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The' three general officers coincided entirely in ed; in all other respe&s, the town, port, 2a opinion with Sir Eyre Coote, for the march of public buildings, were left in their former state. the arms to the relief of the besieged places; Upon the commencement of the present trou.

tl and as Wandewash was in immediate and immi bles, as it became necessary to withdraw .nent danger, and it was expected that Hyder Briush troops to Madras, it was thought fit tina would colleat his whole force, and use his utmolt to remove the French officers and veterans, who, efforts, to prevent their pafling the river Palaar, through lenity, and a tenderness for their circuit. which lay in their way to that place, Sir Hector ftances, had hitherto been left upon parole as Monro, to far from being discouraged by that Pondicherry, to the same place, while there circumstance, declared there was nothing more gentlemen expressed the must grievous apprehenwas to be withed, than the bringing him to a ge- tion, lelt this removal mighe proceed from asy neral action; at the same time generouny de- doubt of their honour in the itricteft adherence claring his confidence, that the army would be to their paroles. At the same time, as the con. succeístul under its present leader. Upon the duct of the inhabitants had lately afforded much faine ground, he did not wish that the com- room for jealousy, and became daily more fufpimander in chief should be fettered by a resoluti- cious, as the troubles in the country, and the on, for the immediate return of the army to the expectation of the arrival of a French force inprotection of Madras, when the intended fer- crealed, it was in contemplation to send the late vice was performed; but on the contrary, that attorney general, with leveral other of the it should be lest entirely to his own diicretion to principal inhabitants, who, from their condeet, act in that respect, as future information might influence or turbulence, were deemed the moit indicate, or circumstances point out.

dangerous, to Madras likewise. Lenity, howe. So nice, notwithstanding, was the caution of ver pievailed; and the meature was evaded, by the general in this critical and momentous busi- these perlons renewing their allegiance, and voness, that he departed from the established mili- luntarily presenting a written declaration, ligned tary rule in such cases, by laying the whole pro- with their names, and binding themselves anew ceedings of the council of war before the select to the most inviolable fidelity; thus rendering committee, defiring their advice, upon the sub- themelves doubly criminal. ject; a measure however irregular and unusual,

For in return for all past favour and present which could not fail effectually to rivet their coufidence, colonel Braithwaite had scarcely confidence in him. The event was, a full ap- marched with his troops out of light of the probation of the opinion of the council of place, when the French inhabitants suddenly

rilc in arms, leize and plunder the folitary Eng. Sir Eyre Coote marched at the head of the lith resident who had been left to fuperintene army from the encampment at the mount, to the iheir conduct; and to complete the outrage, Jan. 17th.

relief of Wandewash, in the begin. compel him, with fixed bayoncts at his breath, ning of the year. Hyder Aily, up

to figa a written inltrument, the contents of 1781.

on the first account of his approach, which he is to:ally unacquainted with. They not only raised the fiege of Wandewash with then proceed to raise and arm two or three bautaprecipitation, but abandoned all the others in the lions of Sepoy", most of whom having compoted same manner ; and so far from meeting the Eng. a pare of the late garrilon, had received the same lih army in the field, or, opposing, as was ex- protection, and were bound to the same conditipected, their pafling the Palaar, retired with his ons with themselves. As some cover to this whole force to acautious and guarded distance. breach of faith, they however, pretendeti, that Thus che beleaguered places were not only re- thele Sepoys were in Hyder's pay and service; lieved and provided, and other garrisong that the former of which indeed was probably true. were weak and exposed reinforced, but a great And, that nothing might be wanting for the reextent of country was recovered, and a new ception and fupport of the feet and army which frontier formed; and from hence, Sir Eyre they expected from the Mauritius, they proceedCoote continuing to keep the field, and prepared ed to amalsvalt quantities of provitions at Carapevery where to look the enemy in the face, pro- golly, a town at some distance upon the coait. vided as effectually for the security of Madras,

