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as full of authority, and the first favourites controul can stop the rebellious eagerness of the state. The very fums appropriated by with which they plunge into debauchery. government to the lupplying armies and na- Hence adulteries, fornications, and all the lives with stores and necessary sustenance, heart-rending train of evils, from which no were expended in support of the stage. Plu- nation, from the beginning of the world, tarch says, it cost more to represent some of hath hitherto been exempt. The application the pieces of Sophocles and Euripides, than of a radical cure to the spreading, and to it would to have carried on the war againg the contagion of prostitution, is, perhaps, the Barbarians. Nay, this passion extended impossible. to so outrageous a length, that it was whim- Thus considered therefore, the Greeks, fically, though perhaps truly faid, that like many other states, both ancient and “ fingers and dancers were pampered up modern, may be acquitted of licentiousness; with marrow and other luscious food, while and their licensing of courtezanis may be ac: the admirals of their flects had only meal, counted for by that hard law of neceffity, cheese, and onions, provided for their fub- which induces the toleration of a lesser eril

, fiftence.”

in order to the prevention of a greater. Re“ A woman,” says one of the primitive gulations and restrictions may keep within fathers of the church, “ went to the play, tolerable bounds, a turbulent and pernicious and came back with the devil in her ; where. Atream, and so far they are advantageous ; upon, when the unclean spirit was urged but they cannot stop the torrent ; it will and threatened in the office of exorcising, force its way in spite of all the efforts of for having dared to attack one of the faith- man. Modifying, then, is perhaps all that ful, I have done nothing replied he, but can be done ; for the remark is but too true, what is very fair ; I found her on my own that vile as the characters of prostitutes are, ground, and took possession of her.they are rendered worse by the licentious

Now if Satan had held such sovereign state of their prostitution. fway over the Greeks, at the time we are On grounds like these, (for the legislaspeaking of, what work would there have tures of every age and every nation have delbeen for the priefts? What herds of the un- paired of subduing, entirely, unchafte dehappy fernale world would have been fur- fire,) Solon permitted women to prostitute charged with devils of the vilest denomina- themselves publicly in the temple ; and the tion! But insinuating practices of this na- more effectually to strike at adultery, he orture had not yet found their way into dained, that courtezans should wear a pecuGreece. Prolific as it was of holy phan- liar garment. Thereby wishing to prevent, toms, such infernal freaks had not yet crept what Juvenal afterwards, in another place, in among them.

so loudly exclaimed against, “ Where is the Licentiousness, in most things, seemed kreet which abounds not in obscenity?" congenial to the Grecian constitution ; in Notwithstanding all this, the Greeks were none more conspicuously than in the inter. assuredly unacquainted with what sensible course of the sexes. The Greeks had a minds acknowledge to be the refinements two-fold Venus, the one of heavenly ex- of passion. It is true, Homer speaks feel. traction, was deemed patroness of chaste ingly of the divinity of love, in whose cestus, and faithful love: the terrestrial goddess was bound up presided over libidinous defires. Modefty Every art, and every charm, and strict decorum attended at the altars of To win the wiseft, and the coldeft warmi the one; lewdness, wantoness, and de- Fond love, the gentle vow, the gay desire, bauchery, were the constant companions of The kind deceit, the still reviving fire, the other. A custom, by the way, which Persuasive speech, and more perfuafive was borrowed from Egypt and Phænicia ; fighs, for the maidens consecrated in Egypt and Silence that spoke, and eloquence of eyes. Phænicia to the celestial Isis, or Venus

ILIAD, b. xiv. v. 243. Urania, were ftrictly pure, while those de Notwithstanding the fouls of the Greeks voted to the terrestrial Isis were prostituted were not attuned to gentle desires, they yet, in the most public manner.

