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ment of the City. And here the Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Council resemble the King, Lords, and Commons in Parliament.

The Government of Incorporated Boroughs is much after the same Manner; in some there is a Of CorporaMayor, in others two Bailiffs ; in others the chief tions and Magistrate is call’d Portreve, &c. All which, Boroughs. during their Mayoralty or Magistracy, are Justices of the Peace within their Liberties, and consequently Esquires.' Citizens are not taxed but by the Officers of their own Corporation, every Trade having some of their own always of the Council to see that nothing be enacted contrary to the Profit of their Guild or Company.

· For the better Government of Villages, the Lord of the Soil or Manor (who formerly were Of Villages call'd Barons) have Power to hold a Court Baron every three weeks, where Matters are enquired and discussed relating to Lands, Possessions, Titles, &c.

And, lastly, in Parishes and Towns there is a very useful Officer, callid the Petty-Constable, and Parises. who is to keep the Peace in case of Quarrels, to search for, and take up Rioters, Felons, &c. and keep them in the Stocks or Prison till they can be brought before some Justice of the Peace; in which Office he is assisted by the Tithing-Men. Thus every City, Village, and Town hath almost an Epitome of Monarchical Government, of Civil and Ecclesiastical Polity in itself, which, if duly maintain’d, would render us a happy. People, and Judgment would run down our Streets as a River, and Righteousness like a mighty Stream.

It now remains that I only speak a word or two of the Degrees of Nobility in England, and Degrees of Titles of Honour. The Degrees of Peerage, or Nobility. Higher Nobility of England, are five, viz. Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount, and Baron.


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Garter; next to which are the Knights Bannerets, of which there are now none in England. Knigbts of the Bath are next in Honour ; and then Knigbts Batchelors, which Degree is now given to GownMen, as Lawyers and Physicians; and sometimes to Artists, as it was to that excellent Ma

thematician Sir Isaac Newton. Esquires. ESQUIRES make the next Degree of the

Lower Nobility, so calld of the French Word Escuiers, Shield-Bearers, because they were wont to bear before the Prince, &c. in War a Sbield, Lance, or other Weapon, and therefore they are calld in Latin Armigeri, i.e. Bearers of Arms. Of this Title are (1.) All the Eldest Sons of Vifcounts and Barons, also all their Younger Sons. (2.) All the Sons of Earls, Marquises, and Dukes; and no more by the Common Law. (3.) Esquires of the King's Body, among the Officers at Court. (4.) Esquires created by the King by putting about their Neck a Collar of SS's, and giving them a Pair of Silver Spurs. (5.) Divers in superior Office for King or State, as Serjeants of Royal Offices, Justices of Peace, Mayors, Counsellors at Law, Batchelors of Divinity, Law or Physic, are all reputed Esquires, or of equal Degree, though

none of them really are so. The Gentry of

The GENTRY of England are the lowest England. Degree among the Lower Nobility: These are the

Descendents of antient Families who have been always free, and never ow'd Obedience to any Man but their Prince, and who have always born : Coat of Arms ; so that properly none are Gentlemen but such as are born so: But in England the King being the Fountain of all Honour, he can make a Gentleman by Charter, or by bestowing on hin some honourable Employment. Mercbandizz or Trade does not destroy Gentility.

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A BARON is made sometimes by Writ, Baror.
but usually by Patent ; his Title is Right Ho-
nourable ; he hath two Doublings on his Mantle,
and fix Pearls on his Coronet upon the Circle.
He may have the Cover of his Cup held under-
neath while he drinks; and a Baroness may have
her Gown born up by a Man in the Presence of
a Viscountess.

Besides the common Titles here mention'd, Their High
each of those Degrees have more illustrious Ti Titles.
tles as follow.
A DUKE, Most High Puissant and Noble Prince.
A MARQUIS, Most Noble and Puissant Prince.
An EARL, Most Noble and Puissant Lord.
A VISCOUNT, Most Noble Potent and Honourable.
A BARON, Most Noble and Right Honourable.

