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Of JUDALS M; or the RELIGION and STATE of the J EWS.
HE People of whom we are now Hebrews,
about to speak, were originally whence so
called Hebrews: Abraham was first called.
from him it continued with all his Posterity. See Gen. xxxix. 14 and 17. Now Abrabam was called an Hebrew, either from his being of the Family of Heber, Gen. xi. 14. who was in the seventh Generation before him, or else from a Word of the same Sound nearly, which signifies beyond, or to pass over ; because he lived beyond the River Euphrates in Mesopoiamia, and from thence he pass’d over the faid River to come into the Land of Canaan.
AFTERWARDS, when Jacob the Grandson of Israelites, Abraham receiv'd the Appellation of Israel, whence. Gen. xxxv. ver. 10. the Jews, being the Descendants from him, were called Ifraelites; and the Land of Canaan, which they afterwards inhabited, was also called the Land of Israel,
Land of Israel. FROM Judab (which, in the Original, is Jebu- Jews, whence. dab) the fourth Son of the Patriarcb Jacob, and the Head of the principal of the twelve Tribes, the Israelites came to be calla Zews; and the Land of Israel, the Land of Judab; and simply Land of Judea. Judea, in all succeeding Ages.
The Original The Story of the Servitude of the Hebrews of the Jewish under the Egyptians, their miraculous Deliverance State and Religion.
from thence by Moses and Aaroil, and their receiving the Model of their Civil, Moral, and Religious State in their Return from thence to the Land of Canaan, are Particulars at large related in the Pentateuch of Moses's own Hand-writing. The latter Article of which, concerning the Religious and Civil State of the Jews, after they were settled in their own Land, is what we shall
here take a general Survey of. Jewish Laws The Laws of the Jews were threefold, viz. threefold. (1.) Moral ; (2.) Ceremonial or Ecclesiastical ; and
(3.) Civil or Political. And all these were fan
&tioned either by Divine or Human Authority, Written and And lastly, they were divided into the Written Oral Law.
Law, and the Oral Law. The Written Law was Written Law, that which God deliver'd to Moses from Mount what.
Sinai ; and which he immediately committed to
is contained in the Books of Exodus and Leviticus, Oral Law,
The Oral Law is that which was (as the Jews what. pretend) deliver'd to Moses at the same Time
from Mount Sinai ; which they say was the Explication of the Written Low; and which Mofes deliver’d by Word of Mouth to Joshua, and he in the same manner to the seventy Elders, they to the Prophets, these to the great Synagogue, and from thence it was delivered successively to the wiscjt Rabbi's; till at last it was collected together, and thrown into Writing, left it should be
lost in the extreme Dispersion of the Jews, and The Talmud which they call the Talmud. The Jews prefer preferred by the Oral Law, or the Talmud, to the Written the jews to the Law of Moses. They give these Reasons : (1.) Law of Mo- The Oral Law is the Foundation of the Mofar al fes, and why.
Law; this being deliver'd in one Day, that required thirty-nine. (2.) It is a large commentary on the Mofaical Law, and explains (say they) ics dark and doubtful Passages. (3.) They fay the Law of Moses is very scanty and defective, to which the Talmud is a very ample Supplement ; and such other Stuff. Wherefore, say they, nothing is fuperior to the most boly Talmud. In this respect then, you fee how much the Papists and they are alike.
The whole Body therefore of the Jewish Laws are contain'd in the Books of the Old Testament, and the Talmud; in both which we consider two Parts, viz. The Text, and the Explanation. The The Torah, Text of the Old Testament, by the Jews in their what. own Tongue, is called the Torah, especially Moses's Law. And the Explanation thereof, by way of Paraphrase, is called the Targum; which The Targum, signifies, in Cbaldee, the fame Thing as Parc. what. pbrase; they being wrote in the Chaldean Tongue long after their Captivity. Of thefe Targums there are two of principal Notice, viz. The Targum of Onkelos, on the Pentateuch; and the Targum of Jonatban, on all the Prophets. There are other Targums, but of less Note and Worth. 'Tis uncertain who the famous Targumijt Onkelos was, and when he lived ; but for the other Targumist Jonatban, 'tis certain he was the Son of one Uziel, and the chiefest Scholar of the celebrated Jewish Doctor Hillel, before our Saviour's Birth.
CONCERNING the other part of the Jewish The Talmud Pandeets, or Body of Laws, the Talmud; it con-confifts of two fifteth of two Parts also; viz. The Text, which
the Mischnah, they call the Mischnab, (i. e. the secondary Law) which contains all the Oral Traditions of the Fatbers and Rabbi's, from Mofes to the Time of Pabbi Judah the Holy, who collected and compacted them all into this part of the Talmud, about 150 Years after Chrift. The other Part
proper to them.
And Gemara. of the Talmud is call'd Gemara, (i, e. the Sup
plement) which contains Variety of Commentaries on the Mischnab, or first Part, with the Discussion and Decision of various Opinions. This was ad
ded about A. C. 500. The fix great
The whole Talmud is divided into fix general Parts of the Parts, as follows: (1.) Zeraim, Seeds. This Talmud, viz.
treats of the various kinds of Seeds, Herbs, Trees, Zeraim. Moed.
Fruits, &c. of the Earth. (2.) Moed, which Nashim. treats of divers Feafts and Solemnities. (3.) Na
jhim, of Women. This treats of Women, of mar.
rying and divorcing Wives, and all other Incidents Nazikin.
(4.) Nazikin, of Damages. This treats concerning Damages, Nuisances, &c.
with their Penalties, and Compensation. (5.) Kodashim.
Kodashim, of Holinesses ; this treats of various
Kinds of Sacrifices, and other facred Things. Tahoroth. (6.) Taboroth, of Purifications ; which treats of
all kinds of Purity, and Uncleanness and Pollutions
of Vessels, and other Things. The Peruschim Besides the Targums, or Chaldee Paraphrases or Jewish Com
on the Books of the Old Testament, there are va. mentaries on the Old Tefta- rious Commentaries wrote by the Rabbins, the
chief of which are these three, viz. (1.) The Commentaries of Rabbi Salomon Jarchi, which are short and difficult. (2.) Those of Rabbi Aben Ezra, which are generally larger and easier. (3.) Lastly, The Commentaries of Rabbi David Kimchi ; these are very large, and very easy to be read and understood. These Peruschim, or Rabbinical Commentaries, are very useful and ne
cessary to be understood by Christian Divines. The moral HAVING taken a View of the Books conten Command taining the Jewish Laws, we shall next take noments, call d tice of the Laws themselves. The First Sort of the Decalogue which is the Moral Law, which they receiv'd a
Summary of from God himself, in Ten general