Such infractions of faith are to be condemned, as if the army had been encamped under its besides their own inherent turpitude, as they walls. So südden a change in the face of affairs, tend lo discourage the exercise of clemency and restored the spirit and confidence of the troops moderation. But we are always happy to find both European and native, and prepared them councils ever erring on the side of lenity jullified for every exertion which their commander might by the final event; as was the case in the present require.

inttance. The perfidy of the French inhabitants of Pon- Surrounded, however, with difficulties and dichery, who had been treated with unexempled dangers on all sides, as Sir Eyre Coole was at his ieuity and tenderness since the reduction of that first arrival, he itrongly condemned a degree of place, had contributed greatly to cncrease the imprudent security, chro' which Pondicherry was alarm and conlution of the Carnatic. There crinitted to become a garrilon and place of arms people, bulides the fullest protection in the pore for the reception and support of a new, as well tefiion and enjoyment of their houses and estates, as of the old enemy. One of his first measures, and the most liberal construction of the articles after the immediately necessary services, or ob. o capilulation in their favour, were even ad- liging Hyder to raise the sieges, and of re-inwired to the rigtits of funjects, and to traffick forcing and supplying the weak or exposed carunder the English flag. The fortifications, and ritons, was the remedy of this evil. The he the p. wider magazine, had beep alonc demolilhaccomplished effectually, by disarming the inha



bitants of Pondicherry, by the destruction of all Europeans, or by deserter from the nabob, who their boats, and by the removal of the provilions had been trained under English officers; and trom Caringolly. The destruction of the boats some thousands of his and the company's Sepoys, was in a peculiar manner timely and fortunate ; who were either under the fame description or for M. de Orves, arrived with a squadron foon had been taken prisoners since the war, were inatter off that place, and being in great distrets corporated in Hyder's line vi disciplined infantry. tor water, provisions and other necessaries, the All these forces of whatever fort, were in his own w 20: of boats on both ldes, occafioned his quite immediate pay; -xclusive of several bodies of ting the coast without obtaining any relief, native troops, who, under their respective Poli

In the mean time, Sir Edward Hughes had gars or Raja's, had joined him as allies, or fola performed excellent service on the Malabar lowers of his fortune, since the commencement coralt towards the close of the year, and of a na- of the war. If to there we add the Lascars, care the mor vexatious that could be to Hyder, pioneers, and artificers, who comporid a numeby the destruction of his shipping in his own rous body, along with the other numberleri iol. ports of Calicut and Mangalore ; and thereby lowers of an Indian camp, the whole will form nipping in the bud his hopes of becoming a toro fuch a multitude, as may afford no very irademidable maritime power, which was a tavosrite quare idea of the antieni eattern armies. Yet obje&t of his ambition.

at this very time Tippoo Saib, Hyder's son, was Sir Eyre Chote's force being too weak to en- besieging Wandewall, with 39,000 men. courage adventure, and Hyder loo cautious to Notwithstanding this mighty force, the unexhazard much without neceffity, nothing of con- pected determination and approach of the enery, sequence took place for several months between afforded the greatest satisfactioa 10 Sir Eyre the armies.

Coole, who wished for suching lo much as a geo Such a state of things, however, could not be neral engagement, bue was crippled in such a lafting Hyder having made preparations for manner, from the want of cavalıy, and all the the fiege of Tiitchinapoly, Sir Eyre Coote inarch- means of expedicious movement, that it was ed with the army to Porto Novo, as well to impossible for him to compel Hyder to abide thit. frustrate that defign, as to repress his depredation issue. The valous and excellency of his troop, on the ade of Tanjour, and the southern pro- fupplied, with their general, the defect of num. vinces. So wretchedly was the army till pro- ber. The inequality in that respect was to vided for the field, and so surely the want of a great to bear a compariinn; in all others they provident foresighe, and timely preparacion yet were unrivalled. His Europeans amounted to feit, that the general could not have made this about 1,700 men, and his Sepoys were scarcely movement, if Sir Edward Hughes had not at lets to be depended on. kended at that place, to supply him with provisi- One of the great difficulties which he had to ons from the ships; for belide the paucity in encounter, wa the total impoffibility of obtainnumber of their catile for draught and burthen, ing any information of the enemy fate or porifo miserable was the condition of the bullocks cion.

