nature, piety and literature, in an pastoral mind in successive generations. exquisite harmony of composition, which Eminently adapted to keep an ideal of the fills, as with a full and mellow satisfaction, pastorate before those who, through the the mind and heart.
life already in them, are seeking after such The two volumes on “ Pastoral Theology” an ideal, třey yet present far too few points and “Homiletics" are the fruits of Vinet's of contact with the necessities and exigences theological labors at Lausanne which have of daily existence, to serve effectually in the been preserved to us. They are both of great work of pastoral education. them posthumous volumes, and appear un
The value of Vinet's work, on the conder every disadvantage attaching to such trary, just consists in the diffused presence works. In both cases they are in fact little of this element of common sense and reality else than the materials, collected in the shape throughout. At every point he brings the of notes, for the complete works which the position and duties of the pastor into contact autbor, had he been spared, would have with life. No man can be more impatient of fashioned out of them. Here and there abstractions in every sense ; none care less elaborated with obvious care, and character- for raptures and spiritual excesses of any ized by the utmost finish of sentiment and kind. "Ceremonialism has no sacredness for expression, they yet bear many marks of im. him where it cannot render a speedy account perfection. They are apt in consequence to of its reason or usefulness. He carries into disappoint in the mere perusal,--the thread all departments of ministerial work the posiof continuity is so often broken, and the at- tive spirit, which, as he truly says, “distintention so frequently distracted by the frag- guishes our age-which brings back to their mentary, note-like aspect of the page. They proper sense all the metaphors of life-which are admirable, however, in spirit, and con- demands from every sign an account of its tain as a whole more valuable matter of value, from every form an account of its reastudy for the Christian minister than any son—which wishes every word to be a fact, similar volumes which we know.
every discourse an action—which banishes It will not be expecied that we can pre. from style, as from society, all arbitrary or sent any analysis of these works at the close unintelligible ceremonial, and which wishes of this extended paper. Each in itself that eloquence, in particular, should render might form a theme for separate treatment. an account of its processes, no longer to I The smaller volume on " Pastoral Theology" know not what art, to I know not what prois especially excellent in the point of view perties, but to life.” The reader is accordfrom which it contemplates the whole sub-ingly presented in Vinet's volumes with no ject. Here the clear openness of Vinet's mere ideal—the vague responsibilities of nature displays itself with the best effect. which, as suggesting their own impractiIn almost every treatise on the Pastorate, cability, he can easily shift for bimself; but from Chrysostom's downward, the great he is presented with a real and living picture, defect has always appeared to us to be the whose truthfulness in its very plainness and air of exaggeration and unreality which to a simplicity often startles him, calling forth great extent pervades them. The Christian from the slumbering depths of the conpriest is too much isolated, and his position science an answering emotion not easily put and duties treated of too much as belonging to sleep either under the impulses of a fanto a wholly separate region of experience tastic spirituality or a hardening worldliness. and responsibility. So much so, sometimes, Before such a clear portrait, the self-delusions that, as with certain manuals of mystical both of the one and the other fall away. It devotion, the heart which has not abandoned is this union of nature and faith—of the itself to that subtlest of all delusions, a reality of the one and the sanctity of the other false and empty spirituality, is driven back — which we feel to constitute the peculiar in a sort of fright and despair at the picture excellence and usefulness of Vinet's “Pastorpresented to it. The truth of life, admitting | al Theology."
Pastoral Theology, according to Vinet, | the whole method of the sermon in its geneconcerns the whole theory and practice of the ral outline,—exordium, transitions, and peroChristian ministry. The expressions "pas- ration. Under the third division he treats at toral duties,” and “pastoral prudence," he large of style and delivery. The field over considers incomplete, as suggesting merely which he ranges in this volume is thus very the practical side of the subject, whereas it copious and interesting, and one just pecualso claims and deserves our attention on the liarly fitted for the display of the author's speculative side. "He who has only re- highest gifts,—one in which his fine Chrisgarded the various elements of bis profes- tian intelligence and rare literary skill find sion as they are presented to him in active the freest scope and exercise. life, will act neither with liberty, intelligence, We have exhausted our space, however, nor profundity.' The name of Pastoral and can add only a few words of general apTheology might thus very well be given to preciation of the great writer from whom we all the collection of topics embraced in the have received so much delight and instrucwider name of Practical Theology, for the tion, and of whose life and labors we feel we idea of the pastorate is implied in all these, have presented so inedequate a portrait. The and governs them all. It is in the light of peculiar distinction of Vinet, it is obvious the Christian ministry, and as bearing on its from that portrait, does not consist so much adequate fulfilment, that they all find their in any special eminence as a man of letters, peculiar meaning. At the same time it is de- or a divine, as in the beautiful combination sirable, with a view to the more complete which he exhibits of the higher qualities treatment of the different branches of the which at once adorn literature and give life general subject, to apply the designation of to theology. A mere man of letters he cerPastoral Theology more immediately to what tainly was not ;—a Christian interest being belongs to Christian Worship and Discipline, found, we have seen, to underlie his most leaving Homiletics and Catechetics to be dis- purely literary productions, and to touch all cussed as special subjects. Vinet has not, the springs of his criticism. Still less perhowever, attempted to carry out this distinc-haps was he a mere theologian. There are tion with any rigor, -as, indeed, it cannot be even some who would be disposed to grudge done, so thoroughly do the different functions bim this name at all-so entirely destitute of the ministry mutually suppose and involve was he of the technique of theological science. one another. The subject of preaching is, The critico-historical element, which enters therefore, treated by him in the volume on so essentially into the constitution of the Pastoral Theology, as well as in the larger theological mind, was certainly too much volume especially devoted to it.
