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kind. Its pleasure is to give others pain. In- | away neither hours, words, nor feelings; but stead of administering a salutary reproof to he so occupied attention as to delight and the way ward, it taunts him into persistency, entertain his auditors, whilst every syllable and then mocks his folly. Its weapon is he spoke was adapted to purify and sweeten satire, its habit scandal. It leers, and grins, their coming days. True, he could rebuke and croaks. It is heartless, remorseless, hope with severity the wicked, and satirize with less. A spirit so utterly repulsive and fiendish keenness the foolish; and young ladies never tainted the breast or tortured the ex- dreaded bis insinuations against their vanity perience of the illustrious essayist. He was and their waste of time; but the intelligent sad, but it was with compassion. He had ever found him instructive, whilst the holy fears, but they warmed bis generosity and never thought him dull. stimulated his zeal. The shade of despair The reflectiveness and sobriety of his nasometimes covered his soul; but he satture are wonderfully developed in his writdown in his unaffected woe, and committed ings. Those essays will be read for ages, himself, his fellows, and the world, with all and whenever read will be admired for the the solemnity of love, to the Maker and serenity, discrimination, reverentialness, and Governor of all things. Mercy was bis bane, sanctity of the spirit that breathes through if any thing divine can be the bane of man. them. How he seems to gaze on mind and He was too sensitive and tender. So far watch its workings ! And yet how delightfrom doing injustice to his race, it was his fully informal and unofficial are his reports ! dread that justice must be done to it. Hence with what earnestness, and yet with what bis revulsion from the doctrine of eternal repose he pursues his theme! His range of punishments. Never was a soul more scru. inquiry is as comprehensive as bis subject pulously honest or more thoughtfully gene- will allow; and his analysis is as complete rous than this man's.
He would pay more
and as clear as the reader can desire. He little article that he purchased than never peddles with his topic. There is no was asked for it, if he thought the com- hacking and jobbing in his works; for he is petition of the market or the expedients of a skilful artificer. And what subjects he poverty had reduced its price below its value. has chosen to descant upon! “The Epithet, He never saw want without making a sacri- Romantic ;" why, the very title of the essay fice to relieve it; he never witnessed agony implies that the author is given to meditation, without himself enduring a pang. It was to introspection, to earnest and abandoned misery that made him miserable; and the thought. There is no scope for declamation, deep abiding gloom which hung about his no temptation to controversy. By the very spirit was but the response of a fine piety to necessities of his theme, he is shut up to the a mysterious and inexplicable Providence. free, independent, and peculiar workings of He was as good as he was great; and his his own mind. He cannot be suspected of goodness was told not in tears alone, for he plagiarism, for who has preceded him ? He toiled, and suffered, and prayed for men. need not fear the thief, for the individuality
Indeed, great injustice has been done to of the matter would be recognized in a mothe character of our hero. If he exaggerated ment. These compositions are unique in the the evils of the world, bis depression has literature of the world, and so unique was been greatly exaggerated. He has been the author, they are very likely to remain so. thought morose and morbidly sentimental. To the peculiarity of their substance their On the contrary, he was eminently genial in great popularity may, without doubt, be his fellowships and practical in his reflections. chiefly attributed. But their more essential His standard of human virtue was high, but characteristics are adequately sustained by he aspired himself to reach it, and the very their artistic and literary excellence. We least that can be said of him is, that he never have his own testimony that his compowantonly desecrated its dignity. Those se- sitions are the fruits of patient labor and a lect circles in which he felt “at home" can most scrupulous taste. That he had consitestify with what exuberant delight he min-derable ambition, and definite desires, as a istered to their cheerfulness; and though he writer, we may gather from an exclamation never sanctioned frivolity, he made his pre- made by him in his early life. Speaking of sence any thing but a bore, even to the gayest certain forms of expression common in those of his companions. His humor was not very days, he said, that possible he would exprolific, but his intelligence was always re- punge them from every book by act of parliafreshing, and his musings were radiant with ment, and concluded his protest by the benevolence and rich in wisdom. He threw words, “ We want to put a new face upon things.” As a writer on religion, he is re- / soul. There is all the serenity and all the markably free from the common theological strength; all the profundity and all the technicalities of his time, and from all cant transparency; all the caution and all the phrases. Speaking more generally, he is confidence of his nature in his compositions. original without affectation, elaborate without Their chasteness is never soiled, their dignity redundancy, strong without vulgarity, cor- never degraded, their music never broken. rect without tameness, smooth without mono- They want in irregularity, if in any thing. tony, and, above all, remarkably clear. He A little Saxon roughness, and occasional imhas no eccentricities which invite imitation petuosity, might make them more memorable ; or occasion disgust. He is classical and yet for in style it is as nowhere else, imperfecnot pedantic. He seems to have formed his tion is a charm and an advantage. own style, in respectful independence of the There are many other features of this usual models.
