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2d son, John, a Captain in the Navy, opinion of Scots writers, that the family of killed by a Frinch privateer in 1745. Duff, derive their origin from Macduff,

3d lon, Edward, an officer in the army, Thane of Fife, (a name or title equivalent Died in 1743•

to that of Baron,) created Earl thereof, by ist daughter, Bridget, married to James King Malcolm Canmore, in the year 1057, O'Daly, or Carrownekelly, county Galway, to which King he did extraordinary fervices, Elg; and clied 2d February, 1733, without issue. in arriting him to revenge his father's death

2d, Margaret, married in December, upon Macbeth, and to recover his crown. 1741, tv Grogory Byrne, of Byrne's-Grove, And it is beyond doubt, that Duncan, the county of Kilkern, Efq; and left her à uth Earl of Fife, who was killed at the batwidow, itt September, 1742, without illue. tle of Falkirk, anno 1248, had a younger

3d, Mary, married in October 1748, to fon Malcolm, who married a daughter of Edmond Coltello, Líq; Barrister at Law, Duncan Thane, of Calder, by whom he and had issue, 2 fons and 2 daughters. got a considerable estate in the counties of

4th, Catherine, married it July, 1750, Aberdeen and Banff, where he fettled, and to Patrick Wemys, of Danesfort, county of was progenitor of the Duffs. Kilkenny, Efq; and had istue.

The family of Fife are descended of the On the 57th August, 1745, his Lordfhip Strathbolgies, Earls of Athole, who for femarried secondly, Alice Agar, eldest daugh- veral generations lived in the north parts of ter to James Agar, of Gowran, Efq; and Scotland ; they were distinguished by the widow of Theolali, Lord Viscount Mayo, appeilation of Strathbolgie, from the place by whom he had no issue, and her Ladyship of their relidence, and were descended of was created the 4th of Aiguit; 1758, David, son of Duncan, the 6th Earl of Fife, Countels of Brandon, in her own right; and as is fully let forth, in the books of heraldry, is aint to the preient Lord Viscount Clifden; in Scotland, under the title of Earl of and his Lordihip died the 4th March, 1749,

Athoic. and was fuce ekd by his only furviving fun David de Strathbolgie, the urth Earl of

(1:1 Larl.) Thomas, the ist and present Athole, married Jean, cldest daughter and Earl of Louth.

coheir of John Cumin, Lord of Badenoch, Titles.) The Right Hon. Thomas Berming- and had several fons. He was killed in 1335, ham, Earl of Louih, and Baron of Athenry. at the battle of Filblane, and was succeeded

Creations.] Baron Athenry, originally by oy his eldest fon, David, the 12th Earl, tenure, in the reign of Henry the zil, and who turned an enemy to his country, joined since by writ of Summons to parliament, and the English, and adhered to their interest Earl of Louth, April 234, 1759, 32 Geo.20. ever after, for which he was forfeited, and

Arms.) Parii per pale indented, topaz died in England, without male illue, in Ocand suby.

toler, 1,75 Creit. On a wreath, an antelope's head The younger brothers of this last Earl, couped, pearl attiruti, topaz.

settled in the north of Scotland, and after Supporters.; I wo antelopes, pearl, with their brother's forfeiture, were obliged to horns hoofs, plain collars and chains, topaz.. quit the appellation of Strathbolgie, and úfMotto. Bis Lordihip uses none.

sumed that of Duff, to denote their descent Seat.) Tuovaughan, in the county of from the great and ancient Macriuils, Earls Galway, 80 miles from Dublin.

of Fife, of which there are many proo:s in

the histories of Scots writers, particularly in Duff, Earl of Fife.

