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each other. In the desert they were sufficiently willing to take offence at each other's conduct: opportunities of offence, however, on account of the immense extent of these desert regions, were far less frequent than within the narrow bounds of a city. Contact created rivalry rivalry in power, in display, in enjoyment: rivalry begat hatred ; and hatred bloodshed. To gratify the morbid vanity of a chief, the whole tribe was in arms.' pp. 4, 5.

We have several paragraphs of similar verbage about ' Law' and Religion. The latter subject, the Writer should not have meddled with. He tells us, indeed, that. We'enlightened Christians of modern times have now almost universally ceased ' to regard our own faith as at all concerned in the estimation ' that may be formed of the character, opinion, conduct, or re• ligion of Mahomet. As our interests have become less con

cerned, our judgements have become less impartial. No part of this representation is quite correct. Impartiality is by no means the natural result of indifference, and still less so of a pseudo-philosophical liberalism. The cause of truth cannot be served by the employment of calumny directed against a false system; but our estimate of a false religion must of necessity be regulated by our belief in the true, and our own faith is thus very greatly concerned in the matter.

Again, our Historian asserts, that

• The conception which an ignorant and trembling savage forms of the character of the Divinity, and the means by which he endeavours to secure his favour, are in every age

and country the same. ceives the Godhead as irritable and revengeful; endowed with the moral weaknesses of humanity, but possessed of irresistible power. Heaven, in the imagination of the barbarian, is a picture of the earth, with this addition, that every circumstance is magnified. In Heaven there are more delightful gardens, more delicious and balmy airs, more brilliant skies, than on earth. The beings who inhabit the heavens are more powerful, more wise, or rather, more capable of obtaining the objects they desire, than men; they are endowed with everlasting life, and subject to no diseases that afflict humanity. To please these divine beings, the trembling votary pursues the means that are found efficacious with earthly potentates. He prostrates himself before them in adoration ; he exaggerates their perfections, and soothes them with continued adulation. To prove himself sincere, he subjects himself to useless privations; performs frequent, painful, fruitless, and expensive ceremonies. He subjects himself to fasts ; he multiplies the observances of religion, and throws away his substance in manifestation of their honour. Solicitude in the regulation of his conduct, as it regards his own happiness, or that of his fellows, being intimately connected with his own interests, is considered no proof of the sincerity of his professions towards the Divinity. The laws of morals, therefore, form but a small part of the religious code of any barbarous nation. The religion of the barbarous Arabian differed in no one particular from the foregoing description.'-p. 6.

In this cheap mode of generalizing, what is true, is trite; but

He con

the want of discrimination renders the total statement incorrect. It is the very reverse of true, that the conceptions of the savage respecting the Deity, are in every age and country the same. But we cannot stop to point out the various flaws in the Writer's philosophy. He is not less astray in his facts. It is incorrect, that Mohammed established an • absolute despotism, or that he was elected' by his countrymen. Medina is not a ' country. The Arabs have not • been almost universally deemed a gentle and polite people;' the grossest ignorance could alone ascribe that character to the tribes of the Peninsula.

The Jews did not form powerful nations in Arabia in the time of Niebuhr! Mohammed could not be ignorant of the Syrian language.' It is not likely, that the power of his family rendered it impossible to * punish or to interrupt the first steps he made towards propa

gating his religion': the fact was otherwise. We pass over the insidious remarks upon the miracles ascribed to the Arabian heresiarch : they sufficiently indicate the school to which the Writer belongs. We charge him, however, with no irreligious intentions ; but we do consider the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge as grossly committed and dishonoured by this miserable Life of Mahomet.'

Art. XII. The Opening of the Sixth Seal. A Sacred Poem. Second

Edition. 12mo. pp. 180. Price 5s. 6d. London. 1829. IT is curious enough, that this is the second poem that has

lately fallen into our hands, the Author of which has felt it necessary to inform his readers, that he has not been indebted for his ideas to Mr. Pollok's “ Course of Time." The present Writer wishes it to be understood, that he did not peruse that publication until he had concluded his own task; and then it was with surprise and regret that he remarked the resemblance between the close of the First part of the Opening of the Sixth Seal, and a portion of the Course of Time. Comparisons are invidious; and we shall therefore simply lay before our readers a sample of the present poem, leaving them to form their own judgement of its positive and comparative merits.

In the realms
Of space innumerable worlds revolved
In their etherial orbits. Suns on suns,
With their attendant systems, rolling pathed
The interminable void ;-yet not at will
Roaming through ether, but in bounds prescribed
By God himself ; each flaming sun around
Held planetary orbs their mystic dance,
That never had known change ; worlds above worlds,
Countless as pearly drops that gem the mead
On vernal morn, lay pillowed on the sky,

And, in the centre of the wondrous whole,
The Deity Himself, benignant still,
Guiding, protecting them, the spirit of life
Transfused, and, omnipresent, reigned o'er all,

* So they went on in harmony, and knew
Each its prescribed course ;-and, as they rolled,
Celestial music through the boundless space
Incessant roamed, the music of the spheres,
To mortal ears inaudible, but oft
By listening seraphs, in their viewless flight
On light's pure pinions, raptured heard ; --so they
In smooth, unerring course, through ether fled,
Rapidly rolling, and, with hallowed song,
Together hymned sweet music to their God.

