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very primitive fashion. The bee hive, made and from that moment, whenever the affiof willowings, is plastered inside and out anced see each other in public, they dare not with a layer of cow.dung, and placed with exchange a word or a look, but must turn its busy inmates on the bare ground. When round and fly, as though smitten, not with it is filled with honey, a hole is dug beneath love, but with the plague. So it goes on, the hive, and the bees continue their work, till the parties meet at one of the church ales as the Latin poet says-Sic vos non vobis in the vicinity, on which occasion a fair is al
In several parts of the ways held; when, at the general meeting of country, the culture of silk-worms prevails, the friends and relations, rings are exchanged. forming a considerable part of the earnings After this public betrothal, the lass has the of the populace.
right of choosing and buying, at the expepse But the idle propensities of the men are of her future father-in-law, all the articles of fully redeemed by the industry and dexterity finery for her wedding, which are not a few, of the women. The latter not only perform and of the most gaudy description. On their all the duties of the house, dairy, and gar- return home, the Gospodar, in the name of the den, but even feed the cattle and horses, fiancé, sends the girl an apple billed with gold cleaning and harnessing the latter; while the or silver coins, which form the chief part of men never stir till the women hand them the her dowry. Besides the cattle, he has to prewhip, which is the signal that the carts are sent each member of her family with a gist, ready. These, however, are only a part of usually of wearing apparel; this sometimes their occupations: they provide all the men's making a greater drain upon his purse than clothing, except the hat and sandals; shear even the apple with its costly contents. the sheep; dye, spin, and weave the wool On the wedding-day the procession proor hemp, cut out the cloth or linen, which ceeds to the church, headed by a clown, they then fashion into the required articles mounted upon the worst hack that can be of dress; so that it rests only with the men found, and clad half in male and half in feto put on the ready-made garments, after their male attire; his hat decorated with the wing indispensable partners have even combed of a goose. This post is always filled by the their hair. As we have stated, there is a wittiest and merriest person in the neighborweaving-loom in every bedroom, at which hood, who is expected to entertain the comone or other of the inmates is continually pany with his droll sallies. After the clown employed, throwing the shuttle to and fro comes the bride, accompanied only by one with marvellous skill and rapidity.
female friend ; then follows the bridegroom on As the torba, or pouch, is the never failing horseback, carrying a nosegay, and wearing a companion of the men, so is the distaff that cloak which, according to custom, was thrown of the women. Wherever they go, they in- over his shoulders at the bride's house, and variably carry it with them in their girdle, surrounded by a troop of mounted comrades. their fingers being constantly employed in In the church a canopy is prepared for the turning the spindle and drawing out the bride and bridegroom, and during the cerethread. In knitting and embroidery they are mony two crowns of silver-gilt, or bronze, are likewise skilful: every part of their dress is held above their beads. The priest, having more or less tastefully ornamented with the offered up a prayer, first takes the man's latter, either in wool or gold.
crown, saying, as he places it upon his head : The favorite food of the Croats is pork and "I crown thee, servant of God, for the maiden milk. Their bread, although they grow
N-." He then takes the girl's crown, and wheat in abundance, is made of maize or proceeds in a similar manner. With that the hirse-panicum malacum.
ceremony is concluded, and the procession, The patriarchal authority of the Gospodar with the newly-wedded pair wearing their extends also to the marriages, which are ar- crowns, return to the house of the bridegroom, ranged in the following manner: First, the where the wedding is celebrated with feasting two Gospodars hold a consultation as to the and dancing, which last for three days and price of the girl, to be paid in cattle; and nights, or longer--that is, until the numerous when they agree as to the terms, they ask guests have as fairly emptied both cellar and the young people if they love each other. | larder, as if a swarm of locusts bad swept The answer, if in the
affirmative, is considered over them. The morning after the marriage, as an official pledge of their mutual acceptance, the bride carries the water for washing to the
guests, on which occasion she receives a gift • You bees, you collect honey, yet not for your
The music of the Croats is the bagpipe;
and their national dance-kolo—is simply Croats use the Latin characters in print and turning round in a large circle, which is joined in writing. Their schools are few, and those by all persons present, who, in order to keep are badly attended and still worse managed ; their places, take hold of each other's girdles. the chief part of the inhabitants neither being The performers wheel round, or move quickly able to read nor write. The border districts, backwards and forwards, keeping time with though better supplied with village schools, the music, and singing or rather bawling one bave none of a higher class; for, as the men of their national melodies ; the rings and coins are trained solely for the military profession, hanging from their garments chinking, as they they are not allowed to learn any thing hemove, like so many spurs.