Sir Robert Douglas's peerage of that kingTIL Right llon. James Duff, Earl of dom; along with the great estate of Strathco, of K:Ibrids, county of Cavan, fucceed- the lands and estate of Muldavit and Baida.' ed bis father Williain, the late and first vie, in Banffshire. Lari, in December, 1763. He married David Duff, of whom the Earl of Fife Lady Doroinea Sinciair, (born in 17.39,)is lineally descended, was proprietor of the only daughter of Alexander, the 9th Earl of lands and barony of Muldavit and Baldavie, Caitlincis, by his wife, the Lady Margaret in the county of Banff, and were designed Primoie, daugiter of Archibald, the first by cat title, in the reign of King Robert 3d, Earl of Roteberry,

of Scots, which is confirmed by charter unThere are several considerable families in der the great seal of that Prince, which Scotland, who claim their descent from th: charter is upon record, and the principal in great and ancient Macdufis, Thanes, and the custody of the fainily, and was also proExis of Fiti, of which this family is one; prictors of the lands of Craighead, Anand the rise and delcent of that illuit: ious chingre, Darbreich, Findachiyfield, and houle, is fully set forth in all books.of the others; he was succeeded by his fon, and Hlories of families in Scotland. Mr. Lodye, succeffor, John, who flourished in the reign in his peerage of liviand, gives it as the of James the First, and was fucceeded by

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his son John, who had a son Andrew, mar- the 26th April, 1759, he was further adried to Helen, grand-child of John llay, vanced by patent, to the dignities of Vifccunt Lord of Aboyne, and had two sons, Sir Macdufi, and Earl of Fife, in said kingdom, George, his heir, and John who died un- to him and his heirs male for ever. His married.

Lordship married, first, Lady Janet Ogilvie, Sir George Duff was bred to the church, daughter of James, Earl of Finlater and and acquired the lands of Castlefield and Seatield, by whom he had no issue: he marothers, and died in 1519, and was succeed- ried secondly, Miss Jane Grant, daughter ed by his son John Duif, who left two of Sir James Grant, Bart. by whom he had fons, Sir George, and John, who succeed- issue, viz. cd Sir George.

ist son, William, Lord Viscount Macduff, Sir George died unmarried, and left his who died unmarried, aged 27. estates to his brother John, who was suc- 2d, James, the present Farl of Fife. ceeded by his son John, who married Mrs. 3d, Alexander, an advocate, married Agnes Gordon, and left a son: John, who 16th September, 1775, Mary, daughter of was fucceeded by his only son John, who George Shene, Esq. was succeeded by his son Adam, who mar- 4th, Patrick, died young, ried Beatrix, daughter of Gordon, of Cairn- sth, George, married Mils Dalziel, daugh. borrow, and had children; first, Alexander, ter of General Dalziel. his heir ; fecond, John, ancestor of the 6th, Lodovick, late a Captain in the 8th Duffs of Curse ndac; third, William, pro- regiment of foot, married to Miss Deborah genitor of the Duils of Cummin, and Crom- Davies, daughter of Griffith Davies, Esq. bie, and died in April 1674, and was fuc- 7th, Arthur, an Advocate, and Compte ceeded by his son

roller of Excise in Scotland. Alexander of Keithmore, whose armorial ist daughter, Lady Anne, married to bearing is recorded in the Heralds Office, Alexander Duif, of Halton, Esq. 1676; he married Helen, daughter of Alex- 2d, Lady Janet, married first, to Sir ander Grant, of Ballintomb, ancestor of Sir William Gordon, of Park, Bart. and feArchibald Grant, of Moneymusk, Bart. by condly, to George Hay, Esq. whom he had 3 sons and 3 daughters, viz. 34, Lady Jean, married to Keith Urque itt, Alexander, his heir, afterwards of hart, Efq. Bracco ; 2d, William of Dipple, afterwards 4th, Lady Helen, married to Robert Duís, of Bracco, the Earl of Fife's great grand Esq; of Cultore, Vice Admiral of the Red. father ; 3d, Patrick, of Craystown.

5th, Laily Sophia, married 12th Auguit, Alexander, of Bracco, married Margaret, 1774, to Thomas Wharton, Esq; one of daughter of Sir William Gordon, of Lef- the present Commissioners of Excise in more, Bart, by whoin he had a fon and Scotland. 3 daughters.

