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and location of the council to which you organization modeled after that of the Conbelong, giving the explanation to the pass- stitution of the United States, and coexword, which is (safe). If found correct, tensive with the confederacy. Its object you will then be admitted, when you will and principles, in all matters of national proceed to the centre of the room, and concern, to be uniform and identical whilst placing the hands on the breast with the in all local matters the component parts fingers interlocked), give the token of salu- shall remain independent and sovereign tation, which is (by bowing to the president). within their respective limits. You will then quietly take your seat. The great result to be attained—the only
The sign of recognition is made by the one which can secure a perfect guarantee same action as in the second degree, with as to our future—is UNION; permanent, the addition of (the third finger), and the enduring, fraternal txion! Allow me, then, response is made by (a similar action with to impress upon your minds and memories the left hand.)
the touching sentiments of the Father of (The grip is given by taking hold of the his Country, in his Farewell Address :hand in the usual way, and then by slipping “The unity of government which constithe finger around on the top of the thumb; tutes you one people," says Washington, then extending the little finger and pressing “is justly, dear to you, for it is the main the inside of the wrist. The person chal- pillar in the edifice of your real independlenging shall say, do you know what that is ? ence, the support of your tranquillity at The answer is yes. The challenging party home, of your peace abroad, of your safety, shall say, further, what is it? The answer your prosperity,
-even that liberty you so is, Union.
justly prize. [The instructor will here give the grip of
It is of infinite moment that this degree, with explanations, and also the you should properly estimate the immense true password of this degree, which is value of your National Union, to your col(Union.)]
lective and individual happiness. You should cherish a cordial, habitual, and im
movable attachment to it; accustoming To be given by the president.
yourselves to think and speak of it, as the Brothers, it is with great pleasure that I palladium of your political safety and proscongratulate you upon your advancement perity; watching for its preservation with to the third degree of our order. The re-jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatsponsibilities you have now assumed, are ever may suggest even a suspicion that it more serious and weighty than those which can in any event be abandoned; and inpreceded, and are committed to such only dignantly frowning upon the dawning of as have been tried and found worthy. Our every attempt to alienate any portion of obligations are intended as solemn avowals our country from the rest, or to enfeeble of our duty to the land that gave us birth; the sacred ties which now bind together to the memories of our fathers; and to the the various parts.” happiness and welfare of our children. Let these words of paternal advice and Consecrating to your country a spirit un- warning, from the greatest man that ever selfish and a fidelity like that which dis- lived, sink deep into your hearts. Cherish tinguished the patriots of the Revolution, them, and teach your children to reverence you have pledged your aid in cementing them, as you cherish and reverence the the bonds of a Union which we trust will memory of Washington himself. The endure for ever. Your deportment since Union of these states is the great conservayour initiation has attested your devotion tor of that liberty so dear to the American to the principles we desire to establish, and heart. Without it, our greatness as a nahas inspired a confidence in your patriot- tion would disappear, and our boasted selfism, of which we can give no higher proof government prove a signal failure. The than your reception here.
very name of liberty, and the hopes of The dangers which threaten American struggling freedom throughout the world, liberty arise from foes without and from must perish in the wreck of this Union. enemies within. The first degree pointed Devote yourselves, then, to its maintenance, out the source and nature of our most im- as our fathers did to the cause of independminent peril, and indicated the first mea- ence; consecrating to its support, as you sure of safety. The second degree defined have sworn to do, your lives, your fortunes, the next means by which, in coming time, and your sacred honors. such assaults may be rendered harmless. Brothers : Recalling to your minds the The third degree, which you have just re- solemn obligations which you have severceived, not only reiterates the lessons of ally taken in this and the preceding degrees, the other two, but it is intended to avoid I now pronounce you entitled to all the and provide for a more remote, but no less privileges of membership in this organizaterrible danger, from domestic' ene, nies to tion, and take pleasure in informing you our free institutions.
that you are now members of the order of Our object is briefly this:—to perfect apl (the American Union.)
POLITICAL NOMINATIONS IN 1856.
cratie Nominations of 1856.
American, Whig, Republican and Demo- that the spirit of our institutions, as well
as the Constitution of our country, guar The American convention met the next anties liberty of conscience and equality of day after the session of the National Coun- rights among citizens, we oppose all legis cil of the Order, on the 22d February,
lation impairing their security.” 1856. It was composed of 227 delegates ; Cincinnati, in May 1856, and nominater
The Democratic Convention, met at Maine
, Vermont, Georgia and South Car. James Buchanan for President, and Joho olina, Hon. Millard Fillmore was nom
C. Breckenridge for Vice-President. Ji inated for President, and Andrew J. Don. adopted a plattorin which contained the ekon for Vice-President.
