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1841.-Congress meets in extra session. 1854.--Congress passes the Kansas Nebraska Imprisonment for debts due the United States bill. United States Neutral on the Eastern abolished. Central Bankrupt Law passed. A Question, loan of $12,000,000 authorized. Sub-Treasury 1854.- Treaty of Reciprocity with England. Act repealed. Revenues received from public Commercial Treaty with Japan concluded lands ordered to be distributed among the through Commodore Perry. American party States. Two bills for re-chartering the United formed. States Bank vetoed. All members of the Cabi. 1855.-The Court of Claims established. net, except Mr. Webster, resign. Failure of Election troubles in Kansas. U. S. steamer United States Bank under Pennsylvania char- «Waterwitch” fired on, on the Paraguay. ter. Harrison dies; Tyler succeeds him. Passmore Williamson released from three
1842.-The Dover Insurrection in Rhode months imprisonment in the Wheeler Slave Island. The Seminole war terminated. Treaty Case. with England settling North-Eastern boundary 1856.-Quebec made the seat of Canadian question. Senate ratifies the Ashburton- government, P. W. Geary confirmed as GovWebster Treaty.
Ratio of representation ernor of Kansas. Extra session of Congress fixed at 70,680; Representatives 223. United adjourns. 133 ballots required to elect NaStates fiscal year ordered to begin with thaniel P. Banks Speaker of the House. Mr. July 1st.
Brooks of S. C., assaults Senator Summer in 1843.-$30,000 appropriated for the con- the Senate Chamber. British envoy ordered struction of Morse's Electric Telegraph be- to leave Washington. Great excitement in tween Washington and Baltimore.
Congress on the Slavery question and over the 1844.— First message by the electric tele- admission of Kansas and Nebraska. Repubgraph. James K. Polk, Democrat, elected | lican party formed, James Buchanan, DemoPresident.
crat, elected President. 1845.-Anti-rent riots in New York. The 1857.-A great Financial Panie; 5,123 first Tuesday after the first Monday in Novem- Commercial Failures. Buchanan inaugurated; ber on which to hold Presidential elections. pays 8 and 10 per cent. for loans. The Dred Treaty made with China. Speech of Mr. Cass Scott Decision delivered by Chief Justice on North-Western boundary of Oregon. An- Taney. R. J. Walker appointed Governor of neration of Texas, and war with Mexico. Kansas.
1846.-Hostilities commence with Mexico. 1858.-Congress passes the English KanNew Mexico annexed to the United States, sas Bill but State refuses to accept. Treaty 10,000,000 voted; and 50,000 men called out, of amity with China, to carry on the war. The Wilmot Proviso, 1858.–First Atlantic Cable laid ; second in Tariff on Imports reduced. Treaty settling 1866. U. S. Army defeats the Mormons in Northwestern boundary. Congress declared Utah. Minnesota State Government organized. the war “existed by act of Mexico."
Nicaragua seeks the protection of the United 1847.–The city of Mexico taken by Ameri- States. cans under General Scott. War rages with 1859.-John Brown's raid at Harper's Mexico.
Ferry, Va., his capture and execution. 1848.-Congress ratifies Treaty of Guada 1860.-Ratio of Representation fixed at loure Hidalgo. Postal Treaty with England 127,000. Crittenden Compromise introduced negotiated; concluded in 1849. Peace with and defeated. Prince of Wales visits the United Mexico declared, July 4th. Zachary Taylor, States. Senators and Federal Officers from Whig, elected President Upper California the South favoring disunion, resign. Presiceded to United States. First deposit of Cali- dent Buchanan denies the right of a State to fornia gold in the mint,
secede, and declines to receive the South 1849.-The French Embassador dismissed Carolina Commission. Eighth census ; populafrom Washington. Taylor inaugurated, dies ; tion 31,443,321. Abraham Lincoln, Republi. Fillmore succeeds him.