6th, Lady Catherine, died unmarried. William, his only son succeeded, and 7th, Lady Margaret, to Jancs Brodie, married Mrs. Duff, Lady of Bracco, by of Brodie, Esq. whom he had one daughter, married to Pa- And, his Lordship, dying in December, trick Duit, of Premna, Efq; and dying 1763, was succeeded liy his second son w thout issue male, tie representation de- (ad Earl.) James, the second and present volved on his uncle William Duff, of Dip- Earl of Fife. rle, before menciuncil, which William Duil, Titles.) The Right Hon. James Duff, of Dipple, fecond fon of Alexander, of Carl of Fife, Viscount Macauit, and Baron Keithinore, married Helen Gorrion, daugh- of Bracco, of Kilbride, co. of Cavan. tir of Sir George Gordon, of Edenglaflie, Creations.) Baron Bracco, of Kübride, Bart. hy whom he had, William, created in the co. of Cavan, 28th July, 1735, pih Earl of Tife, and 4 daughters.

Geo. 2d, Viscount Macduit, and Earl of (ift Earl.), William, the only son, was a Fife, 26th April, 1759, 33d Geo. 2d. meinber in the British parliaroent, for the Arms.) Quarterly, first and fourth; topaz, county of Banii, and like a true palciot al- a lion rampant, ruhie ; armed and lan lid ways adhered to the intereft of his couniry; laphire. For vilcount Macduff, and earl of he was creaturi a peer of Ireland, by the tile Pic, second and third, emerali, a fefie dana of Lord Bracco, of Kilbride, by privy leal sette erinine, between a ftag's head, cahofied of Queen Caroline, when regent bearing in chief, and two escallops in base ; topaz, date izih June, and by patent 28th July, $.: Duff

* of Braco. 1735. His Lor?lip in the late rubllion of Croft.) On a wreath, a demi lion as in the Scotiand, joined his Royal Ilighness the arni, holding in his dexter paw a broad Dule of "Cumberland, at Aberdeen, in swcre, crected in pale, proper, hilied and Mardi, 1945, and made a free and noble pumn tlid, topaz, with the motio, deus juvat, orier of i's fervices to the governinent, in over it. Any Mape his Majeity should require, On



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Supporters.] Two favages, wreathed about ous generical names of polypes, corals, mathe head- and 'middle with laurel, holding drepores, fea-pens, tæenia, or tape-worn, branches of trees in their hands, all proper. sponges, sea-fans, &c. • Motto. Virtute et opera. (By virtue The free access which he had to the museand industry.)

um of the prince of Orange, and other cuSeats. ] Duff-house, , in the county of rious collections in Holland, enabled him Banff; Balreny Castle, and Rothiemay, in to enrich his work with the description of the same county, all in Scotland,

a great variety of these productions which Memoirs of Profeffor Pallas. By Mr. Coxeo described each species at large, and given

were brought from both Indies. He has *HE present learned and eminent na- it a new name characteristic of its real dif

turalist and traveller, Dr. Pallas of tinctions : and (what especially increases the Petersburgh, is son of Simon Pallas, profesi- value of his work ) he has with wonderful or of surgery at Berlin, and first lurgeon industry, extricated, as far as possible, the of the charity hospital in that city. Simon Tynonyms of former authors, both ancient Pallas, the father, made himself known and modern ; thus rendering his book highly among the writers of phyfic, by a treatise useful to those who are curious in this branch ** on the Operations of surgery,” publish- of natural hiftory. ed in 1763 ; and by a supplement to it, That our author's character, as “ On the diseases of the Bowels,” in 1770; of science, must have been well established, in which year he died, as the age