• But suddenly there came a rushing sound,
A trumpet blast, sent forth by angel lips,
That filled all space,--and echoing worlds replied
To the dread summons ;-instant as it came,
Though in their flight than tempest winds more swift,
All the innumerable worlds at once
Stayed in their mid career ;-all things stood still,
And to the terrible trumpet listened they.
So vast the shock, huge mountains from their roots
Uptorn, hurled high in air, fled far away.--
Rivers recoiled, and lung their refluent tides
In horror back ;-the ocean waves arose,
And, Alp like, gathered to a monstrous heap,
And in the sky were lost.--The quivering earth
Gaped awfully, and from her inmost caves
Groaned.- From their orbits loosed, the starry host
Fled devious, and in wild disorder traced
Pathways before unknown ;--oft in their course
Orb against orb rushed heedlessly, and struck,
And, into myriad fragments scattered, fell.
The blazing comets, from their fiery homes
Returning, desolation brought, and swept
Planets away as on they fled. Bright Jove
And distant Saturn wandered from their paths,-
And strange confusion reigned in heaven, where once
All had been peace, and harmony, and love.

· The dwellers of the earth the trumpet cry
Astonished heard, and trembling terror came
On every bosom ;-and the shock felt they
Of earth, in all the swiftness of its flight,
So sudden stayed, for heavily it rocked
Upon its noiseless axle, and a groan
Echoed from all its caves.' pp. 49–52.

NOTICES.

Art. XIII. Practical Suggestions and Discourses ; intended to aid a

Reformation of the Christian Churches, and the Revival of Religion in Individuals, Families, and Communities. By Charles

Moase. 12mo. pp. 92. Price 2s. 6d. London, 1829. This Volume consists of several papers on subjects relating to the Revival of Religion. We are persuaded that Mr. Moase has taken a very just view of the subject, in representing as one of the main instruments of accomplishing such a result, a faithful discharge of “parental duties.' A separate discourse is devoted to this most important, and, we fear, too much neglected topic, which does credit to the Author's pastoral fidelity. In the following paper, ‘On the Duties of Churches with respect to members who violate Christian principles in the formation of Conjugal Relations', he has entered upon debateable ground, and mooted a subject of extreme delicacy, of which this is not the place to attempt the discussion. The volume will do good, if its suggestions lead to a more serious consideration of this and other topics adverted to, respecting which too great laxity of opinion has confessedly become prevalent. The following remarks are peculiarly deserving of attention.

• There is no person who reflects upon the subject, but must perceive, that the education of children is one of the most important objects of human attention. There is no man,” says Mr. Baxter, “ that ever understood the interest of mankind, of families, cities, kingdoms, churches, and of Jesus Christ, the King and Saviour, but he must needs know, that the right instruction, education, and sanctification of youth is of unspeakable consequence to them all. It is certain, that the welfare of this world lieth in a good succession of the several generations; and that all the endeavours of one generation, with God's greatest blessing on them, will not serve for the ages following: all must be begun again, and done over anew, or all will be undone in the next age. Men live so short a time, that the work of educating youth aright is one half of the great business of man's life.”'

And it cannot be doubted, that if the members of churches were properly attentive to these most important duties, and were those individuals who neglect them frequently called to account for their most criminal neglect, the church of God would be in a state very different from that at present existing; and instead of gathering in occasionally a few individuals from the world, and deriving its chief accessions from the conversion of the profligate, its ranks would be perpetually augmented by the cheerful devotedness of its own progeny.' pp. 50, 51.

Art. XIV. The Chronological Guide. Part I.--Comprehending the

Chronology of the World, from its Creation to the Destruction of VOL. II. N.S.

FF

the Western Empire of Rome, A.D. 476. With a Chart. 12mo. pp. 255. London. 1828. Having contrived to mislay this voluine, we reviewed, in April last, the “ Chart” without its indispensable companion; and now that we have obtained the latter, we are gratified by the opportunity of repeating and extending the recommendation we then gave. We do not recollect to have at any time seen so judicious and available a manual as this before us. The leading events of the world's story are stated in a clear and comprehensive manner; and, with the aid of the chart, are placed distinctly before the eye. Brief introductory sketches of history are given; a regular series of questions is appended ; and an alphabetical table of offices, weights, and measures, completes this useful publication.

Art. XV. Pugin's Gothic Ornaments ; selected from various Build

ings in England and France. Drawn on Stone by J. D. Harding. Parts I. and II. Medium 4to. Price 15s. each Part, containing 20 Plates. 1828, 1829. We are desirous of directing attention to these admirably executed drawings, both as supplying hints for interior and exterior decoration, and as furnishing subjects for the pencil, favourable at the same time to freedom of hand, to vigorous expression, and to high, though not fastidious finishing. In this view, they are excellently adapted to the purposes of instruction ; and, although it is probable that this application of the work was not in the Editor's contemplation, we will venture to recommend it as preferable to nine-tenths of the publications which are sent forth almost every week, for that specific object. We will add, for the benefit of young persons following a course of self-tuition in the Arts, that, whenever they find a lithographed print with Mr. Harding's name, they cannot do wrong in copying it. We have seen a series of sixpenny numbers from his crayon, that made us bitterly regret our own costly, but ineffective education of five-andthirty years ago. The present work will be completed in five parts, exhibiting a large collection of finials, spandrils, subsellæ, gables, string-courses, capitals, pannels, traceries, crockets, and other varieties of Gothic ornament. The frequent insertion of sections and profiles, adds to the practical value of the draughts.

Art. XVI. LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. Preparing for Publication, a Topographical and Historical Account of Methodism in Yorkshire: giving an account of its Rise, Progress, and Present State, in the City of York, and in every Town, Village, Hamlet, &c. in the County. The work will be accompanied by a large Map of the County, handsomely coloured, drawn expressly for the purpose, shewing at one-view, the size and boundaries of each Circuit, &c. 8vo.

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