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all the favours with you have loaded me, I the same manner as if he were fill their have always held the honour of your esteem sovereign ; and that, with regard to him. to be the most precious. Permit me then, felf, he would, on all occafion, embrace Sire, to preserve this honour inviolated; every opportunity of demonstrating to him which, I will take the liberty to say, I have the most lincere and inviolable aitachunent. acquired at the expence of that blood which The King then refuming that haughty I have med in your service. But I hould and authontative (one in which he had been torteir it, Sire, were I unfortunate enough wont to address his ininisters, replied, “We to prove diloyal to that king whom you are to fully convinced, De Burgo, that you have set over me, and to whom you have are entirely devoted to our service, that we bound me to yield obedience. I will main- have ever distinguished you above all our tain the same fidelity to him that I have done ininifters by our particular regard; we have to your majesty; and I will lose the last drop always selected you from amongit the relt, of my blood in the fupport of his throne. in order to intruft to you our most imporAl the same time, Sire, I shall be, at all cant affairs ; and we have now made choice times, ready to give your majelty the most of you to be the depositor of our most secret vrequivocal marks of my respectful attach- resolutions. It is now about a year fince ment ; fully fenfible that you will never in- we have abdicated the throne in favour of our rese upon meiany commands that may be well-beloved fon Charles Emmanuel, from inconnitent with that jnttice and honour the motives which we set forth at Rivole on which have ever accompanied all my actions.' the day of our abdication ; to which it may

On the 28th of September, 1731, about be added, that we had also in our view to fix o'clock in the afternoon, Amadeus, be. try how that prince would demean bimself ing then alone with his wife at Montcalier, in the character of a sovereign, that we dispatched a message to the Marquis del might, in our lifetime, aliitt himn with our Borgo, with orders to attend him immedi- advice, and be able to leave you, after our alely. That minister, without entertaining the decease, a prince worthy of filling our Alighielt suspicion of the buliness on account throne. And though we have been entirely of which his presence was required, instant. satisfied with his administration, yet the in. ly obeyed the summons, as he had been terest of our state lays us under an indispenwont to do on former occasions. Immedi- rible obligation to resume the reins of goately on his entering the apartment, the vernment immediately, as we are now upon King laid to him, “Del Borgo, I have sent the eve of leeing very important sevolutions for you to lup with my wite and me, that in Italy, wlich might prove destructive 10 you might endeavour, by your good hu- our son and to his subjeets, were the admimour, to remove a head ach with which the nitration then relled in a young prince, yet is afii died; and after fupper I will im- inexperienced in thote wiles and mytteries of part to you an affair which will give you political art, which fovereign, who pleasure.” The marquis, with the utmott would maintain his power, is under a nerespect, acknowledged the honour which his ceility of employing. For these reasons, Majesty had done him, and took his text at marquis, we command you to deliver up no table. The King was in high spirt during us the act of our abdication, and then to the time of fupper, and entertained the fignify our intentions to our lon, and his marquis with a flow of humour and gaiery, miniiteis, in order that we may be inveftWhen supper was over, and the domeitics ed io-inurrow, without delay, with the foveresirevi, the King addrested Del Borgo in the reignty : for such is our will and pleasure.” following terms : “ I hath given me great A declaration so unexpected threw the pleature to observe, that the King my son, marquis into the utmost conlleinarion; and has retained in his service the fame persons he was at the greatest loss how to exuiçate whom I had employed myself; fince, with. himself from an affair of such delicacy and out doubt, he could not have chosen any danger. For on the one hand, had he given that were equal to you in fidelity, or in a positive refusal to this high Ipirited and imabilities, or in experience. I doubt not, at petuous prince, who had never met with a the same liine, that you know fufficiently, sefuial in his life, he ran the risque of throw. that it was I that expressly charged my son ing him into a transport of fury, to which to employ the same minilers, on whom I he himself might have fallen a victim ; and, myself, during my reign, had fixed my on the ottier hand, had the marquis yielded choice; and I hope thas, as well out of to his demands, he would have proclaimed duty as out of gratitude, you are still fi mly himself a rebel against his just and lawful attached to him who has been the author of Sovereign, and have incurred the penalty of your fortunes." The marquis replied, that high treator. bis Majeliy might always iely on his obe. In this embarrassing fituation, that ariful dience, as well as on the affection of all the miniiler, hoping to escape the storin which mwiftcis and officers of the King lois son, in threatened him by an excuse full of submilli