can, elected President. The “ Palmetto Flag 1850.- The Fugitive Slave Act passed. hoisted in Charleston harbor. Georgia apTexas boundary settled by payment of $10, propriates $1,000,000 to another state. Maj. 000,000 to Texas. New Mexico and Utah ad- Anderson takes posession of Fort Sumter. mitted as territories. Slave trade abolished 1861.-Congress meets in Special Session. in the District of Columbia. Webster's great The President calls the volunteers and $400,speech on the Union delivered in reply to 000,000 to put down the Rebellion. Jacob Hayne. Treaty of Amity and Commerce with Thompson, Secretary of Interior, resigns. Switzerland. Treaty with England securing Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Loua transit over Panama. Seventh census; popu- isiana, and Texas passed secession ordinances. lation 23,191,876.
John A. Dis appointed Secretary of Treasury, 1851. Southern Rights Convention at South vice Thomas, resigned. Jeff Davis resigns his Carolina.
A Cheap Postage Law enacted. seat in the U. S. Senate.
Southern Confederacy formed at Mont1852.-Ratio of Representation fixed at gomery, Ala. Peace Congress meets at Wash93,423 ; members, 237. Dispute with England ington. Jeff Davis elected President of Southin regard to fisheries. Henry Clay and Daniel ern Confederacy. Gen. Twiggs expelled from Webster died this year.
Franklin Pierce, the army for treason. Peace Congress ad. Democrat, elected President.
journed after a stormy session-accomplished 1853.--Pierce inaugurated. A partisan in- nothing. Beauregard takes command of sugural address.
Charleston, S. C. ; and stops intercourse ben
tween Fort Sumter and Charleston. President 1865.—The 13th Amendment passed. Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers, Jeff Davis Amnesty Proclamation issued. Blockade of offers letters of marque to privateers. Presi- Southern ports ended. $98,000,000 subscribed dent Lincoln declares the Southern ports in a to the 7:30 loan during the week ending May state of blockade. Virginia proclaimed . 13. A day of fasting on account of the death member of the Southern Confederacy. Mc- of President Lincoln. All the nation in Clellan placed in command of the Department mourning. Lee surrenders to Grant. Johnson of Ohio. Arkansas secedes. England acknow. succeeds Lincoln. ledges the insurgent States as belligerents. 1866.-Freedman's Bureau Bill and Civil North Carolina secedes; Kentucky declares Rights Bill passed. 14th Amendment passed. neutrality. Tennessee secedes. Federal troops Proclamation of Peace. Colorado bill vetoed. cross the Potomac. All postal services in the Suffrage giveu to colored men in District of seceded States suspended. Gen. McClellan Columbia. assumes command in West Virginia. The 1867.-Southern States organized into Wheeling Government, Virginia, acknowledged Military Districts. Military Government Bill by the President. July 4, Congress meets in and Tenure-of-Office Bill passed. Treaty with extra session, Fremont appointed to com- Russia for purchase of Alaska concluded, mand of Western Department. Nine South- price $7,200,000. Nebraska admitted as a State. ern members expelled from U. S. Senate. Reconstruction bill passed over President
Confiscation bill passed. Congress adjourns. Johnson's veto. Russian American Treaty President suspends all commerce with seceded approved by the Senate. Jeff Davis released States. President Lincoln orders Gen. Fre- on bail. Congress meets in extra session. Supmont to modify his emancipation proclama- plimentary Reconstruction Bill passed, over tion, Secession members of Maryland Legis- veto. lature sent to Fort McHenry. Gen. Scott re 1868.-Impeachment trial of President signs as Commander-in-Chief; Gen. McClellan Johnson ends in acquittal. Fourteenth Amend. succeeds him. C. S. Congress convened at / rent declared part of the Constitution. ProcRichmond, Va. Breckinridge expelled from lamation of Political Amnesty issued. Grant, U. S. Senate for treason. New York and Bos- Republican, elected President. Congress ton banks suspend specie payment.