And we suspect that he will good man's mind and life on which we had never be a model for young writers. He is intended to dwell; but our space is occutoo correct for their patience, and too natural pied; and we must conclude by commendfor their vanity. And yet he may be studied ing to all our readers his works and his biowith immense advantage by the literary as-graphy; for they are mines of spiritual and pirant, for few writers are at once so free literary wealth ; and he who digs treasures from magniloquence, and so true in majesty; thence will find that which will not corrupt so superior to passion, and yet so mighty in nor perish in the using.
From Sharpe's Mag a zine.
A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE CROATS.
BY MISS A. M. BIRKBECK.
As the struggle for the preservation of tains running parallel to the Adriatic coast, the Crescent advances, the countries lying and on the banks of the Save, Drave, and the within its portentous course gradually as- Lower Danube, opposite to Turkish Croatia, sume an importance which, not withstanding Bosnia, and Servia, various Sclavonian tribes, their remoteness, and slight relation with the the bulk consisting of Croats and Servians, civilized world, renders them, for the mo- the reluctant and discontented supports of ment, objects of research and uncensing Austrian despotism. Farther on, in an eastspeculation. Those races particularly com- erly direction, come the Wallachians, the mand our attention who live nearest to the degraded descendants of the great Romans. spreading conflagration, and who, from their They inhabit the steep and rugged decliviunsettled political condition and ardent de- ties and valleys of the southern Carpathians, sire for independence, are the most likely to and, in spite of their very abject and demoignite, and change, over-night, from mere ralized state, would fain establish a Dracospectators to the most active participators in Roman empire, in conjunction with their the drama.
brethren living on Turkish territory. Their A fleeting glance at the map will show nearest neighbors are the Saxons, a peaceful that none are more exposed to this contact and industrious people, yet, since the year than the nationalities along the southern 1849, greatly incensed against the Hapsboundaries of Austria, or, more properly, of burgs, owing to the summary abolishment of Hungary, most of them having for opposite their ancieni immunities. The last link in neighbors a portion of their own respective this motley chain of races is formed by the tribes, who dwell in the northern provinces of Szeklers, who are of Magyar origin, and the the Ottoman empire, from the Adriatic Sea as oldest settlers in Transylvania, renowned for far as Bukovina. Thus we find, in the moun their love of liberty and martial spirit, as well as their hatred to the Austrian rule. They j tions, belong to the Roman Catholic faith ; occupy several ridges of the Carpathians, the Protestants being, by a special statute, opposite to Moldavia.
prohibited from settling within the precincts We will here call the attention of the of those provinces. The land is divided, reader to the most numerous of the border politically, into two parts, the larger comraces—the Croats.