of 76. even before the publication of this book, Peter Simon Pallas, the son, was born in may safely be inferred froin his being elect 1731, and probably received the early part ed member of the Royal Society of London of his education at Berlin; but in 1750 on the 7th of June, 1764, and of the Imhe was sent to Gottingen to study under perial Academy before that time. It is prothe celebrated Haller, whom he bable that the credit of these works occasi. was strongly recommended by Dr. Meckel, oned the removal of the author to his nathe colleague of his father at Berlin, and tive city (Berlin), where he was resident professor of anatomy. He afterwards pure in 1767; and in the same year he was invilued his studies in Holland, and, in 1760, ted, by the Empress of Ruffia, to accept to k his degree of M. D. on which occa- the professorship of a natural history at Pefion he wrote a very ingenious treatise, un- tersburgh ; and was, at the same time, made der the title of " Diljärtatio inauguralis de inspector of the Museum. iniejiis viventibus intra viventia. In this The sovereigns of Rusia had, at various this tract the author appears to have taken times, deputed learned and skillful men to great pains to distinguish thefe noxious ani- visit the inoit distant provinces of their vast mals; and has, with fingular accuracy, def- empire, with a view to enlarge the bounds cribed particularly those worins which are of science, and extend the knowledge of found in the human body. The talents of nfcful arts among the natives. About the the author probably recoinmended him very time of our author's establishment at Peterfearly to the favour and patronage of the burgh, two of these expeditions had been celebrated Gaubius, at that time principal planned : Dr. S. Gmelin had the conprofeflor of physic at Leyden ; and, through duct of one ; and Pallas was placed at the his recommendation and interest, he seems head of the other, with Messrs. Falk, Lepeto have obtained a fettlement at the Hague, kin, Guldenstaedt, as his associates. where we find him in 1766, when he pub- Dr. Pallas quitted Petersburgh in the lished a much-esteemed work under the title month of June, 1768, (and in fort, after of “ Elenchus Zoopbytorum.

visiting the most distant provinces of the emThe attention which Dr. Pallas had bel- pire and penetrating to the confines of Caltowed on the zoophytes, or animal-plants muc Tartary, Tobolsk, the neighbouring in the investigation of the worms which in-- hores of the Caspian, and the boundaries of felt the human body, as he acknowleriges, the Mongol hordes, dependant upon China, seems to have led him into this line of na- &c.], he returned to Petersburgh on the 30th tural science, and in which he has shewn of July, 1774, after an absence of fix years. a great degree of accuracy, and surprising The account of this extensive and interindustry. In this work, which is printed efting tour was published by Dr. Pallas, in 8vo. pp. 451, after having treated on the three parts, containing 2004 pages, in five nature of these ambiguous kinds of animals volumes in 4to, which has greatly contribuin a general way, and giving the various ted to extend his fame and establish hvis opinions of authors relating to the place they character. The author in this valuable work ought to hold in the system of nature, he has entered into a geographical and topogradefcribes, from his own inspection, more phical description of the provinces, towns, than 270 fpecies of those worms and ani- and villages, which he visited in his tour, malcules, which are known under the vari- accompanied with an accurate account of



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their antiquities, history, productions, and deserves a confiderable place among those commerce : he has diicriininated many of writers who have fuceeded in developing the tribes who wander over the various dif- the complicated history of the roving tribes tricts, and near the confines of Siberia ; and that are scattered over those extensive redetailed, with peculiar precision, their cuf- gions which stretch from the heart of Sibe. toms, manners, and, languages: he has ria to the northern limits of India. The proalso rer dered his travels invaluable to the feffor has, in a recent publication, eniiled Daturalis, from the many important disco. “ Collections on the Political, Physical, and Feries in the animal, vegetable, and mineral Civil, bistory of the Mongol' Tribes,' kingdoms, with which he has enriched the thrown new light on the annals of a peoscience of natural history. These travels ple, whose ancestors conquered Ruffia, Chiare written in the German language; but the na, Persia, and Indoftan ; and, at author has added to each part an appendix than one period, established perhaps a larin the Latin fougue, which contains 395 ger empire than ever was possessed by any fcientific descriptions of several quadrupeds, fingle nation. The materials for this pubbirds, fish, infects and plants. He has alió lication he collected partly during an intergreatly contributed to increase the utility course with the Mongols, Burats, and Calof his performance by 9 charts and 123 en- mucs, and partly from the communication gravings of various antiquities, of several of Muller and Gmelin. Tartar dresses and idols, and of many

