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which his Creator formed him, into which he is impelled irresistibly, and the only one in which his race can exist and all his faculties be fully developed.

2. It follows that even the worst form of government is better than anarchy; and that individual liberty or freedom must be subordinate to whatever power may be necessary to protect society against anarchy within or destruction from without

3. Just in proportion as a people are ignorant, stupid, debased, corrupt, exposed to violence within and danger without, the power necessary for government to possess, in order to preserve society against anarchy and destruction, becomes greater and greater, and individual liberty less and less, until the lowest condition is reached, when absolute and despotic power becomes necessary on the part of the government, and individual liberty becomes extinct.

4. So, on the contrary, just as a people rise in the scale of intelligence, virtue, and patriotism, and the more perfectly they become acquainted with the nature of government, the ends for which it was ordered, and how it ought to be administered, the power necessary for government becomes less and less, and individual liberty greater and greater.

John C. CALHOUN.

John Caldwell Calhoun was born at Abbeville, South Carolina, March 18, 1782. He served with distinction in Congress and the Senate, and was minister of war under President Monroe. The tariff of 1832 being unfavorable to the South, Calhoun advanced the doctrine that a State could nullify a law of the United States. The idea was taken up and passed as a law by South Carolina, and that state even threatened to leave the Union if the new tariff were carried out. The prompt action of President Andrew Jackson prevented any trouble. Calhoun died March 31, 1850.

LESSON XCVI.

2. ůn těn'å ble; a. not capable 7. gre nādes”; n. hollow iron of being held.

balls, filled with explosives, 3. băs'tion (băs' chủn); n, a pro and thrown among enemies.

jecting mass of masonry at the 7. fås çïnes; n. bundles of sticks angle of a fortified work.

used in raising batteries, and in 5. å d'å mănt; n. a stone of ex filling ditches. treme hardness.

9. fū’şil lāde; n, a simultaneous 5. děç' I mā těd; a. reduced. discharge of fire-arms.

How They kept the Bridge at Athlone.

Though James II. was defeated by William at the battle of the Boyne, in 1690, and escaped to France, the Irish Jacobites still kept up the struggle. At Athlone, at Limerick, and at other places, they made a gallant defense ; but at the battle of Aghrim, in 1691, St. Ruth, who led the Irish troops, was killed and his army totally defeated. The surrender of Limerick, two months later, brought the struggle in Ireland to a close.

1. On the 17th of June, 1691, the army of King William -"the ranks one blaze of scarlet, and the artillery such as had never before been seen in Ireland”—appeared in full force before Athlone. Ginkle summoned the town to surrender.

2. On a previous occasion when besieged, the governor had relinquished, as untenable, the Leinster (or “ English ") side of the town, and made his stand successfully from the Connaught (or “ Irish ") side. The governor on this occasion, Colonel Fitzgerald, resolved to defend both the English and Irish sides, St. Ruth having strongly counseled him to do so, and promised to reach him soon with the bulk of the Irish army from Limerick. Colonel Fitzgerald had not more than three hundred and fifty men as a garrison. Nevertheless, knowing that all depended on holding out till St. Ruth could come up, he did not wait for Ginkle to appear in

sight, but sallied out with his small force, and disputed with the Williamite army the approaches to the town, thus successfully retarding them for five or six hours.

3. But Ginkle had merely to plant his artillery, and the only walls Athlone possessed, on that side at least, were breached, and crumbled like pastry. Toward evening, on the 19th of June, the whole of the bastion at the “ Dublin Gate," near the river, on the north side, being leveled, the town was assaulted. The storming party, as told off, were four thousand men, headed by three hundred grenadiers. To meet these, Fitzgerald had barely the survivors of his three hundred and fifty men, now exhausted after fortyeight hours' constant fighting. In the breach, when the assault was delivered, two hundred of that gallant band fell, to rise no more. The remainder, fiercely fighting, fell back inch by inch toward the bridge, pressed by their four thousand foes. From the Williamites shouts now arose from all sides of " The bridge, the bridge !” and a furious rush was made to get over the bridge along with, if not before, the retreating Irish. In this event, of course, all would be lost.