prising the military borders, and the smaller When the Hungarian horsemen first wa- the provincial territories. These are again tered their steeds, a thousand years since, in subdivided, the former into eleven regimental the floods of the Drave, they found the an- districts, under the command of two military cestors of the Croats already established boards, and the latter into six counties, each there, forming part of a Sclavonian confede- of which, at least prior to 1849, was govration, which, under the protectorate of the erned by freely-elected civil authorities. The Greek emperors, extended likewise over entire land is intersected by many mountain Bosnia and Servia. But the aggression of ranges, which, to the south, rise to a considtheir protectors soon compelled the Croats erable height, ever and anon broken by wild, to curry favor with the Hungarians, who not barren glens, yet, towards the rivers Drave, alone freed them from the yoke of the Greeks, Save, and the Lower Danube, sloping down but admitted them as well to all the muni- into softer forms, clad with vines and luxuricipal and political immunities which they ant foliage; the beech and oak forests affordthemselves enjoyed. As long as Hungary ing abundant provision for countless herds possessed her own innate sovereigns, Croatia, of swine. Here and there the ground is under the ægis of a common independence, perfectly level, and the land extremely ferwas one of her most thriving provinces, hav- tile. Hence, while the mountaineers have to ing been sufficiently shielded, by a strong and contend with many disadvantages of a rough liberal government, against the attacks of all climate and sterile soil, the lowlanders enjoy external enemies. A long series of calamities the almost spontaneous blessings of nature. for both countries commenced on the acces- Amongst their various fruits, the late plums, sion of the Hapsburgs to the Hungarian both for quantity and delicacy, deserve menthrone. Under the misrule of that race, tion. Every house and farm possesses large Croatia was exposed to incessant inroads plots of plum trees, and even the roads for from the Turks, and in several districts en miles are skirted by them. From their abuntirely depopulated. In order to repeople dant produce,'a fine kind of brandy, slivovicthe land, Leopold I., towards the end of the za, is distilled. The red wines of Syrniam seventeenth century, invited all the outlaws are likewise celebrated for sweetness and who had formed themselves into organized flavor, the Roman emperor Probus having, bands along the borders, alternately ravaging in the third century, first introduced the both the Turkish and Hungarian territo- growth of vines there, near the town of Miries--to settle there for the protection of trovitz. the latter. This invitation was accepted by The Sclavonian tribes of Croatia are as a great number of these desperadoes, to different in appearance, character, and manwhom the king assigned a large tract of ners, as the country they inhabit, and the waste border-land, severing it, politically, occupations they pursue. The mountaineers for ever from the mother country, at the have lofty stature, dark complexions, fiery same time subjecting those savage tribes to eyes, long plaited hair, and black bushy strict military regulations. Thus the found beards. They are still a set of uncultivated ation was laid for a system which, though savages, sullen, passionate, and revengeful; salutary in its first results, at a later period redoubted in time of war less for true valor proved highly detrimental to civil freedom. than for ferocity and love of plunder. BaThis system was arbitrarily extended over ron Trenck, the leader of the famous corps the entire southern and eastern frontier of of Croatian volunteers called Pandurs, reHungary; and when tbere were no longer cruited part of his terrible bands from these any infidels to contend with, the arms of the mountains, and led them, during the Austrian Grenzers were turned against all the popular wars of succession under Maria Theresa, barriers that obstructed the progress of ab. against the empire. Clad in Turkish fashion, solutism.
with the fez and loose red mantle, and carCroatia, including the provinces called rying the horse-tail and crescent, instead of Sclavonia and Syrnium, has a territorial ex- colors, they went forth, leaving a cursed metent of 3,250 square miles, with nearly mory wherever they set foot, from the dire 2,000,000 inhabitants, who, with few excep-) crimes they committed on defenceless people.