wanting in him, as in one with whom he has This volume on “Homiletics” appears to been sometimes, although with little proprius, upon the whole, to be stamped with a ety, compared --Dr. Chalmers. higher and more comprehensive ability. The But wbile Vinet may not thus occupy sepatruth is, that Vinet from bis previous studies rately the first rank, either as a littérateur or was especially at home on such a subject, in a theologian, he was something undoubtedly which he finds scope not only for his powers greater ihan either. He was a Christian of exposition, but also for his rich faculty of thinker, who had the rare skill to clothe his criticism, some exquisite gems of which are thoughts in precise and beautiful language. scattered up and down its pages.
He was eminently one of those nobler spirits The subject is divided by Vinet according whom God ever and anon raises up to stir to the "immemorial and inevitable division" by their living utterances the hearts of many of a course upon the art of oratory ; viz., In- to bring into powerful relief that perfect vention, Arrangement, Elocution. Under the harmony of the divine and human which has first of these heads he has two separate sec- been given eternally in the gospel-to speak, tions, devoted, 1st, to the subject of the pulpit in short, “the language of the gospel to the discourse ; 2d, to the matter of the pulpit dis- world, and the language of the world to the course. “The matter is to the subject what Church.” His comprehensiveness as a thinkthe edifice is to the foundation.” “The sub- er we reckon his highest intellectual characject is the proposition ; the matter is the de- teristic. He seizes with direct grasp the velopment of it; the very substance of the central principle of every subject of speculadiscourse, the pulp of the fruit." The sub- tion and discussion—the unity in which it ject, in short, is contained in the text or title | inberes, and from which its whole meaning of the sermon,—the matter in the sermon goes forth. What a refresbing strength and itself. Under the second head, he considers / buoyant interest does this give to his writings, after, it may be, wading through volumes of cult, certainly, to point out any one-save disjointed, however important, learning. His his own countryman, Pascal, we know of no fertility and variety—the rich profusion of one-who possessed in a higher measure that intellectual treasure which he expends so manifold gift which can touch with mastery freely and sometimes so brilliantly—is pro- the lighter felicities of literature, and at the bably bis next most prominent endowment. same time sound with freedom the utmost We feel that while we have attempted to ex. depths of Christian thought. hibit this diversity to some extent, we have A genuine simplicity gave their enduring only partially succeeded. There is one inter- charm to all his qualities. The most polishesting department of literary effort—that of ed intelligence, combined with the most persacred song—in which he occupied, it may fect moral purity, is the picture which we be truly said, a distinguished place, to which meet in every page of his writings. A uniwe have not even alluded.* It were diffi- | form elevation of sentiment—a frank sensi
bility, which rejoiced in, while it did not * These sacred pieces of Vinet are mainly found invite sympathy-a profound humility-a in a collection entitled Chants Chrétiens. The first fearless candor—is the picture which, assoedition of this collection appeared in 1834, and con
ciated with the name of Vinet, lives in the tained seven pieces from his pen. Others were added in successive editions, although he is be
hearts of all who rejoiced in his friendship. lieved to have written many more than he ever
And in bidding farewell to him, we feel that published. These pieces are precious as containing
while there are no doubt greater names the most intimate expression of the writer's secret which the “Church of the Future" will defeelings. “It was his only way," said one very near to him, “of communicating to me what passed
light to honor, there are yet few, if any, in the depths of his soul.” Generally, according to
which will suggest a finer union of Christian M. Scherer, they fail in preserving the character of graces and gifts—a character at once more the hymn. The reflective habit of the philosopher noble and beautiful. overmasters the inspired mood of the poet. Some of them, however, are very beautiful and touching, and especially one on the death of his daughter in has given to the Christian poet in the expression of 1839. "If we compare it,” says M. Scherer, "with his grief, and the revelation of its true meaning and the elegy which a similarly mournful event drew end." This piece is found in a separate collection, from the pen of Lamartine, we cannot fail to be by Mme. Olivier, entitled Poésie Chrétienne, Ladstruck by the real superiority which a living faith i sanne, 1839.