4. But the brave Fitzgerald and his handful of heroes knew the fact well. Turning to bay at the bridge-end, they opposed themselves like an impenetrable wall to the mass of the enemy; while above the din of battle and the shouts of the combatants could be heard sounds in the rear, that to Mackay's ear needed no explanation—the Irish were breaking down the arches behind, while yet they fought in front ! • They are destroying the bridge !” he shouted wildly: "on! on! save the bridge—the bridge!" Flinging themselves in hundreds on the few score men now resisting them, the stormers sought to clear the way by freely giving man for man, life for life, nay, four for one.

5. But it would not do. There Fitzgerald and his companions stood like adamant ; the space at the bridge-end was small; one man could keep five at bay; and a few paces behind, wielding pick and spade and crowbar, like furies, were the engineers of the Irish garrison. Soon a low rumbling noise was heard, followed by a crash ; and a shout of triumph broke from the Irish side, a yell of rage from the assailants. A portion, but a portion only, of two arches had fallen into the stream ; the bridge was still passable. Again a wild eager shout from Mackay. “On! on! now! now! the bridge !” But still there stood the decimated defenders, with clutched guns and clenched teeth, resolved to die but not to yield. Suddenly a cry from the Irish rear, “Back! back, men, for your lives!” The brave band turned from the front, and saw the half-broken arches behind them tottering. Most of them rushed with lightning speed over the falling mass; but the last company—it had wheeled round, even at that moment, to face and keep back the enemy—were too late. As they rushed for the passage, the mass of masonry heaved over with a roar into the boiling surges, leaving the devoted band on the brink in the midst of their foes.

6. There was a moment's pause, and almost a wail burst from the Irish on the Connaught side; but just as the enemy rushed with vengeance upon the doomed group, they were seen to draw back a pace or two from the edge of the chasm, fling away their arms, then dash forward and plunge into the stream. Like a clap of thunder broke a volley from a thousand guns on the Leinster shore, tearing the water into foam. There was a minute of suspense on each side, and then a cheer rang out, of defiance, exultation, victory, as the brave fellows were seen to reach the other bank, pulled to land by a hundred welcoming hands!

7. St. Ruth, at Ballinasloe, on his way up from Limerick, heard next day that the English town had fallen. He instantly set out at the head of fifteen hundred horse and foot, leaving the main army to follow as quickly as possible. On his arrival, he encamped about two miles west of the town, and appointed Lieutenant-General D'Usson governor, instead of the gallant Fitzgerald, “as being best skilled in defending fortified places.” Now came the opportunity for that splendid artillery, “ the like of which, " Macaulay has told us, “ had never been seen in Ireland.” For seven long days of midsummer there poured against the Irish town such a storm of iron from seven batteries of heavy siege-guns and mortars, that by the 27th the place was literally a mass of ruins, amongst which, we are told, two men could not walk abreast. On that day a hundred wagons arrived in the Williamite camp from Dublin, laden with a further supply of ammunition for the siege-guns. That evening the enemy, by grenades, set on fire the fascines of the Irish breastwork at the bridge ; and that night, under cover of a tremendous bombardment, they succeeded in flinging some beams over the broken arches, and partially planking them.

8. Next morning—it was Sunday, the 28th June—the Irish saw with consternation that barely a few planks more laid on would complete the bridge. Their own few cannon were now nearly all buried in the ruined masonry, and the enemy beyond had battery on battery trained on the narrow spot—it was death to show in the line of the all but finished causeway !

Out stepped from the ranks of Maxwell's regiment a sergeant of dragoons, Custume by name.

“ Are there ten men here who will die with me for Ireland ?"

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