The populace of Bavaria, as well as that of the Crescent. His offer was accepted, and along the Rbine, retain a traditional horror he rose rapidly, signalizing himself by his of their barbarous deeds; so much so, that conspicuous military abilities ; and now, in his even to this day, they frighten their children fifty-third year, he fills the highest and most into obedience by calling out: “Hush, the important post in that realm after his sovePandurs are coming !”.
reign, the sultan. The Grenzer of Licca, the wildest amongst On descending the mountain slopes, both the mountain tribes, wears a fez, a tight-fitting the climate and people gradually become black or green jacket, green trousers, red more genial ; and in the low countries, prinmantle, and sandals of untanned hide, which cipally in provincial Croatia, the meagre faces are used throughout the country. His chest, of the people bear an expression of gentleboth summer and winter, is left uncovered. ness and good-nature. Their apparel, also, The whole of his attire, even his linen, is undergoes a considerable change. The men richly ornamented with embroidery, braid of wear broad-brimmed Hungarian bats, wide bright colors, and innumerable buttons and linen drawers and shirts, with the addition, rings of silver or zinc. In his leather belt he in winter, of trousers of a thick white cloth ; carries his inseparable companions—a brace black great-coats—gungatz-ornamented with of pistols, together with a knife, his pipe, and small pieces of cloth of gay colors, and a large cartridge box. His chief weapon is a long, rug or a sheepskin—bunda. The torba, which old-fashioned gun, inlaid with silver, like those completes their dress, is a leather pouch of the Turks. The women are tall, but too hanging from their side ; this they never part robust and masculine, both in appearance and with, either by day or night; in it they keep bearing, to be called beautiful. The principal their provisions, pipes, and, above all
, the part of their dress is a long linen gown, of never- failing flask of brandy - rakie — of ample proportions, drawn in at the waist with which both sexes are passionately fond. a girdle, and embroidered at every seam. Alike in the low countries as in the moupFrom their shoulders hangs a short cloth tains, the women's chief attire is a loose linen mantle, and on the head they wear a cap of gown, fastened with a leather girdle round a flat or pointed form, over which they throw the waist, and falling in a thousand folds a black. veil. The neck they adorn with rows below the knees. The upper part of this of buttons, and in their girdle, like the men, garment forms a very novel sort of larder ; they carry pistols and knives. Amongst their the owner, in default of pockets, stowing in many strange customs, the most peculiar is it a variety of eatables, such as cakes, bacon, the mode of marking their married or single sausages, fruit, &c., with which, on leaving state by the color of their stockings: the their dwellings, they invariably provide themmaidens wearing white, the married women selves, in order to regale the friends whom red, and the widows blue.
they may chance to meet. A broad, flat Several villages in the mountains near the cap, or red kerchief, worn in the Turkish coast are inhabited by Uskoks, descendants fashion, as a turban, forms their usual headof pirates, who rendered themselves famous gear; the neck and girdle they deck with during their desultory warfares against the gold or copper coins and buttons, and the Republic of Venice, and who even now sur fingers with as many rings of silver or zinc pass all their neighbors in ferocity of dispo- as they can conveniently squeeze on to them. sition.
They are extremely fond of painting their In the wildest and loneliest part of the faces; their cosmetics, which they begin to Croatian Mountains—the Great Capella range use as early as fourteen, are a preparation of
- lies the small village of Plaski, the birth vegetable matter. place of Omer Pasha. It belongs to the re- The domestic life of the Croats, in most gimental district of Ogulin, where his father, respects, bears the impress of primitive simBaron Littas, then held the rank of captain. plicity; the family affairs being conducted in Omer Pasha was born in 1801, and brought a patriarchal style by a chief, who manages up from childhood for the military profession, the property much in the same way as the which he embraced with great ardor, and in early Christian communities did. his twentieth year entered one of the Grenzer Neither the civilian, peasant, nor the Grenregiments as lieutenant. In consequence, how- zer divide their landed property among
their ever, of some quarrel with his colonel, he sud-children; the former from babit, and the denly left the Austrian service, and went to latter from the fact that he is solely the Turkey. There, having changed both his farmer of the government. Hence both, name and faith, he offered his sword in defence | though from different motives, resort to the same expedient of keeping their increasing members accommodating themselves in the families together, in order to carry on the kitchen, stables, and barns. cultivation of their united possessions.