yond the narrow compass of their oppressive In Croatia, the good old custom of celebrat-duty. ing every particular event, such as birthdays, As we have stated, the Croatian, Sclavobaptismals, deaths, &c., by a feast, is still in nian, and Servian borders are divided into
As they are, however, rather eleven military districts, each of them furnishexpensive affairs, the prudent Gospodar man-ing one infantry regiment of four battalions, ages to keep several at the same time. This or three thousand one hundred men, As, is most practicable in the case of a christening, however, every man is by birth a soldier, and which rite is seldom performed until the births must serve as long as he can bear arms, the of two or more children have taken place in number of battalions can easily be augmented. one family. The names given to their off- So imposing a number of armed men, led spring are selected less from the calendar of as they are by their own native generals, sesaints, than from the vocabulary of affection veral of whom have gained at least Austrian or of nature. Names such as Milosh, Dar- renown, looks formidable enough upon paper, ling; Lubitza, Beloved ; Jagoda, Strawberry, but loses much in the reality, like many other are usually chosen.
things in Austria bearing a grand name and At their feasts the Gospodar drinks to the an imposing appearance. It is a well-known health of the guests one by one, and every fact, that military training alone does not intime in a bumper. It is a matter of courtesy, stil true martial spirit, and far less heroic on the part of the entertained, to empty their devotion. Where there is no nobler motiveglasses after each health ; which of course power than pay, or at most the prospect of brings about the natural consequence, that a plunder, the soldiers may be driven into battle, very few veterans are left on Bacchus' battle and kept together as long as their arms are field to do bonor to those who come last; | victorious, but the first reverse demoralizes as most of the combatants are, by that time, them, and they rapidly succumb to the harddisabled for further effective service on that ships of war. Such is the case, at least, with day.
the Austrian Grenzers. They do well enough Another of their peculiar customs, is that as cordonists against smugglers or Turkish of going to the cemeteries on Easter. Monday, depredators; yet, in their present condition, attended by their priests, where, for an hour they can never gain fame in a regular battle. or more, they pray for the souls of the de- Even in the Austrian army they are looked parted. Many bring the wardrobe of a de- upon as a body far below the common standceased relative with them, and, whilst laying ard. As an illustration of this, we will quote the garments one by one upon the grave, one or two striking examples from modern exclaim, amidst tears and lamentations, “Oh, history. why did you leave us so soon? your clothes In September, 1848, Jellachich, Ban of are still good—they would have lasted you Croatia, invaded Hungary with an army of for many years!” This singular act of piety ffty thousand Croats. This he did at a over, they close the day, according to the moment when the Hungarian nation still conusual custom, with feasting ; and on the very fided in the solemo oaths of their king, and gravemounds, where a few moments before were thus unprepared to meet a hostile agthey prayed and wept, they now display the gression. Jellachich, aware of this, hastened contents of their torba, eating, drinking, and by forced marches towards Buda-Pestb, in making merry; as if there were not enough order to crush at one blow the liberty of the mournful emblems around io check their mirth country. There was every prospect of a in its very core.
speedy victory; for who would dare to oppose The Croatian language, which is understood the formidable legions that had already conalso by the Servians, is an inharmonious idiom quered the peaceful inhabitants of several of the Sclavonian tongue. Like every Sclavo- co and, like their forefathers, the nian tribe belonging to the Catholic creed, the Trenck-Pandars, filled their knapsacks with spoil ? Yet, contrary to all expectation, a few | Ban and his Croats. One of his brigades was miles from the capital, a corps of tifteen thou-annihilated by Damjanich, at Szoluok, on the sand men—a medley of soldiers, citizens, na- 5th of March ; another met a similar fate at tional guards, ministers and members of the Tápio-Bicske, on the 4th of April ; and on the Diet-awaited the invaders in battle-array, sixth of the same month, he was defeated at determined to face and to fight them. The the head of his corps by Klapka and DamBan, with his overwhelming force, could easily janich. Such repeated reverses induced the have crushed such a handful of men; so it Ban to fall back upon his resources in Crowas generally believed. But it turned out atia; from whence he reäppeared in midquite the contrary: for as soon as the Croats summer, at the head of twenty thousand heard the Hungarian bullets whizzing about veterans, and commenced an advance upon their heads, they at once remembered that Pesth between the Theiss and the Danube. the better part of valor is discretion. Ac. Unfortunately, at Hegyes, he encountered a cordingly, after a short cannonade, they turn. Hungarian force of some eight thousand men, ed and fled, never looking back until they under the Generals Vetter and Guyon, who were under the walls of Vienna. This move. gave him such a warm reception, that he ment of Jellachich is immortalized in the retreated, with a severe loss of men and guns, Austrian annals as “The Ban's famous flank- l in one forced march bebind the Danube-a maneuvre !"