Hitherto moft authors who have written animals and plants. The curious naturalists on these Afiatic hordes hare called them all and philosophers of England could not indiscriminately by the name of Tartars ; fail considering a translation of thele travels, but this erroneous appellation is rectified by and those of Georgi, Lepekin, and Gmelin, Dr Pallas, who proves unquestionably, of which the former were made, and the that the Mongol tribes are a distinct race latter were printed, under the inspection of from the Tartars ; that they differ from thern Pallas, as a valuable a Idition to our know in their features, language, and governledge of those distant parts of the globe.... ment; and reiemble them in nothing but Dr. S. Gmelin, after having loft many of in a fimiler inclination to a roving life. Jis papers and collections, funk under grief This primitive nation of Asia, whose origin, and disease, and expired in a Imall village hiftory, and present state, form the subject of Mount Caucasus in 1773: Falk died in of this interesting work, dates its celebrity the course of the journey : and Profesior from its founder Zinghis Khan, whole Lowitz was wantonly massacred by the in- exploits and glovereignty have been already human Pugarchef *.

mentioned. When his vaft dominions fell Dr. Pallas fortunately returned, but not to pieces under his successors in the 16th cenwithout having endured many hardships, tury, the Mongol and Tartar hordes, who and having narrowly escaped from the most had composed one empire, again separated, inminent dangers ; as we may conclude and have since continued distinct and indeby the manner in which he finished the ac- pendent. The Mongol hordes Dr. Pallas count of his travels. “ And on the zoth divides into three principal branches, called of July I reached Petersburgh, with a very Mongols, Oerats or Calmues, and Burats; enteelled body and grey hairs, though only and each of these he separately describes in the ihree-and-ibiriieib + year of my age; with that precision and accuracy which disbut yet much Itri nger than when I was in tinguish all his writings. This volume, delSih ria ; and full of grateful acknowledg- cribing their historical, civil, and political ments to Providence for having hitherto flate, is to be followed by a second, that procrved and delivered me from numberless that will contain a very circumftantial acevils."

count of their religious establishment, which Dr. Pallas, known to the generality of contists in the worthip of the Dalai Lama. the English readers only as a great naturalist, It is the religion of Thibet, and of the ManN 0 T E S.

shur sovereigns, who now fit on the throne “Lowitz was employed in lezeiling the of China. « À work, as Mr. Tooke projected canai between the Don and Volga. juftiy observes, " that will enrich the flok In this inftance, insult was added to cruelty: of human knowledge with discoveries, inc being informed that he was an astronomer, greatest part entirely new, and which no Pugatchef wantonly ordered him to be trans- per on but Dr. Pailas, is able to communi. fixed upon piktë, and raised in the air, in cate order to he near the ttars; and in that situa- In the same year in which the Profesor tirn he was massacred by the command, and printed his • Elenchus Zoophytorum, he in the pretence, of the barharian.”

alio pur forth a treatitt, under the title of 1 Above, his birth has been dated in

N 0 T E. 17,1. I fv, in 1974, he must have been *« Tooke's Ruffia Illufirala, Introd. in the ibree-and joritetis year of his age. p. cxi,” Edit.