meets. Senate bill passed for the reduction of 1862.-Slavery prohibited in the Territo- the army. Bill passed to abolish tax on manuries. Internal Revenue Bill passed. Polygamy factures. The Chinese Embassy received by forbidden in United States. Union Pacific the President. Bill passed Senate for almis. Railroad chartered. Department of Agricul- sion of S. States. Commencement of difficul. ture organized. A draft of 300,000 men to ties between U.S. Ambassador and the Governserve for nine months, ordered by the Secre- ment of Paraguay. The Senate ratifies the tary of war; 600,000 volunteers called. Ma. Chinese Treaty. Freedman's Bureau Bill son and Slidell delivered to the British Min- passed over Johnson's veto. Laws of United ister. E. M. Stanton appointed Secretary of States extended over Alaska. Failure of the war, vice Cameron, resigned. Cameron nomi- Atlantic Cable of 1866. President Johnson nated Minister to Russia, vice Clay, resigned. | issues a universal amnesty proclamation, Jesse D. Bright expelled from U. S. Senate. 1869.-Central Pacific and Union Pacific Jefferson Davis inaugurated President of the railroads completed.-1,913 miles in length. Southern Confederacy. Brigham Young elect- United States Supreme Court decides Internal ed Governor of Degeret, Utah. National Tax Revenue laws constitutional. The Copper Bill passed U. S. House of Representatives. Tariff Bill passed over the veto. Passage of Gen. Halleck (July 11) appointed commander the Reconstruction Bill. Indiana Supreme of all land forces. Martial law declared in Court decide National Bank currency taxable. Cincinnati. McClellan, Sept. 7, takes com- Female Suffrage Bill passed by Wyoming Legismand in person of Potomac Army. Sept. 22, lature. E. M. Stanton confirmed as Judge of President Lincoln issues his Emancipation United States Supreme Court. Proclamation. Habeas Corpus suspended by 1870.– Fifteenth Amendment passed. ReU. S. Government. Nov. 5, Gen. Burnside call of the Russian Minister, Catacazy, resucceeds McClellan. All political prisoners quested. Proclamation against Fenian raids released. Nov. 22, West Virginia admitted as into Canada issued. Ninth census, population a state.
38,555,883. Bill passed for the re-admission 1863.-Jan. 1.–Lincoln declares all the of Virginia. Legal Tender Act declared un. slaves free. Bureau of Currency and National constitutional. The Saint Thomas treaty esBanks established. Death of “Stonewall" pires by limitation. The North Pacific R. R. Jackson. First colored regiment from the Bill becomes a law. Bill to abolish Franking north leaves Boston. A loan of $900,000,000 privilege defeated. The San Domingo Treaty ten-forties authorized. Proclamation issued. rejected by the Senate. The new Constitution Gen. Grant takes command of the West. of Illinois adopted. Slavery abolished by Proclamation.
1871.--Congress passes Bill against Ku-Klux, 1864.-Fugitive Slave Law repealed. A also Enforcement Bill. The United States draft of 500,000 men ordered, and 700,000 Senate passes the San Domingo Commi-sion men called for, 85,000 men accepted from Bill. The $300,000, on Five Per Cent. ReGovernors of Western States. Lincoln re- funding Bill passed by the House. Congress elected President. Gen. Grant appointed to admits the Georgia Senators. Deadlock in command U. S. Armies.
Indiana Legislature ; thirty-four Republicans
resign. The Forty-first Congress expires; 1884—Nomination of James G. Blaine, Forty-second organized. Alabama Claims and John A. Logan, at Chicago, for Presi$12,830,384. Expenses of the United States dent and Vice-President, who were defeated census reported at $3,287,600. The Appor- by Grover Cleveland and Thomas A. Hentionment Bill passed by Congress.
dricks. Death of Hon. Charles J. Folger, 1872–Tax and Tariff' Bill passed dimin- Secretary of the Treasury. ishing Revenue. Ratio of Representation
1885–General Ulysses S. Grant, exfixed at 131,425; Representatives limited to President of the United States, died at Mt. 293. General Amnesty Billsigned. $15,500,- McGregor, July 22d, after a lingering and 000 awarded the United States by Geneva most painful illness of many months. Death Tribunal. Emperor William of Germany of Vice-President Thomas A. Hendricks, decides the San Juan Question in favor of and election of Hon. John Sherman as Acting the United States. Salary Retroactive Act Vice-President of the United States. passed. First repeal of the Franking priv
1886–Marriage of Grover Cleveland ilege. Federal officers are forbidden to hold and Miss Frances Folsom at the Executive State Offices. Suspension of the Bank of Mansion; and death of General George B. Jay, Cook & Co., causes a financial panic. McClellan, General Winfield Scott Hancock, Modoc War.