as a matter of political neceffity, held maIt may, indeed, in the political scale of trimony in respect. In some of the comreasoning, be deemed harsh to stile this monwealths it was highly honourable, for it legislative acquiefcence in public proftitution bespoke an affectionate consideration for the positive licentiousness : it may, though con- prosperity of the state, which could only be tradictory to all moral principles, be confi- secured by the number and strength of its dered ftill as a wholesome evil in a state. children. At Sparta, we know, the very The unbridled appetite to sensual gratifica- time was prescribed for a citizen to marry. tions has ever been too ftrong to admit of Refractoriness was held in contempt; lo abfolute compulsatory restraint. Where the that a batchęlor, of a certain age, was lia: paffions boil, and the blood runs high, po

bala

the embraces of the first perfon who mouta Tufollowing Dialogue, between the

343 ble to the most gross, though legal, insults nency in females before marriage, though and indignities : for instance, the laws or- the inflicted exemplary punishment on aduldained, that he should run round the forum tery. The same, at this day, may be suid naked; that at certain festivals the women of New Zealand, and most of the islands in should drag him round the altars, cuffing and the southern hemisphere, where parents are beating him the whole way; and what was authorised to force their children to prostiworse than all, but in which there was some tution ; but this matrimony in common, this sense, that from certain sports, where the sanctified prostitution of wives, is not, in young virgins scampered about naked, he my knowledge, any where to be paralleled. should be excluded.

I shall therefore conclude, with a remark And indeed, foberly speaking, these pu- of the elegant and philofophic Hume, nishments were nothing more than what an “ That barbarous nations display their old solitary batchelor was entitled to; for superiority by reducing their females to the obftinacy alone could have led him to a sin- most abject llavery, by confining them, by gle life, fince, as to fetters, there were none beating them, by selling them, by killing in the Grecian state of matrimony. A man them; and that the male sex, among a pomight as well have taken a wife unto him- lite people, discover their authority in a more self, as to have borrowed one. Wives were generous, though not less evident manner, neither clogs nor restraints upon husbands, by civility, by respect, by complaisance, and nor husbands upon wives : the most perfect in a word by gallantry.freedom was allowed to each. A jealous disposition, it is true, or a difpofition unfor

Fohnsoniana. tunately delicate or refined, would have

LETTER I. shrunk; perhaps, at the bare possibility of

heart to THE

great Dr. Johnson and myself, I coinsolicit her. This, it must be acknowledged, mitted to paper on the very day it happened. might have prompted many a good soul to I am confident it is very accurate, for I have the chearless life of celibacy. Every man a retentive memory, whatever other talents had not nerves hardy enough to admit of I may want. The occasion was this :making over his wife to another, as Socrates during the first year of my marriage withe did Xantippe to Alcibiades ; although it the best of husbands, finding myself extremewas thought a very disgraceful sentence to ly unhappy, and supposing myself cruelly a criminal even to lose the privilege of lend- treated by the man who, I knew, loved me, ing his wife.

and of whom I was passionately fond, I paid Lycurgus, we are told, “ had a good opi- a visit to Dr. Johnson, in order to consult nion of that man, who being old, and hav- him on this extraordinary case. He was ing a young wife, should recommend some reading when I entered the room. I thus virtuous youth that the might have a child began : by him, to inherit the good qualities of such « I beg your pardon, Sir, for interrupt> a father, and who should love that child as ing your studies with so little ceremony ; but, tenderly as if begotten by himself, children if I may judge from your writings, you are being not so much the property of their pa- good-natured and humane. You may res rents as of the commonwealth." But Ly- fuse me your advice : but, when I tell you curgus did not stop here ; for strangers, as I am unhappy, it is not in your power to rewell as fellow-citizens, were admitted to fuse me your compassion. You may comthe same liberties ; in Ahort, to so !icentious mand your tongue ; but you cannot command an excess did the Lacedæmonians carry their your heart.”-He shook his head, without brutal desires, and all in the true spirit of looking up, or speaking a word. I alto con, carnal reciprocity, that the virgin daugh- tinued filent about five minutes. I was then ters, it is recorded, of the noblest houses going to begin, a second apology, and had among their confederates, dared not to be just pronounced, “I am sorry, Dr. Johnrefused to the lascivious embraces of the fon”-when, without raising his eyes from Spartan generals and governors.

the ground, he said—“ There wants no apoIn the midst of all the indelicacy, howe, logy. That a woman should seek confolaver, a deviation from chastity in an unmar- tion where it is not to be fouud, excites neither ried woman was treated with infinite feve- anger nor surprise. The infelicities of which rity. Those who had passed the Rubicon, mankind complain, are generally the offwere deemed sufficient for the day ; and spring of vice or folly. I accuse you of surely " sufficient for the day was the evil neither ; but to-day I am busy. You may thereof.” How to compare these customs, recite your story to-morrow morning. I and to what other usages to liken them, shall be at home till two o'clock. Madami, I profess myself ignorant. Thrace, as well I wish you a good day.”—“ Doctor, your as burinn, we know, admitted of inconti.,

servant,”?