Such clouds of Hyder's cavalry hovered ebey had, that they were scarcely able to drag round the English camp, and covered ihe counthe artillery in any manner along, and were try on all sides farther than the eye could reach, Lakiog under the moderate weight of that pro- that the lending out of a reconnoitring party was portion of camp equipage, which was indispenia- not only impracticable, but even a single man bly neceffary to the service, and could be con could not ticare detection; so that of all the veyed by no other means.

fcouts whom the general dispatched for intellia Hyder was now so confident in the ftrength of gence, not one ever recurned, and no farther his immense army, and fo determined on his obe knowledge of the ftuation of the enemy could ject, that he departed from his general resoluti- be obtained, than the short view from his own on of avoiding field-actions with the English, advanced posts admitted. Thus forced to make rather preferring to stand the hazard of a gene. his way in the dark, no previous disposition could ral engagemeat, than to relinquish hie design on

be made, por plan of action formed; and Sir Tricchina poly, and his views on the Icuthern pro- Eyre Coote was in the fingular ficuation, of bevinces. Thus impelled, he advanced on the die ing obliged to crust entirely to his own genius, reet road which the English army were to take on and to the quickness and fertility of his resource, their way to Cuddalore, and took an exceedingly for making his dispositions in the face of an enewell cholen and advantageous position within a my lo infinitely luperior. hort distance of our camp, while the troops At five in the morning, the army began to were engaged in procuring a few days provision draw out from the camp at Porto Nafrom the shipping, which, through the weather

and at leven, commenced its July ilt, and furt, was with no small difficulty landed. march, with the sea, at no great dil

1781. His army was now become enormous in bulk

tance on the right. Small as it was, and the ut. and number. Of this multitude, 11,000 Topal- ipott exertion of eyery single man it contained ses, clad and armed after the European manner, evidently necessary, to the purpose of attacking with 23 battallions of regular Sepoys, amount and forcing !o prodigious an ar my, in a chosen ing to about 15,000 men, compoled with fix or and fortified atuation, yet the general was under seven hundred Europeans, the flower and strength the hard neceflity of drawing off a cooliderable of his infaatry; and were in fact, an extreinely detachinent liom his line, for the protection, well disciplined and formidable body. His irre- during the inarch and action, of the baggage galar infantry armed with macch-locks, piker, and of the numewus followers of the camp, and sockets, amounted to 120,000; his cavalry from that multitude of Hyder's irregular cavalry, exceeded 40,000. His artillery was worked by who, upon the first opening, would be ready in


pour in upon them. These, with their usual drew the artillery along at a quick pace, through guard, consisting of about 150 Sepoys, those few a deep and heavy fand, for above a mile. The Poligars who had joined the company's forces, molt admirable order was preserved through the and a small Mahratta corps, were judiciously whole. placed in the opening between the right of the This prompt and happy movement, which was army and the sea ; and the detachment now un performed by the first line only, decided the for. avoidably drawn off from the line of action for inne of the day. Nothing less could have done their support, consisted of two regiments of ca- the business, of indeed have well saved the arvalry, and a battallion of Sepoys, willa feven my; for they had only four days provision, which pieces of light arıiliary.

they carried on their backs, and delay, or even The country in about an hour's march, open- a drawn battle, would have been no less ruinous ed an extentive plain to their view, and as the than a defeat. The general in filing off to the enemy's cavalry appeared drawn up in great right, had been necessarily obliged to contract his force on their way, Sir Eyre Coote formed the front and break his former order ; but as foon army in two lines, and proceeded on his march as he had gained the point he aimed at, and the in order of battle. The grounds which Hyder ground would admit, he inftanıly formed anew, occupied were naturally itrong and commanding; about nine o'clock, in order of battle, being anu he had already rendered this position truly within reach of, but partly covered from, the formidable, by che jusigment and dispatch with fire of the enemy's cannan. He then looked which he had ftrengthened and fortified the moit eagerly back, to see whether the heights in his advantageous spots with well conltructed front rear were occupied by the fecond line; for on and Aanking batteries. Indeed, it would have the l'uccess of that part of his design every thing afforded no imali demonstration of his military Atill depended, as the posseffion of them, would abilities, if other essencial proofs of it were want- not only have enabled the enemy to feparate the

that he had formed such a body of pioneers, two lines, but entirely to enclole and surround as had never before been known in India.