en and flattery, replied to the King, request. cares by her gaiety and sender officiousness, ing of him, with the urmult humlity, 10 now duif noi open her lips, left the might redieet, that is was not in his power to re- istilate his refeniment, and diaw on hericii tore the act of abdication, until he had first the effi&is of viipleafure. In this itace of cbrained permission of the king of Sardinia, penfive melancholy, ferching deep lighs, and to whum, as bis majesty knew, he had sworn at times giving way to trantports of outrafealty. The king, chated and enraged, in- grous fury, which dilcovered the agitations terrupted him in these words :-" Del ibas he inwardly underwent, he walked about Borgo, do you acknowledge any other love. his chamber till midnight, when addresling reign than me? To whom did you first fwear himself to the marchionets abruptly, as it juit the oath of fealty ? To me or to my fon ? awaking from a dismal dream, he exciaimed, Are you not a traitor, bosh ungrateful and “ my refolution is formed-order my horle diloyal towards the person who hath raised to be got ready for me without delay !" you to that eminence which you poflif, and She obeyed, wil inuch reluctance, unable 19 whom you have this moment professed to guess the morive of lu luuden a resolution, perpetual obedience? But I will easily find and not daring to make any enquiry. He means to bring you back to your duty, mounted his horse, attended by one valeihould you fail to obey me instantly.". de chambre, and presented himself at the

The marquis, in the utmost trepidation, gate of the citadel of Turin, demandingimproceeded in the following terms : " Sire, mediate admittance. One of the cificers of if you will do me the favour to listen to ine the citadel immediately acquainted the taa moment, you shall be convinced that I ron de St. Reris with the anival of the king am not such a man as you imagine me to be. Amadeus. The baron was aitonuihed, and It is true, that, by your orders, I have en. could Icaice be made to believe ihat he could tered into a new allegiance to the king visit bim at so unseafonable an hour : he your fon ; but notwithtanding this, I have went himself, without delay, 10 examine ever regarded you as my juft and lawful fo. into the truth; and actually found Amavereign, and in order to convince you, deus oa the spot extremely impatient to ob. Sise, of my entire refpect and obedience, I tain admittance. The governor begged to will bring you ihe act of abdication 10. mor- be informed what was his plealure with him. row morning, without mentioning the af- “ Open the gate this instant (replied hic) and fair lo any person whatsoever ; and the only I will falisiy you." The baion antwered, favour that I will request in return is, that that if he had any orders to give him, he you should juftify my proceeding to the king might deliver them from the place in which your fon." This answer pacified Ainadeus, he troud, or send them to him in writing, who, after having obliged the marquis to

for that he could by no means open the gare promise repea:edly that he would religiously at such an hour, wiihoui being wanting to keep his word,' left him at liberty to re- his duty, which he was setulved thould netire.

ver be the care, The marquis had scarce departed, ihan The king, after this repulse, returned to this prince, 'refit &ting on what had passed, Montcaliei filled with confufon, with apbegan to repent of having discovered his in- prehenfions, and with rage. He had ixtentions. He began to entertain a diftruft pected that the baron would have received of all his son's ministers; he was apprehen. him into the citadel without icruple, because five that they would oppose his designs; and he owed the place which he then held to his his mind was agiiated by turns with the good offices: and he had flattered himself emotions of ambition and of revenge. At with hopes, that were he once admitted, he one inftant he flattered hiinself with the hopes might be able, by means of the governor, of success from the docile and yielding dil- to jet bimself at the head of the troups itatiopositions of his fon ; at another, he was tor- ned in that place; and thus to compel his tured by the most agonizing apprehenhons. fon to relfore the crown, if he Mould not left that prince, after having once tatted the be disposed to furre der it voluntarily. But pleasures of unbounded liberty and of abso. now all his schemes were fruitrated, belute power, thould refuse to submit again to cause he found nobody inclined 10 aliit ja the authority of a father so stern and rigid promoung bis designs. Overwhelmed by as himself, and so aver se to ihe puuuits of ihe keenest agony, lie threw himself down pleasure. Such selection as thele sunk his on a couch, without saying a word to the spirit into the lowett defpondency ; nor did marchiones, who was itandi

by, Alled he know of any resource to which he could with diltiess, at observing the affliction which apply ; but, Atripped of bis power, and aban- her husband endured, whilft she was ignodooed by his friends, he saw himself devoted rant of the immediate cause of his sutierings. to the rigour of his fare, The marchio. No sooner had the marquis del Borgo got ness, who had hitherto been wont so enlio back to Turin, than he haituned to court, ven his solicary hours, and to banish bis and, with the Itronged marks of conltere