servans." —And so ended our first conversa- capac'ty to reaton jully. Your jealousy tion.

provokes his resentment, and your upLETTER II.

braidings drive himn to the conversation of ACCORDING to my promise, I now men or women who receive him with more send you the Dialogue between Dr. John- complacency and good-humour. Dr. Ion and myself. I presume you will thin' Goldsmith entered the room, and here endit worth your acceptance, as it is a curiosity ed our dialogue. Your's, of which none of his Biographers are poteft

MARIA ed. I told you, in my last létter, that the Doctor, when I firit waited on him, was Epitaph on Dr. Johnson, in Imitation of Dr. busy, and that he promised to give me au:

Goldfinitb's Retaliation. dience the day following. I was punctual HERE lies our great Doctor, trho held to the time, and found him in his parlour it High Treason,

(reafon : with a thick book before him. As he conti- With wine, punch, or ale, to encumber his nued his study, I had an opportunity of ob- Yet may fairly be class'd with the reft of serving a singularity in his manner of read- the hive,

(alive: ing. As often as he came to the end of a While erect in his chair, he's thus buried line, he brought his eyes back again to the Unwieldy with knowledge and buckram'd in beginning of the nexi, by turning his head, pride;

(abide; which seemed to move so regularly upon a No mirth could unbend him, no trifler pivot, that his pose swung seconds like the His fense when he deign’d fome deep thougit pendulum of an eight-day clock.

to unfold,

(old; Doctor.--Well, Madam, what is your Spoke by starts by: set phrase, like the oracies pleasure with me?

And his wit (as the fun when the rack rides Lady.--Prom your writing I conclude on high, that you are a friend to the unhappy. With fudden effulgence beams full from the

Dozlor.--Your conclufion may be false. Then pops in his head and puts wheat ears Women are bad logicians ; but proceed.

in terror)

(error: Lady. I am married-well married. I Flath'd abroad for a moment, then left us in love my husband, and I think, nay I am Unless some new fophiftry happen'd to strike; sure, that his affection equals mine': yet I Or poor Scotland came in from fome quarter am unhappy, very unhappy.

oblique ;

(topiece si Doctor.-A very common case: Felicity Then he faih'd like a furi, flay'd alive, tore depends less on circumítances than on difpo. With hail, wind, thunder, lightning, the fition. How long have you been married?

storm still increases, (keeping Lady.--Two years.

All to ruin a land not worth conquest or Doctor:- You expected the loney-moon Orflay tome poor infect 'twixt waking and would never wane.

sceping:

(will nct vie; Laity.---No, no ; but I did not expect Thus I strike at his fame, with which mine that I was to be contradicted, put out of As men batter a fort who can't build a piga temper, nay, even commanded ; that my

stye;

(fay, husband would ever prefer any other compa: Let his friends all attend to the worst I cáo ny to mine ; that he would leave me to They must join' in the cavil and call it fair spend whole evenings alone. I thought we play,

(elf; were tobe always of the fame opinion; that for none got their hare from this miterly there was to be no command on either side ; Of what all lecin'd to value most highlythat we were to enjoy the same amusements ; himself. that he fould neither praise nor converse Anecdote of Prince Henry of Pruffe with other women. I thought neither- RINCE Henry, during his recent stay at

Paris, enough to convince me, that the cause of valiere Mademoiselle d'Eon, whom he was your infelicity is in yourself. You have been extremely desirous of seeing: during this vifit educated by maiden aunts, or by other silly a variety of refreshments were presented women at a boarding-school. You are un- to the Prince, and among the refi fome acquainted with the institution of marriage, plumbs, which appeared to uncommonly the laws of your country, and with human fine to one of his attendants, that he was nature. Women, wher married, are in a very importunate with his Royal Highness state of absolute subjection and dependence to eat some. Mademoiselle d'Eon observing The laws of your country have deprived this, very jocosely asked the Gentleman, you of all pretensions to controul, power, " What! Sir, do you imagine that Prince or authority; but human nature hath, in Henry of Prussia is come to Paris to eat reconipence, given you that, which, if dif- Plumbs ?"- This fally of wit, which does not creetly used, tecures to you the dominion of want falt, has been univerfally circulated in the world. Arguing with your huitand the polite circles at Paris. frryes only in conrince him of rou ini

