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The Veins perpendicular to the Horizon, as

also other Ducts, as the Lymphatics, the Tboracic The Valves. Duet, &c. have thin Membranes or Valves placed

in their Cavities, which open with the Course of the Blood or Fluid, and give it a free Paisage ; but are closed by the refluent Blood, and so hinder its Regress. Such is the admirable Providence of Nature in all her Handy-works!

Of

491

Of PHARMACY; or the Art of Compounding MEDICINES.

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HARMACY is the Art of ma- Pharmacy de-
king Medicines; and it hath been fined.
usually distinguish'd into two
Kinds, Chymical and Galenical.
Chymical Pharmacy is the Art of Chymical.

making and procuring Medicines by the Operations of Chymistry, or the Action of Fire on Natural Bodies, refolving and reducing them to their simple constituent Parts, as Spirits, Oils, Salts, &c. But the Galenical Phar- Galenical. macy is that which prepares Medicines, after the Method of Galen, in a more grofs Manner from the whole Substance of Vegetables; and not only so, but also compounding the various Parts of the same Plant, and likewise of divers Plants together, to answer the Intentions of Physic.

The Business of making Medicines of the PharmacoGalenic Kind is call's Pharmacopæia, and he who pæia, what. actually performs it is call'd Pharmacopæius, or, vulgarly, an Apothecary: But he is also call'd Pharmacopola, from his selling or vending of PharmacoMedicines. Moreover, the Weighing and Mea- pola. suring out proper Quantities of Ingredients for a compound Medicine is callid Dispensation ; and a Book containing Rules directing such Quantities is callid a Dispensatory; as that of the Col- Dispensatory. lege, Quincy, and others. Lastly, those Simples which are used in the Shops, and the compound Medicines made of them, are call'd Officinal Simples and Compositions.

THE

Of the Weights THE WEIGHTS which the Apothecary useth used by the

in making and compounding his Medicines, with Apothecaries.

the Characters by which they are represented in Prescriptions and Books, are as follows: fb, a Pound; 3, an Ounce ; 3, a Dram or Dracbm; 3, a Scruple ; gr. a Grain; ss, Half of a thing; M, an Handful ; P, a Pugil, one eighth Part of an Handful; P. Æ. Equal Quantities ; q. f. a sufficient Quantity; S. A. according to Art ; Cong. a Gallon ; Cochl, a Spoonful.

And in regard of Numbering, instead of Figures they use the Numerical Letters ; as, i, ii, iii, iv, v, &c. for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Thus zi, zii, Ziii, &c. signifies 1, 2, 3, Ounces : And foss, or zís, is half a

Pound, or half an Ounce. Abbreviatures Again, in Prescriptions to the Shop, Re signi

fies Recipe, or take; ā, of each; m. Mix ; f.m. make a Mixture ; f. make; h. m. Medicinal Hours ; h. f. the Hour of Sleep, or going to Bed.

A Table of Apothecaries Weights is as follows. Twenty Grains, gr. xx. rei. One Scruple. Three Scruples, Jiii.

zi. Eight Drachms, zviii.

zi. One Ounce, Twelve Ounces, zxii.

tti. One Pound. Also one Cochl. or Spoonful is about Zss, or half an Ounce; and one Cong. or Gallon is tbviii, or

cight Pounds. Officinal Sim- OFFICINAL SIMPLES are all the ples. Parts or Subjects of the three Kingdoms of Vege

tables, Animals, and Minerals, that are used in the Shops for making compound Medicines. Of these, Vegetables make the Substance of the Gale. nical Pharmacy which we here treat of; Animals and Minerals being referr'd to the Chymical. Ves getable Simples are distributed, by Dispensatory Writers, into Herbs, Flowers, Barks, Roots, and

make 31. One Drachm.

Seeds ; Seeds ; to which may be added the several Gums or inspiffated Juices of some Plants.

CONCERNING the Gathering and Preserva- Rules to be obtion of these Simples, it is requisite to observe the Jeru'd concernfollowing Rules or Maxims.

As concerning ing Herbs, Herbs : (1.) They are of the greatest Virtue when beginning to flower, and therefore should be then gather’d. (2.) They should be gather's when they are perfectly free from Rain or Dew, or they will turn black in drying. (3.) They ought to be dried in the Shade, for too great Heat exhales their Moisture and diminishes their beautiful Verdure. (4.) The fresher they are brought into Use the better ; though some may be kept much longer than others. (5.) So long as the fresh Colour they are dry'd with continues, they may be esteem'd good in Medicine, but no longer. (6.) They are much better for Decoction and

Distillation when dried than green ; because their Saline and Volatile Parts will not well mix with a Menstruum, till their native Phlegm or Water be evaporated.

CONCERNING Flowers, observe (1.) That and Flowers, they also be gather'd dry. (2.) They should be gather'd when they are full blown, unless such as are order'd to be used in the Bud; as Red Roses for Conserves, &c. (3.) They are better dried in the Sun than in the Shade ; because the quicker they dry, the better they preserve their Scent and Colour. (4.) They must be carefully kept so as not to grow musty, and the closer the better. (5.) If they seem to give, they must be exposed again to the warm Sun; and two or three such Airings will prevent that Fault for the future. (6.) They lose in a great Measure their Virtues with their Scent and Colour, and therefore should be kept no longer than these endure.

Seeds

and Seeds. Seeds should be gather'd dry, and when ready

to shed. Fruits are best when full ripe ; unless such whose Efficacy depends upon the Austerity of their Juices ; and such not quite ripe are the

better. Roots.

Roots are best taken up in the Beginning of

the Spring, for Reasons obvious to all. Barks.

Barks are the better for being fresh dried, tho' many will keep a long time without perceptible Decay; and the same holds true of Woods

of all kinds. Gums, &c. Gums, and inspissated Juices, are the better the

freer they are from Dross and Mixture ; but are

feldom fit for Use. Of the vari- Of these Simples are made and compounded ous Medicines the various Officinal Medicines, or those that stand in Pharmacy. ready prepar'd for Use in the Apotbecary's Shop.

Of these there are several Kinds, under various Forms, and made in different Manners. As (1.) Waters. (2.) Spirits. (3.) Oils. (4.) Decoctions. (5.) Infusions. (6.) Syrups. (7.) Honeys. (8.) Juices. (9.) Wines. (10.) Tinetures. (11.) Elixirs. (12.) Conserves. (13.) Sugars. (14.) ConfeElions. (15.) Eleétuaries. (16.) Troches. (17.) Pil. (18.) Pouders, or species. (19.) Balsams. (20.) Ointments or Unguents. (21.) Cerates. (22.) Pixisters : With some other Forms; besides thofe of Extemporaneous Prescription ; all which I shall treat of in Order, shewing their Nature, and the

Manner of making them. of Oficinal THE OFFICINAL WATERS are of

two Sorts, Simple or Small, and Compound or Simple Water, Strong Waters. A Simple Water is that which is wbat. drawn from any particular Sort of Plant by idel

by a Cold Still. It is design'd to draw out the
Virtues of any Herb, Flower, Seed, Roos, &c.
which may be more conveniently given in that
Form than any other. They answer but very

Waters.

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