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pation, demanded an audience of the king. dues, who enjoyed the fubmiflion and Upon this one of the ladies of the bedcham. pect due to a fovereign, without being ber initantly arose, and went to awake his jected to the troubles and cares which at majefty, informing him, with much trepi- ihat exalled station : that, for these real Wation, that it was by the orders of the mar. though that prince bad so foon retracted quis del Borgo, who was then expecting he had folemnly lworn to observe inviolal him in an antichamber, to confer with him he did not appear tobe influenced by ju ft concerning aff jis of the highest inoinent. The realonable motives; and that he itron king arole immediately, and entered his clo- fufpected that he was inftigated in this afi 1°, after having giving orders to admit no. only by the boundless vanity of the march body but the marquis only. He was then ness his wife, who had often, since her n informed by that minifter, that the king his riage, betrayed an eager desire to be deciz father intended the next day to resume the ed queen : chat, as they had every reason crown; and that he had commanded him believe this to be che case, his majesty w to rettore into his hands the act of abdicati. in honour and duty bound to preierse 1 on, and, at the same time, to announce his crown, and to prevent his subjects from fa resolution to his majesty and his minifters. ling a prey to the insatiable ambition of The king immediately replied to the mar. mischievous woman: that he could not bel quis, without any emotion, « That fince admiring and applauding that dutiful sub he had ascended the throne by his father's mission which his majesty professed to the wil command, and with the universal approba- of his father ; but that, in this instance, his tion of the people, he held it to be a duty obedince, instead of meriting applaute which he owed them, 10 consult their fenti- would become the object of censure, as is ments before he resigned his sovereignty.” would prove ruinous to his his own interests, And as the shortness of the time required and to those of his people: that the intered decitive measures, he immediately comniand- of the public should ever regulate the actions ed the attendance of the ministers of state, of a sovereign ; and that he ought to reject, the Archbishop of Turin, the two fire without a scruple, every measure that tended prelidenis, and the other general offi- to obitruct this general view.". cers of the crown, in order to deliberate in

(To be continued) full council on an affair of such delicacy Account of the Morlacchi; from Travels in. and importance, on which depended the

to Dalmatia, by L'Abbe Fortis. happiness and tranquility of the realm. Thole ininifters having a flembled with all

(Continued from p. 716.) possible dispatch, the king communicated to them the intentions of Amadeus, inform

Of the Food of the Morlacchi. ing them at the same time, that, for his own

ILK coagulated in various ways, is part, in order to convince his father of his The ordinary nourishment of the More filial obedience, and of his entire resignati- lacchi; they sometimes give it an agreeable on to his will, he was ready to surrender to acid by the intution of vinegar, whereby the bim his crown; but that this was a itep curd becomes extremely retrelhing; and the which he could not refolve to take without whey is their favourite common drink, nor previously consulting their inclinations and is it at all unpleasant to a stranger's taste. opinions. Upon this all the nembers of that When a gyett arrives unexpectedly, their illuftious alembly arose, and after testifying readiest and best dill, is new cheefe fried their deep lenfe of the deference which his with butter. They are not much accultommaj-fy had paid them by a low bow, the ed to bread baked after our manner, but archbishop, in the name of the rest, spoke they make cakes of millet, barley, Indian to the following effect: “ That lince his coin, and sometimes of wheat, which they majetty had permitted them to declare their bake, or toalt on the hearih every day, for sentiments upon the subject which was the present use; but wheaten bread is hardly ever occasion of their meeting at that time, it ap. been in the cottages of the poor. They make peared to him, that Amadeus having, more a large provision of our cabbages, like those than a year ago, voluptarily surrendered the used in Germany; and roots, and all kinds crown in the most folemn manner that could of esculent herbs, which they find in the be devised, and for the reasons sei forth by woods, or in the fields, serve them for a. himsef, in his speech on that occafion (which cheap and falutary diet. But garlick and was inserted in the act of abdication) it ap. Malors are the food most universally plealing peared to him, he said, that the king could 10 that people, next to roatt meat, which is not possibly have any juft or reasonable mo. their most luxurious dish. I reinember to live at that time to resume the crown ; lince have read somewhere, that Stilpo, being re. he must have been fully satisfied with bis proved for going to the temple of Ceres, afmajesty's administration, which had been ter baving eaten garlick, which was forbid, equally agreeable to his subjects, and cale answered ; “ give me fomething better, and ulated to promote the ease of king Ama.