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bank, and accordingly weighed and dropColle&tion of Voyages and Travels.

ped over it, and anchored again in ten fa. Voyage of Captain Cook round the World. thoms and a half, after which they were (Continued from Page 666.)

surrounded by thirty-three large canoes,

containing near three hundred Indians all T ,

HE vesel passing a remarkable high armed. Some of them were admitted on in hriour of the baronet of that name. broad cloth to one of the chiefs, and some The • is a curious rocky island to the north- small presents to the others. They traded east by north, which is arched, and at a peaceably for some time, being terrified at distance, has a pleasing effect. This is the firc-arms, with the effects of which celled Motuyogo by the natives, and lies in they were not unacquainted ; but whilst the 35° 10' 30' south, and longitude 185° 23" captain was at dinner, on a signal given weit. It forms a bay to the west, which by one of the chifs, all the Indians quitted contains many small islands, and Captain the ship, and attempted to tv away the Cook named the point at the north-west buoy ; a musquet was now fired over them, entrance Point Pococke. There are many but it produced no effect ; small shot was villages on the main as well as on the islands, then fired at them, but it did not reach which appeared well inhabited, and several them. A musquet loaded with ball, was canoes filled with Indians, made to the therefore ordered to be fired and Otetip ; and after coming along-side to trade; goowgoow (Ion of one of the chiefs), was thewed the same desire of cheating as the wounded in the thigh by it, which induced others. One of the midfhipmen was so them immediately to throw the buoy overnettled at being imposed upon, that he had board. To complete their confusion, a recourse to a whimsical expedient by way round Thot was fired which reached the of recovery; he took å fishing-line, and shore, and as soon as they landed, they ran threw the lead with such dexterity, that in search of it. If thelé Indians had been the hook caught in the Indian who had im- under any kind of millitary discipline, they posed upon him by the buttocks, when the might have proved a much more formidable line breaking, the hook remained, in his enemy; but acting thus, without any plan pofteriors. These Indians were strong and or regulation, they only exposed themselves well proportioned; their hair was black, to the annoyance of the fire arins, whilft and tied up in a bunch Ituck with feathers ; they could not possibly fucceed in any of the chiefs among them had garments made their designs. The Captain, Mr. Banks, of fine cloth, ornamented with dog-skin; and Dr. Solander, landed upon the island, and they were tataowed like those who and the Indians in the canoes soon after had last appeared. On the 27th the Endea- caine on shore. The gentlemen were in a vour was among a number of small islands, small cove, and they were presently furfrom which several canoes came off, but the rounded by near 400 armed Indians : but Indians, from their frantic gestures, feemed the captain not suspecting any holile design ditordered in their minds; they threw their on the part of the natives, remained peaceafish into the thip by handfuls, without bly disposed. The gentlemen, warching demanding any thing by way of barter. towards them, drew a line, intimating Some other canoes also came up, who that they were not to pass it? they did not saiuted the ship with stones. One of the infringe upon this boundary for some time; Indians, . who was particularly active, but at length, they sang the song of defiance, threw a stick at one of the Endeavour's men. and began to dance, whilst a party attemptIt was then judged time to bring them to ed to draw the Endeavour's boat on fore, reason, and a muíquet with small shot was the signal for an attack being immediatefired at him, when he fell in the canoe. A ly followed by the Indians breaking in upon general terror was now spread among them, the line ; the gentlemen judged it time to and they all made a very precipitate retreat. defend themselves, accordingly the capAmong the fish obtained from these canoes tain fired his musquet loaded with small were cavalles in great plenty, and for this shot, which was seconded by Mr Banks's reason the captain called these islands by the discharging his piece, and two of the men same name. For several days the wind followed his example. This threw the was so very unfavourable, that the vessel Indians into confusion, and they retreated, rather lost 'than gained ground. On the but were rallicd again by one of the chiefs, 29th, having weathered Čape Brett, they who shouted and waving his patoo-pator, bore away to leeward, and got into a large The Docter now pointed his musquet at bay, where they anchored on the south-west this hero, and hit him : this stopped be side of several islands, and suddenly came career, and he took to flight with the other into four fathoms and a half water. Upon Indians. They retired to an eminence in a founding, they found they had got upon a collected body, and seemed dubious whe