distance of about fifty miles. The reserve corps of Jellachich, amounting The Grenzers are all foot-soldiers, being to ten thousand men with twelve guns, which quite unfit for cavalry service. During the advanced along the Lake of Balaton, a two above-named campaign, the Austrians, having days' journey behind the main army, was no hussars at their disposal, made an attempt doomed to a still more ignominious defeat. to organize a regiment of them in Croatia. At the tidings of the Ban's flight, the corps They so far succeeded, that eight hundred presently fell back towards Croatia. Yet the horses were equipped and mounted by as populace, exasperated by the excesses the many men, who were called the Rauderial enemy had committed during their advance, Hussars. The new cavalry were to gain their had already risen en masse, gradually hem- first laurels in the battle of Tápio-Bicske. ming them in on all sides, until there remained When, on that day, the genuine hussars of no chance of escape. In this emergency, the Klapka were told whom they had to attack, Croats, instead of showing the muzzles of they sheathed their swords, exclaiming, that their guns, showed the white feather, and they could put such scarecrows of troopers surrendered at the mercy of the people, with-to flight with their fists. At the ensuing out having fired a single shot. The Hunga- onset, two squadrons of the 1st Hussars did rians, however, as usual, generous in success, literally disperse eight escadrons of Croats. instead of treating the robbers as they de- The prisoners taken in that dashing exploit served, regaled them with meat and wine, were conducted as great curiosities through and after taking their oath that they would the Hungarian camp, and the horsemen from never again bear arms against the mother the Theiss and the Puszta could not comcountry, sent them back with an escort to prehend the impudence of a Grenzer daring their homes.
to mount a steed in hussar attire. The campaign in the spring and summer After this defeat, the Croatian hussars enof 1849, proved not less disastrous for the tirely disappeared from the scene of action.
From the Leisure Hour.
AN OLD HOUSE IN COLOGNE.
AMONG the many historical objects of cu- On the right hand we read : riosity in Cologne, to whieh the professional
“ To this house fled Maria de Medicis, widow cicerone seldom fails to conduct the sight.
of Henry IV. and mother of Louis XIII. of seeing traveller, is a goodly mansion, situated France. She called Rubens from his dwelling in the Sternengasse, and well known in the in Antwerp to paint for her palace in Paris the town by the name of Jabach House. The principal epochs of her life. He completed the interior of the house is not usually shown to work in twenty-one large pictures; but she, perstrangers ; indeed, it contains no historical secuted by fate, died in Cologne on the third of relics of the celebrated personages who once
July, 1612, aged sixty-eight years, in the very
room where Rubens was born. Her heart was inhabited it, nor aught to satisfy the cravings buried before the chapel of the three kings in the of visual curiosity, the only gratification to
her body was afterwards removed to be derived from an inspection of it being the St. Denis. Before she died she thanked the senassociation of ideas; for we naturally feel ate for the permission they had granted her to pleasure in contemplating even four bare reside in Cologne, accompanying her thanks with walls, when we know that genius once re
bonorable gifts, which the turmoils of revolutions
have for the most part destroyed.” sided within them, or fallen royalty underwent therein the bitter trials of poverty and
The events recorded in these inscriptions deprivation.
give an historical importance to the house The entrance to this mansion, like that of that, according to some indefatigable truthmost of the larger houses in Cologne, con- loving antiquaries, does not in reality belong sists of folding-dvors, large enough to admit
to it. They were written in the early part of the ingress of a carriage. Immediately of the present century by a learned antiover the door, in a kind of frame, is the bust quary, named Walraff, of considerable local of a man, carved in oak, which at once ar- fame, and whose name is associated with the rests the attention of the passer-by, the more
museum of antiquities, which he founded so as he does not fail to recognize, at the and bequeathed to his native city. first glance, the large bonnet so intimately
His enthusiastic patriotic zeal bas promptconnected with the well-known portrait of ed him to speak of our Rubens, and the GerRubens. On each side of the doorway is
man Apelles-titles which the patriots of an inscription in German, engraved on a Antwerp will not be so willing to concede to tablet of stone, let into the wall.
the great painter. We are indebted also to That on the left is as follows:
the same zealous patriotism for the informa
lion that Marie de Medicis died in the very "On the 29th of June, 1577, being the festival same chamber in which Rubens was born. of St. Peter and St. Paul, Peter Paul Rubens The fact, if true, lends a greater interest to was born in this house, and baptized in the parish this historical monument; but in reality there church of St. Peter's. He was the seventh son is so little foundation in history for the asserof his parents, who lived here nineteen years.