I will



I will leave it off.” But the Morlacchi would not many who have so much as a bedstead; not accept even of that condition; and if which bowever, when they happen to get they did so, it is more than probable they made in their rough manner, they sleep in, would repent it: for it is reasonable to think, between iwo goat hair blankets, without that the constant use of these plants, corrects theets, or any other bedding. The greatest in part, the bad quality of their water, and part of the inhabitants content themselves contributes to keep them long healthy and with the bare ground, wrapt in the usual robuft. No:hing is more common in that blanket, and only sometimes a little straw country, than to see very old men, trong, under is. But in summer they chose to sleep active and lively to an extraordinary degree; in the open air, perhaps to be delivered from and I am inclined to think that this is parto the doineitic insects. Their hou hold furnily owing to the garlick, and their regular core confits of few and imple articles, such vegetable dier. Yet, notwithstanding the as thepherds and peasants, lille advanced in large quantity of onions, garlick, and tha- arts, require. Their houses are not often lots which ibe Morlacchi consuine, it is covered with titles, or lates; and when the wonderful to observe, that in their own valt have any beams intended to support a leand rich fields, not one of these articles is cond floor, the family's wardrobe is placed produced; and inus they find themselves on them, and may be imagined well providobliged, year after year, to give away no in- ed where there is so much manificence; yet considerable sum to the people of Ancona, the ladies fleep on the floor, even in fuch aod Rimini, which might so easily be saved. noble houses. I have been lodged -It would certainly be a faluiary violence, of them, where leveral of these women were or rather an act of paternal charity, to force grinding corn till part midnight, screaming them to cultivate those products, without certain diabolical funzs, in the same place which they cannot live, and which require where I was laid to fee;', and where renoso small a degree of induftry. It would per- thers were stretched on the ground, and achaps be looked upon with derision, if on tually fast alleep, notwithstanding ihe frighithis occasion, prerniums were offered them ful vociferation. The Morlacchi, who have to serve themselves; and yet, that is doubt- lietle or no correspondence with the sea less the belt and easiest way of improving towns, and are at a great distance from agriculture.

them, bave seldom any other houses but A jare governor general of Dalmatia in- cottages covered with straw, or zimble ; fo troduced and encouraged the cultivation of they call a kind of laths, used initead of hemp in Morlacchia, and it succeeded well; eiles. The animals inhabit the same cottage but the public encouragement not continu. divided from the masters, by a Night partia ing, induftry only decayed, and now only a tion made of iwigs, and plaistered with finall voluntary cultivation goes on, wbich clay, and the dung of castle; the walls of Devertheless somewhat diminishes the sum re- the cottage are either of the same materials, quired to purchase foreign linen, and maina, or of large fones laid one upon another, tains a few looms in the country:

without cement. Many a Macrobius is to be found in The fire-place stands in the middle of the Morlacchia, especially on the brows of hills, cottage; and the smoke finds its way out at where the purity of the air joined to fruga. the door, there being rarely any other apera li:y and a laborious life, lengehens out old Hence everything within theie age without infirmity. Yes I did not find, wretched habitations is varnished with black, nor indeed enquire after a Dandon *; tho' and loathsome with Smoke; not excepting I thought I saw more than one old man who the milk, which forms a great part of theie might be compared to the old English Parr; sustenance, and of which they are very life. bot ibe Morlacchi are so carelessly ignorant, ral 10 strangers. Their cloaths, persous, that they can give no account of their own and every thing, in short, contract the same age, long before they come to that period of Sinokey finell. The whole family lits round their existence.

this fire.place, in the cold leafon; and, when of the Utensils, Cottages, Cloatbs, and

they have supped, lay theintelves down to Arms of tbe Morlacchi.