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X X

ther they should return to the charge. They Englishman had a right to plunder an Indian were now at too great a distance for a bail with impunity, received fix additional lashes to reach them, but these operations being for his reward. observed from the ship, she brought her As it was quite a dead calm on the 30th broadside to bear, and by firing over them, day of this month, two boats were sent to soon dispersed them. The Indians had in sound the harbour ; when many canoes their skirmish two of their people wounded, came up and traded with great probitý ; but none killed : peace being thus restored, the gentlemen went again on More'a w met the gentlemen began to gather celery and with a very civil reception from the natives; other herbs, but fufpecting that some of and this friendly intercourse continued all the natives were lurking about with evil the time they remained in the bay, which designs, they repaired to a cave, which was several days. Being upon a visit to the was at a small diìtance. Here they found old chief, he shewed them the infrument the chief, who had that day received a pre- used in tataowing, which were very like sent from the Captain ;' he came forth those employed at Otaheite upon the like with his wife and brother, and solicited occasion. They saw the man who had been their clemency. It appeared, that one of wounded by the ball, when the attempt the wounded Indians was a brother of this was made to carry off the ship's buoy; and chief, who was under great anxiety left the though it had gone through the fleshy part wound should prove mortal, but his grief of his arm, it did not feein to give him the was in a great degree alleviated,

when he was least pain or uneasiness. On Tuesday the made acquainted with the different effects 5th, in the morning, they weighed anchor, of fmall shot and ball; he was at the same but were foon becalmed, and a strong current time allured, that upon any farther hostilities ferring towards the shore, they were driven being committed, ball would be used. in with such rapidity, that they expected This interview terminated very cordially, every moment to be run upon the breakers, after some trifling pelents were made to the which appeared above water not more than chief and his companions. “ The prudence a cable's length distance, and they were fo of the gentlemen (lays our author) cannot be near the land, that Tupia, who was totally much commended; for had these 400 Indi- ignorant of the danger, held' a converang boldly rushed in upon them at once with sation with the Indians, who were standtheir weapon, the musquetry could have ing on the beach. They were happily redone very little execution ; but fuppofing lieved however, from shis, alarming situatwenty or thirty of the Indians had been tion by a fresh breeze fuddenly springing up wounded, as it does not appear their pieces from the shore. The bay which they had were loaded with ball, but only finall shot, left was called The Bay of Islands, on ac there would have remained a fufficient nmr- count of the numerous islands it contains ; ber to have massacred them, as it appears they caught but few fish while they lay there, they do not give any quarter, and none could but' procured great plenty from the natives, have been expected upon this occafion. It who were extremely expert in fishing, and is true, when the ship brought her broad- displayed great ingenuity in the form of fide to bear, she might have made great their nets, which were made of a kind of havock amongst the Indians ; but this grafs; they were two or three hundred fawould have been too late to fave the party thoins in length, and remarkably strong, on thore. Being in their boats, the En- and they have them in luch plenty, that it is glish rowed to another part of the same ifl. scarcely possible to go a hundred yards with.. and, when landing and gaining an emi- out meeting with numbers lying in heaps. nance, they had a very agreeable and ro. These people did not appear to be under the mantic view of a great number of government of any particular chief or sovefinall islands, well inhabited and culti- reign, and they seemed to live in a perfect vated.'!

ftate of friendthip, notwithstanding their The inhabitants of an adjacent town ap- villages were fortified. According to their proached unarmed, and testitied great humni- observation upon the tides the food comes lity and submiflion. Some of the party on from the south, and there is a current from Nóre who had been very violent for having the weit. December 7, feveral canoes put the Indians punished for their fraudulent off and followed the Endeavour, but a conduct, were now guilty of trepalies e- breeze arising, Captain Cook did not wait qually reprehensible, having forced into for them. On the 8th they tacked, and some of the plantations, and dug up po- ftood in for the shore, and on the 9th they tatoes. The captain, upon this occasion were about seven leagues to the west-ward Thewed strict justice in punishing each of the of the Cavalles, and foon after came to a offenders with twelve lathes : one of them deep bay, which the captain named Doubtbeing

very refractory upon this occafion, and less Bay. The wind prevented their putting coinplaining of the hardihips thinking an in here, and being foon after becalmed,

dhe

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