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OF SEAS (properly so call'd) there are but Of the Seas. few ; viz. The Mediterranean Sea, included be. tween Europe on the North, and Barbary and Egypt on the South, and Part of Asia on the East and North-East. (2.) The Baltic Sea, inclosed with Sweden on the West, Lapland on the North, Part of Poland on the East, and Part of Germany on the South. (3.) The German Sea, inclosed with Great Britain on the Weft, and Scandinavia on the East. (4.) The Irish Sea, or rather Streights, or Chanel, between Ireland and Great Britain. (5.) The Euxine Sea, inclosed with Part of Europe on the North and West, and Part of Asia on the South and East. (6.) The Caspian Sea, or rather the greatest Lake in the World, as being entirely surrounded with Land on the Continent of Asia. All other Seas besides these are but Parts of the Oceans.

As for GULPHS, STREIGHTS, LAKES, RIVERS and BAYS, they are so numerous, and of so little Importance in a bare Rehearsal of their Names, that the Reader can expect to find a distinct Account of them only in larger Treatises on this Subject.




the Doctrine of TIME.


HRONOLOGY is a Science Chronology de-
which has for its Subject the Do- fined.
Etrine of Time. Or, it is a Dif-
cipline which is conversant about

the Nature, Properties, Parts,

600 and Use of Time, in a Civil Sense. The Nature of Time is of a Physical Consi- The Nature of deration ; and therefore Time is defined to be the Time defined. Duration of Things; and the Parts of Time the Intervals of Succession of Phænomena ; and the Idea we have thereof consists in the Order of The Idea successive Perceptions. This Definition agrees to thereof. Time absolutely consider’d; but Time in a relative Of Absolute Sense, is that which is measur'd or estimated by and Relative

Time. certain Motions, either equal, as Clocks, Watches, &c. or unequal, as of the Sun or other Heavenly Budies; and this is otherwise call'd apparent or vulgar Time.

The Parts of Time in use among us are Mi- Of the Parts nutes, Hours, Days, Weeks, Months, Years, Ages, of Time. Cycles, and Periods. A View and Explanation of the Nature and Uses of these make the first Part of this curious and excellent Science of Chronology.

It appears to me to be a preposterous Me- The true Me thod of treating the Do&trine of Time, to begin thod of treas. with Minutes, Hours, &c. and not (as the Na.. ing of Time. ture of the Thing requires) with that Measure of


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Time, which is the Original and Standard, on which the rest depend; or the whole, of which

the others are but Parts and Subdivisions. A Year defin'd. This Original, Standard, or Integral Measure

of Time, then, is that we call a Year. A Year is the Space or Part of Time or Duration measured by one entire Revolution of some celestial Body

in its Orb, viz. the Sun or Moon. Of the Solar

That which is measured out by the RevoTropical Year. lution of the Sun in the Ecliptic, is calld the

Solar Year ; and this is properly the Natural or
Tropical Year, which contains 365 Days, 5 Hours, .

48'. and 57''. Of tbe Solar

But the Space of Time in which the Sun deSydereal Year. parting from any fixed Star, comes to it again,

is call'd the Sydereal Year, which contains 365 D.

6 H. 9'. 14". Of the Lunar The Lunar Year, is the Space of Time, in which Year.

the Moon performs 12 compleat Revolutions about the Earth, callid Lunations ; and contains

354 D. 8 H. 48'. 38". Tears Atrono

YEARS are distributed into Astronomical and mical or Civil. Civil; the Astronomical Year is that which results

from, or depends on the Principles of Astronomy: Such are those above described : For the Tropical Year depends on one of the Cardinal Points, viz. the Equinox or Solstice; and the Sydereal Year on a fixed Star; and both on Astronomical Obser

vation and Calculation. The Civil

The Civil Year is that in common Use among Year, wbat. the several Nations of the World ; it is either Common, and Solar or Lunar. The Civil Solar Year is again Bilextile or either Common or Bilsextile.' The Common Year Leap-Year.

is reckon’d to contain only 365 Days, the odd Hours and Minutes being here neglected. The Bisextile Year, otherwise call’d Leap-Year, confilteth of 366 Days; the Day over and above


the Common Year, being call'd the Intercalary or Bissextile Day.

This Intercalation of a Bissextile Day was first The Original appointed by Julius Cæfar, to be made every ile or Leape fourth Year, to the end the Civil Year might rear. keep pace with the Tropical Year. For the six Hours, whereby the latter exceeded the former, in four Years make a whole Day; which therefore was then added to the 23d Day of February, which was the Sixth of the Calends of March in the Roman Calendar. In this Year therefore they reckonid that fixth Day twice (in Latin, Bis fextus Dies) and thence came the Name Biffextile for Leap-Year. But in our Almanacks we add that Intercalary Day at the End of the said Month, every fourth Year.

The Civil Lunar Year is Common or Emboli. Of the Civil mic. The Common Lunar Year consists of 12 Lunar Year. Lunations, which are finish'd in 354 Days, at the End of which the Year begins again. The Embolimic Year was that wherein a Month was common and intercalated, to adjust the Lunar to the Solar Embolimic. Year. This Intercalation or Embolism was used by the Jews, who went by the Lunar Motions in their Accounts.

The Romans also at first used this Embolimic of the OrigiLunar Year, which was settled by Romulus their nal of the Jufirst King, and consisted only of ten Months, lian Year, or

Old Style or 304 Days; and thus coming short of the true Lunar Year by 50 Days, and of the Solar Year by 61, this Year became vague and unfix'd: Which Numa Pompilius, the second King, observing, added two other Months, January and February, and thereby made the Year conlist of 12 Months, or 355 Days. But this Improvement not being sufficient to adequate the Year to the Motion of the Sun or Moon, and keep the Seasons even and steady: Julius Cæsar instituted the

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