Neep in the same place where they fit at

fupper ; for, in every cottage, they have not A Morlack in easy circumstances has no even benches to fit, and to lie upyn. They other bed than a coarse blanket made of burn butter instead of oil, in their lamps ; goats hair, and of Turkish manufacture ; but for the most part they use pieces of clete very few of the richest people in the coun- fir, in lieu of candles, the smoke of which try have such a piece of luxurious furniture fometimes cinges their mustaches curiously. as a bed after our fathion; and there are A very few rich Morlacchi have houses in N o TE.

the Turkish fashion, with ftools, and some * Alex. Cornelius memorat Dandonem few of our moveables ; but in general, the Illyricum D. annos vixiffe, Plin, l, vü, 6, 48. richest of them live but a farage kind of



Iste. Although they have no idea of clean. 10 procure a microscope for the mind; but I Jiness in their habitations, yet, in one re- would have the use of it lie under these re. fpect, they are nicer than we are ; nor do strictions. In the filt place, no fool, rethey fail to reproach us on that account, and putedly such, Shouli be permitted to apply call us barbarous, and beastly : and it is a it, any more than a sword should be pur into real fact, that no man, nor woman of that the hands of a madman; for the light might Bation, let the disorder be ever so severe, or make him miferable, but it would not mihe painful, was ever known to eale nature him wise. In the next place, I would have within the cottage ; even dying perfons are it so constructed, that it could not be apcarried out to perform that operation in the plied to the breast of another, for the open air ; and if a stranger Mould, through would break in pieces the whole chain of ignorance, or contempt, pollute their houfe society ----Men and wives, parents and in that manner, he would scarcely escape children, brothers and liters, wouid, in with his life, and certainly not without very many a family, be at open war, peace ill treatment,

would entirely desert the court, and the A Morlacco clothes himself with great would scarce find refuge in the hamlet.plainness and economy. The opanke serve The competitors for wealth and power fór Mhoes, both to men and women, and un would be shocked with the execrable withes der them they wear a kind of short woollen and deligns of each other; and the hardftocking, called navablaza, which reaches handed peasant would behold his neighabove che ancle, and join to the breeches, bour thirting for his funeral and his farin. whereby all ine leg is covered. The breeches Nevertheless, there are two characters to are of course white serge, and they draw whom I would have it applied, viz. the them tight ahout their waist, like a purse, fanatic, and the flatterer ; and, at the same by means of a woollen Itring. Their shirt time, I would have them sensible of jis apis very short, and over it they wear a short plication. Such ridiculous circumstances doublet, which shey call caserma; and in would be the most adequate punislıment imawinter they add a kind of short cloak, made ginable. of very coarse red cloth, and call it kabani. I own there are a few more characters za, or japungia. On their head they wear to which, out of mere curiofiiy, I could a red cloth cap, and above it, a fort of cy. wish to apply the mental microscope. lindrical curban called kalpak. They have mould like, meihinks, to have a peep at their heads, leaving only a linall tuft behind, the mind of an antiquarian. I imagine I like the Poles and Tartars. They bend their thould see the twelve Cæsars fitting as reloins with a strong reticular fillet of woollen gularly on his ideas, as they hang in the yarn, and sometimes of lilk: and in this fil- hall of a history painter. Perhaps a leg or let, or bandage, and their breeches, they an arm of a mnummy night be found luk. carry all their necessary implements; such as ing in a corner, which, as it had been itolen one or two piftols fuck in behind, and be- ' from one of his brethren, he was endeavourfore a very large knite, which they call ban. ing to hide from his conscience. If he zar, with the handle of brass, fet round were a thorough-bred connoifleur, I should witli falle ftones. This knife is often made fee as many Itrings streiched across his idcal falt 10 a light brass chain rolled about the apartments, as there are in the drying-room bandage ; and near it is placed a horn, with of a laundrels, for the fufpenfion of snails, greate for their arms, or for themselves.- cockle helis, worms, feathers, and burtera follows a little bag with the tinder-box, and fies; a!! which, I ween, would make a money, if they have any; and then their to- goodly right. hacco in a dried bladder. The tobacco pipe Next to this respectable personage, I is placed behind, the reed Ituck in below would chuse a miser for

my speculation ; their thirt, and the bowl appears without. for though it might be easy to guels at the No Morlacco ever goes out of doors without general forniture of his mind, yet it would his gon upon his shoulder.

be curious to see the disposition of that furThe chiefs of the nation, however, are niture, to mark in what snug repofitories, better drefled.

bonds, bills, and deeds of mortgages were

laid up; to behold the subtle labyrinths that On a Microscope for the Mind. were pregnant with schemes of cent. per

cent, and to fee Calculation fitting on the By the late Dr. Langborne. memory with a table of compound interest in

her hand. T were to be withed that we could extend the philofophy of optics so far as


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