the first, as soon as it ventured into action. CeThe army had not advanced far, when the neral Stuart, who commanded the second wing, enemy's position and works were clearly disco- performed that service with such activiey, as not vered, and their batteries feen to lie directly io keep him long in suspence ; and as foon as he upon the intended line of march. Hyder's prin- saw they were covered, he advanced with coofcipal force, was drawn up in order of battle in dence on the enemy. the rear of his works, and extending farther on The sudden and unexpected evolutions, pero the plain, than the eye could command ; large formed with an alerinels of which Hyder bimbodies of cavalry caught the light in every self had yet seen no example, obliged him to a direction, and an infinite nuinber of rockets new arrangement of his army. His guns were were unintermittingly thrown, as well to pre- withdrawn from the batteries to the line with vent and confound the observation, as to disorder equal order and expedition; he inftantiy formed the march and impede che inovements of the a new front to receive Sir Eyre Coac ; and fees English army. Al the same ume they were ex- ing at once the consequences which would attend Pored to a warm though distant cannonade; the the potention of the high ground, bc detached enemy's artillery were well ferved, and did exe- a strong body of his disciplined infantry, with a curion ; while the English general could not afford suitable artillery, besides a qumber of irregoto return many hot, as he was sensible that eve- lars, and a very great force of cavalry, to attack ry round he postered, would, in the course of the second line, while another detachment, or a day, be wanted to take the most decisive ef- part of the same, attempted, by getting into the rect

interval during the conflict, to attack Sir Eyre Critical anci dangerous as this situation war, a Coore in the rear. Thus the battle was double; paule, lule shore of an hour, becarne absoluie- and each wing, separately, and almoit equally ly neceflary; not only to afford time to the engaged. fpiral to exanine the enemy's immediate pesi- The main battle was long and obftinately ivo, but farther to discover, wherber the coun- fought : and it was not until tour o'clock, that by cathe righe, might not admit of his taking by dint of courage, the most invincible perteve. fuck a sweep, 4s would enable him to turn rance, and an exertion, for so many hours on the the enemy's lett; and thereby to fall upon uimori (tretch, that the English at leng ka gained chem rahit obliquely, than to be obliged to the day. As that time, the tiith line triumphorike his attack in the full front and fire of ing over every obstacle, drove Hyder's intanty, their work, and batteries. The country on artillery, and cavalry, promiicuoully before them, the right fortunately answered his hope ; and and compelled tis whole army to seek their ta.ee sothing was ever in.oie boldiy and happily exe- ty in a retreat. During this time, the second cuted, than this daring and inaiterly movement, line, under the conduct of Brig. General Sivart, in the face of such an enemy, and under the fire had noc only gallanely repulsed the repeated aca of a numerous aieillery. The troop: hadendur. lemp:s made by the other dividin or Hyder's are ed the galling fore of the enemy, during the my upon the heights, but attacked, carried and Dinle we have mentioned, with the utmost con- maintained, thoie, of which the enemy had tiit tancy and cornpofure; in the subsequent march gained poffeflion; and while the rear of that erd movement, they were obliged to pass as 'i: line were ibus fully occupied, their van most ve e in review, under the heavy flanking fire of obstinately disputed, and at length totally deo al the enemy's ballerie', while the Sepoys un- feated, the attempt made to attack the genus al's tarnetied their wretched or which were total. This pofleflion, and brave defence of the by unequal to the celerity of the occalion, and heights, likewise prevented the enemy, porn





Sung by Mrs. SPARKS, in the new Opera of FONTAIN BLEAU.

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