The Title Lord is common to all thefe De-

We come now to the Lower Nobility, who are The Commons callid the Commons of England, and confift of of England. three Degrees, Baronets, Knights, and 'Esquires

. A BARONET is next in Honour to a Ba- A Baronet. ron, and is the lowest Degree of Honour that is bereditary; they and their eldest Sons at full Age may claim Knighthood. He has Precedence of all Knights, except those of the Garter, Bannerets, and those who are Privy-Counsellors. They take place of each other according to the Date of their Patent. The Title is Sir, and their Wives are Ladies.

A KNIGHT is, according to his Original, a Knight. : military Man, a Soldier, or Man of War; but now the Honour of Knighthood is conferr'd for some personal Merit or Desert, and therefore dies with che Person, and descends not to his Sons. There are many Orders of Knightbood, but in England the chief and most honourable is that of the Order of St. George, callid Knights of the

Garter * ;

call'd Geometrical ; that is, As the Heinousness of one Crime is to the Heinousness of any other, so is the Degree of Punishment assigned for the former to that Degree thereof which is (or thould be) affigned for the latter. But where can we find this Proportion of Justice observed in our English Dispensation, where the same Punishment is decreed for Theft and Murder, for Murder simply or any how compounded? Acts, certainly, widely differing in the Degree of their

criminal Nature ! Kinds of Law. LAW, as it consists of the written Diatates of

Right Reafon, or the Rules and Precepts fit for the due Ordering and Government of buman Society, is generally distinguished into the following three general Kinds. (1.) The Law of Na ture.'(2.) The Law of Nations; and (3.) The Civil (usually callid the Common) Law. These are the Grand Rules of Action, of which in their

Order. The Law of THE LAW of NATURE is that universal Nature.

Principle implanted in the original Conftitution of all sensible Beings, whereby they are directed to perform all those Acts which are agreeable to their respective particular Natures, and tend to their Well-being in general. This Principle is, in Mankind, calPd Natural Reason; but in Brutes and other Animals it is calld Natural Infting. From hence result all Natural AffeEtions, and the Acts of Procreation, Education, Conservation, and Defence of Life, in ourselves and our Young. By this Natural Right, every Animal, however despicable it may appear to us, has an equal Claim to live, and enjoy its Being unburt, during the natural Period of its Life. And therefore i does not only fhew an inconfiderate, cruel and {avage Temper in Men, when they causelessly ppt poor Creatures to Pain, Mifery, or Death, or


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URISPRUDENCE is, ac- Jurisprudence

cording to its Etymology, the Know- defined.
ledge of what is Just and Right ; Its Etymology.
being derived of the two Latin
Words, Jus, Right ; and Pru-

dentia, Skill or Knowledge. It is
therefore by some defined, The Art of Right and
Wrong, Justice and Injustice. By others, The
Knowledge of the Laws, Rights, Customs, Statutes,
&c. necessary for the doing of Justice.

RIGHT (Jus) differs from Law (Lex,) (1.) Right, bow is As it is a Genus or general Kind, Law a Species differs from only. (2.) Again Right has respect to the Na- Law and

ture of Things, as well unwritten as written, but
Law has respect only to the written Rules and
Precepts of Right and Justice. Right and Equity
also differ. Right is the Wbole of what is required
or may be claimed; Equity is that which abates
so much of strict Right, as Reason, Goodness,
and circumstantial Exigencies seem to demand.

Right is the Rule of Justice, which is the Vir- Justice, what. tue of giving to every one his Due. Justice, as 1s trwofold,

Commutative it is concern'd in Commerce or Government, is re

and Distributo spectively distinguished into Commutative and tive. Distributive. Commutative Justice wholly regards the Prices and Value of Things, and observes only the simple or arithmetical Proportion of Coma mutation. But Distributive Justice, as exercised in Governing, is that which appoints Rewards and Punishments; and regards the Proportion

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