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“ Miscellanea Zoologica quibus novæ impri- “ Icones Infectarum, præfertim Ruffiæ, Si-. mis atque obscure Animalium species def- beriæque peculiarium, &c. 4to. Erlang cribuntur et obfervationibus iconibuíque il- or, Figures of Insects, principally of those luitrantur.” Mag. Com. pp. 118, with which are peculiar to Rullia and Siberia,” 14 copper plates. This work is in a great accompanied with descriptions and illustra-, measure incorporated into a fubfequent pub- tions. These two numbers treat of the lication, made the next year on his return foorabæi, curculiones, tinebriones, bupelreis to Berlin, entitled, “ Spicilegia Zoologica ;' meloedes, cerambices, with fix plates, conand which has been continued in numbers, taining coloured figures of 180 infects of at uncertain periods, until 1787, when the those yenera. rath was clelivered. It contains, beside the By intelligence received during the course Jerter-press, 72 plates, and has reflected the. of last year, we find that he is employed higheft credit upon the author, as a most in the arrangement and publication of a careful observer and critic in zoology: it fplendid work, which is to be executed comprehends a rich magazine of knowledge at the Empreis's expeace, and is to confor future writers, not only from the great tain the entire botany of the Ruflian emnumber of new animals discovered in con- pire. It is to be embellished with several sequence of his travels through the Rusian hundred plates of the more useful or fearce empire, but also from a vast fund of new plants. It will be of the large fized paper, overvations on those before known, and and will be delivered out in numbers. particularly from the light he has thrown Exclusive of these feparate publications he on the descent of several of the domesticated has likewise read before the Imperial Acadekinds, theoriginof which had been hitherto in- my several dissertations (here fpecified] volved in the utmoft obcurity. The works which have been printed in the Transactions of Count Bailon, the illustrious French zoo. of that learned body. logist, amply teftify the labours of Pallas in It cannot but be pleasing to the lovers of the fupplementary volumes ; and our own science to be informed, that Dr. Pallas has excellent writer on the same subject, Mr. been lately distinguished with a mark of ImPennant, mak s frequent acknowledgments perial favour, being appointed member of of his obligations, to the fame fourci, par- the board of mines, with an additional apticularly for his new edition of the “ Synop- pointment of 200l. per annum. fis of Quadrupeds," having received from Dr. Pallas confiderable additions and cor

The Hisory of Gothic Arcbitelure. letterses communicated in a long teries of A Without anim ich produce a local led

In June 1777 the learned Professor read roneously. They are of two forts; the before the Academy of Petersburgh, in a one built in the Saxon times; the other in meeting at which the king of Sweden was the Norman. Several cathedral and collepretent, a “ Differtation on the Formation of giate churches of the fira fort are yet remainMountains, and the Changes which this ing, either in whole or in part, of which Globe has undergone, more particularly as this was the original. When the Saxon it appears in the Rullian Empire.” 'ilis Kings became Christians, their piety (which curious treatise, written in the French was the piety of the times) consisted in tongue, was printed at Petersburgh ; and a building churches at home, and performning translation of it is given by Mr. Tooke in his pilgrinages abroad, especially to the Holy “ Rufiia Illufirata.” In 1778 he published Land; and these fpiritual exercises affifted “ Novæ Species Quadrupedume Glirium and jupported one another. For the mol ordine." This pertermance, printed at venerable as well as the most elegant models Erlang in 4to, contains 388 pages and 27 of religious edifices were then in Palestine. plates, and deferibes numbers of the rat ge- From theto, our Saxon builders took the nus, and their anatomy. In 1781 he brought whole of their ideas, as may be feen hy out “ Enumeratio Piantarum quae in horto comparing the drawings which traveller's Procopii à Demidof Mofcuâ vigent,”. (Pet. have given us of the churches yet fanuling 8vo.) or, “ Catalogue of the Plants in Mr. in that country, with the Saxon remains Demidot's Gardens at Moscow;" and in of what we find at home; and particularthe same year he gave to the public two vo ly in that sameness of style in the later rolunes in 8vo. called, “ Neue Nordischeligions edifices of the Knights Templeis Beytrage,” &c. or, “ New Northern Col- (professedly built upon the inodel of the lections on various fubjec!s of Geography, church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem) Natural history, and Agriculture.”

with the earlier remains of our Saron edi. The third volume made its appearance in fices. Now the architekture of the licly 1782. (All the treatises in the three volumes, Land was Creciari, lout greatly fallen from composed by himielf, are here specified.] its ancicnttienance. Our Saxon performance

In 1782 he put forth two numbers of was indeed a bad copy of it; and as mus!

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