From the Biographical Mag a zine.
No one that has arisen in England for a of Cobbett that it never harmonized with the long period of time can be justly compared popular sentiment; but choosing a sphere of with WILLIAM COBBETT for strength of cha: its own, which was rather anti-oligarchic than racter, independent powers of thinking, and that of Radical reform, his system, if it could for a naturally lucid and forcible method of be called such, was kept before the public giving utterance to bis opinions. For a pe- only by his own genius, and when that was riod of more than thirty years, the compo- withdrawn, the whole fell to the ground. sitions of no English writer exercised a wider Cobbett's account of his origin is the folinfluence on the public mind ; nor did any lowing: “With respect to my ancestors I ever sink so rapidly out of sight, almost im- shall go no farther back than my grandfamediately after his death, as those of the ther, who was a day - laborer, and I have author of the Political Register. The cause heard
that he worked for one in this instance did not uphold the man; for farmer from the day of his marriage to that though he had the credit of being one of the of his death-upwards of forty years. He foremost of the Radical school, there was so died before I was born, but I have often much of the idiosyncratic in the Radicalism slept beneath the same roof that sheltered bim, and where his widow dwelt for several of my country. As to politics, we were like years after his death. It was a little thatched the rest of the country people in England, cottage, with a garden before the door. It for we neither knew nor thought any thing had but two windows: a damson tree shaded about the matter. The shouts of victory, or one and a clump of flberts the other. Here the murmurs of a defeat, would now and then I and my brothers went every Christmas and break in upon our tranquillity; but I do not Whitsuntide to spend a week or two, and remember ever having seen a newspaper in torment the
poor old woman with our noise the house, and, most certainly, the privation and dilapidations. She used to give us milk did not render us less industrious, happy, or and bread for breakfast, an apple pudding free. After, however, war had continued for our dinner, and a piece of bread and for some time, and the cause and nature of cheese for supper.
Her fire was made of it began to be understood, we became a little turf, cut from the neighboring heath, and better acquainted with subjects of this kind. her evening light was a rush dipped in grease. It is well known that the people were, as to Every one will believe that my grandfather numbers, nearly equally divided concerning was no philosopher. He never made a light that war, and their wishes respecting the niny.rod, nor bottled-up a single quart of result of it. My father was a partisan of sunshine in bis life. He was no almanac- the Americans, and continued so staunch an maker, nor quack, nor chimney doctor, nor one, that he would not have suffered his best soap-boiler, nor ambassador, nor printer's friend to drink success to the King's arms at devil; neither was he a deist, and all his his table. I cannot give the reader a better children were born in wedlock; he never idea of his obstinacy in this respect, than by cheated the poor during his life, nor mocked relating the following anecdote: 'em at his death. My father, when I was “My father used to take one of us with born, was a farmer. When a little boy, he him every year to the hop-fair at Wey Hill. drove plough for twopence a day.
The fair was held at old Michaelmas - tide. village schoolmaster could be expected to It happened to be my turn to go there the teach he had learned, and had besides im very year that Long Island was taken by proved himself in several branches of the the British. A great company of hop-mermathematics. He was honest, industrious, chants and farmers were just sitting down to and frugal: it was not therefore wonderful supper as the post arrived, bringing in the that he should be situated in a good farm, extraordinary gazette which announced the and happy in a wife of his own rank, liked, victory. A hop-factor from London took beloved, and respected."
the paper, placed his chair upon the table, He said in an American autobiography and began to read with an audible voice. A from which we quote, “I was born on the dispute ensued, and iny father retired, taking 9th of March, 1766. I do not remember me by the hand, to another apartment, where the time when I did not earn my own living, we supped with about a dozen of the same and my first occupation was driving the small sentiments. Here Washington's health, and birds from the turnip seed, and the rooks success to the Americans, were repeatedly from the peas. When I first trudged a-field toasted, and this was the first time that I with my wooden bottle, and my satchel ever heard that General's name mentioned. swung over my shoulders, I was hardly able Little did I dream then that I should ever to climb the gates and stiles, and at the close see the man, and, still less, that I should of the day to reach home was a task of infi- hear some of his own countrymen reviling nite difficulty. My next employment was and execrating him. weeding wheat, and leading a single horse at “ Towards the autumn of 1782, I went to harrowing barley. Hoeing peas followed, visit a relation who lived in the neighborand hence I arrived at the honor of joining hood of Portsmouth. From the top of Portsthe reapers in barvest, driving the team and down I beheld, for the first time, the sea, holding plough. We were all of us strong and no sooner than I wished to be a sailor. and laborious, and my father used to boast. It was not the sea alone that I saw; the that he had four boys, the eldest of whom grand feet was riding at anchor at Spithead. was but fifteen, who did as much work as What I now beheld so far surpassed what I any three men in the parish of Farnham. had ever been able to form a conception of, Honest pride, and happy days !