tion, that even the identity of the house itself, His father was a senator at Antwerp for the term
as we have said, is a matter of dispute the of six years. On account of religious troubles he fled to Cologne, where he died in 1587. He
official documents of Cologne mentioning was buried with great poinp in St. Peter's church. only the name of the street. Tradition, Our Peter Paul Rubens, the German Apelles, | however, often the surest guide in such matwished to see his birth-place, Cologne, once more, ters, has fixed upon the house in question as and with his own hand inaugurate, in the church the scene of the recorded events, and, as the where he was baptized, his celebrated picture of
contrary has not yet been proved, we may the Crucifixion of St. Peter, which had been or. dered of him by our celebrated connoisseur of
say with the learned antiquary himself, on art, Eberhard Jabach, senator, but death overtook
being asked what was his authority for fixing him, in Antwerp, on the 30th of May, 1640, in on this particular house,
“ We must take it the sixty-third year of his age.
for granted.” VOL XXXIII.—NO. III.
The founder of the Flemish family of Ru- He gained the unbounded confidence of the bens was Bartholomew Rubens, an Austrian, Spanish grandees in the Netherlands, and who was in the suite of the Emperor Charles was especially protected by the Infanta, IsaV. After the coronation of the emperor at bella Clara Eugenia, with whom he was so Aix-la-Chapelle, he followed his court to great a favorite that she recommended him Brussels, and remained in the Netherlands. to King Pbilip, her nephew, with high enco
The character and excellent qualities of miums on his excellent qualities and extrahis son, John Rubens, the father of our great ordinary talents. painter, were duly set forth in an inscription Rubens was appointed secretary to the on his tombstone in St. Peter's at Cologne. royal special council of the Netherlands; and Though engraved on stone, it exists at pre- the ability with which he filled the post soon sent only on the more durable monument of reached the ears of Philip. The road to the paper, the gravestone having been demo highest official appointments lay open before lished on the removal of the floor of the him, but he was without political ambition ; choir some years ago.
Besides the facts and no temptation could withdraw bim from mentioned in the inscription on Jabach House, his easel, to which he devoted all the time it informs us that he was a distinguished that he could spare from his duties as secrelawyer, and had travelled through France tary. He infused a new spirit into the paintand Italy, lo cultivate his mind and enlarge ing of the Netherlands, and sought to lead the sphere of his knowledge; and that he his countrymen from their too servile imitaenjoyed the esteem of his countrymen for tions of otbers. Of too original a mind to his probity, and the high sense of justice be an imitator himself, he executed the conwhich he displayed as a member of the sen- ceptions of his own expanded intellect; and atorial college. Also, that the monument instead of following the public taste, he was erected to his memory by Maria Pype- formed it. His pupils followed his instrucling, his wife, after a happy union of twenty- tions as implicitly as servants the orders of a six years. In the tranquillity of his retreat inaster; and thus was formed the celebrated at Cologne, surrounded by every domestic Flemish school, of which he may be considcomfort, he devoted the considerable ener-ered the patriarch. gies of his mind to the education of his fam- Philip had an important mission to the ily and the cultivation of the fine arts, which court of England, which could only be conhis ample fortune and extensive knowledge fided to a man of rank and capacity, well enabled him to do with great success, and a acquainted with the politics of Spain and its large portion of his wealth to the alleviation relation to foreign countries. Among all his of misery and affliction among the poor of ministers and grandees there was not one in his adopted city. Such a father was not whom he did not discover some failing or likely to be long in discovering nor back- other, when he accidentally cast his eyes on ward in fustering the extraordinary talent of one of the official documents of the special his youngest son, whose genius for painting council, which recalled to his mind all that already showed itself, as well as those gen- he had heard of the sound sense and practieral powers of mind which did make him a cal knowledge of business which its secretary great diplomatist, and would have made him possessed. “That is the man for my pura great man, in whatever career he might pose,” exclaimed the king, half aloud, and have chosen as their sphere of action. Peace immediately gave the order for the draw. having been restored to the Netherlands, ing up of the official appointment to the after the siege of Antwerp by the Duke of post. Parma, the mother of Rubens, a year after Rubens fulfilled the mission to the perfect the death of her husband, returned to her satisfaction of his royal master, who, as a native city with her whole family.
reward for his services, made him a knight Rubens was not long in rising to distinc of the empire. Charles I., with whom he tion. His predilection and genius for paint- had concluded peace between the crowns of ing raised him to be the greatest artist of his Spain and England, made him considerable age, but did not prevent his devoting himself presents, dubbed him a knight, and gave to science and learning, and those lesser ac- him, in presence of the parliament, his own complishments and graces which are requi- sword, and a ring which he drew from his site to form the complete gentleman. So finger. great was his success, that his patrons Cologne possesses two master-pieces by the scarcely knew which to admire in him most hand of Rubens. The one, a Holy Family, -the painter, the scholar, or the courtier. I as it is termed, in the excellent private col.