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EQUIVALENT SOUNDS.

56

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66

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CONSONANTS. , like s, as in çēde. €, k,

no eăt. ch,

66 child. ch, “sh, çhāişe. eh,

66 ehôrd.

gět. j, ġěm. gh, f, roŭgh. n, ng,

finger. ph, f, phāşe. qu,

pïque. qu, 66 kw,“

quāil.

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66 66

56 " són.

66

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VOWELS. a, like , as in whạt. a, ě, any. e, â,

66 66 thêre. e, ā, prey. e,

pretty. i, ē, põlïçe. 1,

vírgin. ė, , O, oo, wolf. 0,

a,

66 66 fôrm. 0, oo, u, oo, rude. û, ē,

ûrge. ě, u, ľ, ỹ,

fly. ỹ,

myth. y, ē, myrrh.

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66 66

“ bury. 66 66 busy.

$

Z, th,

thing. th,

66 thé. wh, “ hw,“ “ whạt. qz, ěxist.

66 ăzūre. z,

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i, like consonant y, as in onion. ce, ci, sci, se, si, s, ti, like sh, as in ocean, vịcious, conscious, nauseous, session, sure, nation.

A common error in articulation is the slurring or blending of final and initial letters. Care should be taken to bring out the full sound of each word, as if it stood alone, without overdoing the matter.

EXERCISE.

Sees him; must tell; his cry; would you; sixth day; next time; most people; hands him; costs more; made you; folds his; sifts sand; fields lie; and end; lasts till; some mice; must spin; Arctic ocean; facts are; assists.

ACCENT.

ACCENT is a peculiar stress or effort of the voice upon certain syllables of words, which distinguishes them from the others by a greater distinctness and loudness of pronunciation.

In every word of more than one syllable, one of the syllables is pronounced with particular force, and this is called the accented syllable. Many polysyllabic words have two accents, a primary and a secondary, differing only in degree, the primary being uttered with a greater stress of voice than the secondary.

No definite rule can be given in regard to the placing of the accent. The proper pronunciation of words, which includes correct accentuation, can be acquired only by careful attention to the language of correct speakers, and by the use of a good dictionary.

EMPHASIS.

EMPHASIS is a particular force or stress of voice given to one or more words of a sentence, or to a whole sentence; it is to the word or sentence what the accent is to the syllable.

There are several modes by which a word or words may be emphasized :

1. By tone, varying in degree according to the importance of the word or words.

2. By a change in the inflection.

3. By time, in which prominence is marked by a prolongation of the sound of the word or by an abridgment of it.

4. By a pause.

The only rule that can be given for distinguishing the words that should receive emphasis is to place it on those that directly convey the meaning or denote the contrast: the parts of a sentence charged with the greatest degree of sense should be pronounced with the greatest prominence.

The emphasis must, according to the intention of the speaker, be put upon that word which signifies the point.

Example: "Is it true that you have seen an officer from the court to-day who told you the bad news?”

If the inquirer merely wants to know whether I or some other person has seen the court officer, the emphasis falls on you. If he only wants to know from whom I received the news, he will emphasize officer. If he wants to know whether the news may be depended on, court will be the emphatic word. If he wishes to learn when I heard the news, he will put the emphasis on to-day. If he knows that I have seen the officer, and merely wants to learn whether I have heard any news, he will emphasize news. If he merely wants to know whether the news I heard was bad, he will put the emphasis on the word bad.

Emphasis, generally, may be divided into two kinds, Emphasis of Sense and Emphasis of Feeling.

Emphasis of Sense determines the meaning, and by a change of its position a sentence may be made to convey very different meanings; as,

Is your friend very sick ?
(Meaning your friend, and not another person's friend.)
Is your friend very sick ?
(Meaning your friend, not your brother or other relative.)
Is your friend very sick ?
(Meaning is your friend very sick or only slightly ill.)

Emphasis of Feeling is suggested and governed by emotion: although not strictly necessary to the sense, it is, in the highest degree, expressive of sentiment: as,

Then must the Jew be merciful.
On what compulsion must I ? tell me that.

INFLECTION.

INFLECTION is the rise or fall of the voice in speaking or reading

In the rising inflection, which is marked with the acute accent (), the voice rises from the general pitch to the highest tone required; but in the falling inflection, marked by the grave accent ('), the voice begins above the general pitch and falls back to it. In the circumflex, which is a union of the rising and falling inflections, the voice does not rise or fall directly, but in a sort of curve. There are two kinds of circumflex inflections: the rising circumflex, marked, which begins with the falling and ends with the rising inflection, and the falling inflection, marked ~, which begins with the rising and ends with the falling inflection.

RULE I.—The general rule is, that the ideas which are complete, certain, or positive, take the Falling Inflection, while those that are incomplete, doubtful, or negative, take the Rising Inflection; as,

I know this to be the case.
I think I shall be there'.

RULE II. —The Rising Inflection is generally used in questions that can be answered by yes or no; while the answers, when positive, take the Falling Inflection; as,

Do you attend school? Yes, I do'.

Are you going home to-day'?
Yes, or at the latest to-morrow'.

Where is the Earl of Holderness'?
The noble earl is dead'.

RULE III.—Questions which cannot be answered by yes or no, together with their answers, generally take the Falling Inflection; as,

Whose image and superscription hath it'?
They, answering, said to him: Cæsar's'.

RULE IV.-In Contrasts or Comparisons, the first part usually takes the Rising, the second part the Falling Inflection; as,

He follows him through thick' and thin'.
As fire is opposed to water', so vice is to virtue!
And there are bodies celestial', and bodies terrestrial'.

RULE V.-When in Contrasts or Comparisons one part is affirmed and the other denied, the affirmative takes the Falling, and the negative the Rising Inflection, no matter in which order they are; as,

This is not winter', it is summer.
This is summer', not winter'.
This is no accident', it is God's curse'.
This is God's curse, it is no accident'.

RULE VI.—The Circumflex is used to express wonder, contempt, ridicule, mockery; in these cases the Rising Circumflex is used for the Rising Inflection, and the Falling Circumflex for the Falling Inflection; as,

O upright judge ! Mark, Jew !—a learned judge !

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