that I stood lost between astonishment and “Our religion was that of the Church of admiration. The brave Rodney's victories England, to which I have ever remained at- over our natural enemies, the French and tached ; the more so, as it bears the name Spaniards, had long been the theme of our
praise and the burden of our songs, and the had to cross the London turnpike-road. The sight of our fleet brought all these into my stage had just turned the summit of the mind. My heart was inflated with national hill, and was rattling down towards me at a pride; the sailors were my countrymen, the merry rate. The notion of going to London feet belonged to my country, and surely I never entered my mind till that very moment, had my part in it, and in all its honors; yet yet the step was completely determined on these honors I had not earned, and I re- before the coach came to the spot where solved to have a just claim, by sharing in the I stood : up I got, and was in London about hardships and dangers.
nine o'clock in the evening. Though I had walked thirty miles during “It was by mere accident that I had the day, I slept not a moment at my uncle's. money enough to defray the expenses of the It was no sooner daylight, than I arose and day. Being rigged out for the fair, I had walked down towards the old castle on the three or four crown and half-crown pieces, beach of Spithead. For sixpence given to besides a few shillings and half-pence. This, an invalid I got permission to go upon the my little all, which I had been years in battlements; here I had a closer view of the amassing, melted away like snow before the fleet, and, at every look, my impatience to sun: and when I had arrived at Ludgatebe on board increased. In short, I went bill, and had paid my fare, I had about 2s. from the castle to Portsmouth, got into a 6d. in my pocket. A gentleman who was boat, and was in a few minutes on board the one of the passengers was a hop-merchant Pegasus man-of-war. The captain had more in Southwark, and had often dealt with my compassion on me than is general, and repre- father at Wey Hill: he knew my danger: sented to me the toils I must undergo, and he himself was a father, and felt for my the punishment the least disobedience or parents: he wrote to my father, and endeaneglect would subject me to. He persuaded vored to prevail on me to obey his orders and me to return home, and told me it was better return home. I am ashamed to say that I to be led to church in a halter, to be tied to was disobedient, and I have repented of it a girl that I did not like, than to be tied to from that moment to this. Willingly would the gangway, or, as the sailors call it, mar- I have returned, but pride would not sufried to Miss Roper. I in vain attempted to fer me to do it. I feared the scoffs of my convince Captain Berkeley that choice alone acquaintances more than the real evils that had led me to the sea.
He sent me on threatened me. My generous preserver, findshore, and I at last quitted Portsmouth; but ing my reluctance, began to look out for not before I had applied to the Port Admiral employment for me, and related my advenEvans to get my name enrolled among those ture to an attorney, an acquaintance of bis, destined for the service. I was obliged to whose name was Holland, and who, happenacquaint the Admiral with what had passed ing to want an understrapping quill-driver, on board the Pegasus, in consequence of took me into his service, and the next day which I was refused; and happily escaped, saw me perched upon a great high stool in sorely against my will, the most loilsome and an obscure chamber in Gray's Inn, endeavorperilous profession in the world.
ing to decipher the crabbed draughts of my "I returned once more to the plough, but employer. I could write a good plain hand, was spoiled for a farmer. Before my Ports, but I could not read the pothooks and hangmouth adventure, I had no other ambition ers of Mr. Holland, who was a month in than that of surpassing my brothers in the learning me to copy. Time, however, rendifferent labors of the field; but now I dered me useful, and Mr. H. was pleased to sighed for at sight of the world ; the little tell me that he was well satisfied with me, island of Britain seemed too small a compass just at the very moment when I began to for me. The things in which I had taken the grow extremely dissatisfied with him. I most delight were neglected; the singing of worked like a galley-slave from five in the the birds grew insipid, and even the heart- morning until eight or nine at night, and cheering cry of the bounds, after which I sometimes all night long. How many quarformerly fled from my work, was heard with rels have I assisted to foment and perpetuindifference. But on the 6th of May, 1783, ate between those two poor innocent fellows, I was dressed in my holiday suit to accom- Job Doe and Richard Roe! How many pany two or three lasses to Guildford Fair. times have I set them to assault each other They were to assemble at a house about with guns, swords, staves, and pitchforks, and three miles from my home, where I was to then brought them to answer for their misattend them : but, unfortunately for me, I | deeds before our sovereign lord the King,