Scarcely acquainted even from hearsay with A farmer's dwelling, when first constructed, the refinements of civilized life, the Croats contains but a large hall, to which, whenever are extremely simple in their habits, and a member of the family marries, a small hut huve but few wants, and these they contrive is annexed, consisting of a single room, which to reduce to a still narrower compass, to suit is fitted up as a sleeping-apartment. The their naturally idle inclinations. Notwithdwellings are built of logs or row-bricks, and standing the salubrity of the climate, and covered with the dry bark of the lime tree. the riches of the soil, they and their houses It is no rare occurrence to find from ten to not unfreqnently look as if suffering from a twelve families of fifty or sixty members seven years' famine. The furniture of their united in a house of this description, which rooms is scanty, and of a rude kind, the looks not very unlike an enormous bee-hive. great hall containing but a large earthenThe chief of such a community is the Gos- ware oven, a long table, several benches, and podar, or master, who is elecied for life to a collection of gaudy pictures of saints hung that dignity by the male members. His pa- upon the walls. In the bedroom there is triarchal sway is unhesitatingly obeyed, and, nothing save a bedstead and a weaving-loom. in case of need, supported even by the The kitchen is still more destitute of conveauthorities. The Gospodar has the uncon- niences: there you find scarcely any utensils trolled management of the extensive hus but a large iron ketile suspended over the bandry; he provides for the necessities of fire, which is kindled on the ground; and so his people, and dispenses the labor between far do they carry their indolence, that, inthe men; whilst the wife's office is to guide stead of chopping up the wood, they push the internal affairs, and to superintend the the entire trunk of a tree through the kitchen females in their varied occupations. At the door on to the fire, and whilst one end is burnclose of every year, the Gospodar makes up ing away, the other is still in the yard. The the accounts in the simplest way possible spacious chimneys are the best provided part that is to say, from a notched stick; the men of the house, for there, during the whole receiving the surplus in equal proportions, of the year, hangs a good supply of pork, and the females their share in presents of bacon, and sausages for smoking, forming an dresses or finery. . Besides the common pro- inexhaustible and almost the sole stock of perty, each member or family may possess provisions of a Croatian peasant. Of outas much individually as they save or earn buildings there are but few; for the grain, by extra labor. They may likewise separate until trodden out by horses, which they emfrom the parent stem at discretion, and set- ploy instead of threshing, is kept in stacks; tle in farms of their own. This privilege, and the cattle and horses remain throughout however, is seldom exercised, partly from the year in the fields and forests, under tembeing accustomed from childhood to the porary
sheds. former mode of life, and partly from the The expenses of a Croatian household are, conviction that by living together they spare of course, very few, the food and clothing a considerable amount of work, and more being the produce of their own industry. easily produce the necessaries of life. The finery and extra garments occasionally
Although the great hal)--the centre of purchased are of a cheap kind, and descend these Croatian bee-hives — is properly the from parent to child. A workman of any dwelling-room of the Gospodar, yet it is like trade is seldom, if ever, employed upon a wise, at certain times, at the disposal of the farm; the male members all being expert community at large, who in summer take masons, as well as carpenters and wheeltheir meals in it, and in winter, when com- wrights, they build their own dwellings pelled by the intense cold to take shelter and carts, using as little iron as possible in within - doors, old and young congregate their construction. Their wealth consists in round the enormous stove, in which mighty cattle of all kinds, particularly of swine. logs are burning, and listen, when the day's The horses are almost as small as ponies, work is over, to tales of witches and ghosts, in but full of fire and very fleet. They are which Sclavoniao imagination delights. On barnessed four in a row, in such worn and cold nights, the married people transfer their torn trappings, that one might imagine they beds from their unbeated rooms into the had already been employed in dragging the great hall, where they are placed in a row wooden horse of the Greeks into the doomed along the walls, the younger and unmarried city of Troy. Bees are likewise kept in a