ex-Governor Samuel J. Tilden--all three of 1874–Political excitement in Louisiana. whom had been nominated for President of Grant vetoes the Finance Bill. United States the United States; McClellan in 1864, Tilden Senate passes Civil Rights Bill. Currency in 1876, and Hancock in 1880. Bill vetoed. Fillmore and Sumner die.
1887-High License Campaign in Penn1875–Senate ratifies the Treaty with sylvania; liquor men resisted and formed Hawaii. Civil Rights Bill passed. New
Personal Liberty Leagues; Republicans Treaty with Belgium concluded. Financial contended for High License and Sunday trouble continued. Louisiana Legislative ball Laws, and won by 46,000 majority. Death taken possession of by United States troops. of General Philip Sheridan. In December, Colorado admitted as a State.
at opening of Congress, President Cleveland
sent in an Annual Message devoted alone to 1876-Centennial Bill appropriating Revenue Reform; Mr. Blaine wired an $15,000,000 passed. Secretary Belknap im
answer from Paris in favor of Protection, peached by the House, acquitted by the and in this way the issue was opened. Senate. Postal Treaty with Japan. Termi
1888-- Re-nomination of President nation of the English Extradition Treaty Cleveland on Tariff” for Revenue platform; announced.
the Republicans nominated General Benjamin 1877--Electoral Commission decided in
Harrison on a Protective platform. Å brilfavor of Hays. Spanish Extradi:ion Treaty liant campaign followed and resulted in a announced. Federal troops recalled from Republican victory: Warner Miller led a the South. Nez Perces War.
High License battle for Governor of New 1878- Silver Bill. Halifas Fishing York; beaten by Governor Hill by 18,000 Award; Ben Butler opposes it. 1879 Specie payment. Negro exodus majority. Delaware elected Anthony Hig
gins, a Republican, for United States Senator. begins. Ute War.
1889--Admission by Congress as States 1880–Election of Garfield as President, of North and South Dakota, Montana and the October election in Ohio and Indiana Washington, making 42 in all. The Panvirtually deciding the issue in advance. American Congress assembled in Washing
1881-Assassination of President Gar ton. Representatives of nearly all the Cenfield by Charles J. Guiteau ; Vice-President tral and South American governments atArthur succeeds him. Resignation of Sena- tended. International Marine Conference tors Conkling and Platt, of New York. also assembled. Race troubles in the South
1882-Extended trial and final convic ern States. Death of Jefferson Davis. tion of Guiteau, who set up the plea that his
1890-Death of Hon. William D. Kelly, assassination of President' Garfield was due known as “The Father of the House," after to an irristible pressure from Deity. Nom
a service of thirty years in Congress. ination of Roscoe Conkling to the Supreme
The McKinley Tariff Bill and the AntiCourt. Blaine's eulogy on Gartield. The Lottery Bill become laws.
Democratic Mormon issue revived by Edmunds' Bill; / “tidal wave
" in the fall elections, overChinese issue revived by bill to prevent their turning the Republican majority in the immigration for twenty years. California House of Representatives and the State and Nevada make a holiday of Saturday, governments in many heretofore reliable March 4, and devote it to mass meetings, Republican States. which said “the Chinese must go." March 1892.-Re-nomination of President 1, Senator Hoar, of Massachusetts, makes a Harrison and nomination of Whitelaw great speech against Chinese Bill; Senator Reid at Minneapolis, for President and Miller, of California, replies.
Re-nomination of ex-
Death of ex-Attorney-General Adlai Stevenson at Chicago, for Presi-
dent and Vice-President.
HISTORY OF POLITICAL PARTIES.