material portions of all its previous plat The Whig Convention met at Baltimore, forms, and also defined its position on the September, 17, 1856, and endorsed the new issues of the day, and declared (1) that nominations made by the American par. the actual necessary expenses of the gov:
the revenue to be raised should not exceech ty, and in its platform declared that * without adopting or referring to the pe- ernment, and for the gradual extinction of culiar doctrines of the party which has the public debt; (2) that the Constitutior already selected Mr. Fillmore as a candi- does not confer upon the general governdate". * * Resolved, that in the ment the power to commence and carry on present exigency of political affairs, we
a general system of internal improvements; are not called upon to discuss the subordi- (3) for a strict construction of the power nate questions of the administration in the granted by the Constitution to the federa. exercising of the constitutional powers of government; (4) that Congress has nu the government. It is enough to know power to charter a national bank; (5) that that civil war is raging, and that the Congress has no power to interfere with Union is in peril; and proclaim the con
slavery in the States and Territories; the viction that the restoration of Mr. Fill people of which have the exclusive right more to the Presidency will furnish the best
and power to settle that question for themif not the only means of restoring peace.”
selves. (6) Opposition to native American
ism. The first National Convention of the
At the election which followed, in Nonew Republican party met at Philadelphia, vember, 1856, the Democratic candidates June 18, 1836, and nominated John C. were elected, though by a popular minority Fremont for President, and William L. vote, having received 1,838,160 popular Dayton for Vice-President. Since the votes, and 174 electoral votes, against prerivus Presidential election, a new party 2,215,768 popular votes, and 122 electorul consisting of the disaffected former adhe- votes for John C. Fremont, the Republican rents of the other parties-Native and in candidate, and Mr. Fillmore, the Whig and dependent Democrats, Abolitionists, and American candidate. Whigs opposed to slavery-had sprung The aggregate vote cast for Mr. Fillmore, into existence, and was called by its adhe- who was the nominee on both the Whig sents and friends, the Republican party. and American tickets, was 874,531, and
This convention of delegates assembled his electoral vote was eight; that of the in
pursuance of a call addressed to the State of Maryland. This was the last napeople of the United States, without regard tional election at which the Whigs apto past political differences or divisions, peared as a party, under that name; they who were opposed to the repeal of the having joined with the American and with Missouri Compromise. To the policy of the Republican parties, and finally united President Pierce's administration: To the with the latter after the downfall and exextensi»n of slavery into free territory: In tinction of the former. In the State elecfavor of the admission of Kansas as a free tions of that year, (1856) the American State: Of restoring the action of the fed- party carried Rhode Island and Maryland; eral government to the principles of Wash- and in the 35th Congress, which met in ington and Jefferson.
December, 1857, the party had 15 to 20 It adopted a platform, consisting ora set Representatives and five Senators. When of resolutions, the principal one of which the 36th Congress met, in 1859, it had be$23: “ That we deny the authority of come almost a border State or Southern Congress, of a territorial legislature, of any party, having two Senators; one from individual
, or association of individuals, Kentucky and one from Maryland; and to give legal existence to slavery in any 23 Representatives, five from Kentucky, territory of the United States, while the seven from Tennessee, three from Marypresent Constitution shall be maintained.” land, one from Virginia, four from North And closed with a resolution : “That we Carolina, two from Georgia, and one from invite the approbation and co-operation of Louisiana. The American party had done the men of all parties
, however different of the elements of persistence. It made from us in other respects, in support of the another desperate effort, however, in the principles herein declared; and believing next Presidential campaign, but having
failed to carry the South, disappeared one half of the whole population of the coun. finally from politics.
try; given to their Presidential candidate The new Republican party polled a very nearly three times as many electoral votes large vote-1,341,234 out of a total vote of as were cast by the Whig party in 1852; and 4,053,928—and its candidates received 114 this day control the governments of fourteen votes out of 296, in the electoral college; of the most powerful States of the Union. having secured majorities in all the free “Well may our adversaries tremble in States, except Illinois, Indiana, Pennsyl- the hour of their victory. "The Demovania, New Jersey and California. cratic and Black Republican parties,' they
The successful candidate, Mr. James say, “are nearly balanced in regard to Buchanan, was duly inaugurated as Presi- power. The former was victorious in the dent of the United States, and entered recent struggle, but success was hardly won, fupon the discharge of his duties as such, with the aid of important accidental adWarch 4, 1857.
vantages. The latter has abated nothing After the election of November, 1856, of its zeal, and has suffered no pause in its the Republican Association of Washington preparations for another battle. issued an address to the people, in which “With such numerical force, such zeal, the results of the election were examined, intelligence, and harmony in counsel ; with and the future policy of the party stated. so many great States, and more than a It is an interesting paper, as laying the million voters rallied to their standard by foundation of the campaign of 1860, which the efforts of a few months, why may not followed, and is here given in full: the Republicans confidently expect a vic
tory in the next contest?
The necessity for their organization still
exists in all its force. Mr. Buchanan has “Republican Association of Washington. always proved true to the demands of his Address to the Republicans of the United States.
party. He fully accepted the Cincinnati
platform, and pledged himself to its policy "WASHINGTON, Nov. 27, 1856.
-a policy of filibustering abroad, propa“The Presidential contest is over, and at gandism at home. Prominent and controlllast we have some materials to enable us ing among his supporters are men comto form a judgment of the results.
mitted, by word and deed, to that policy; "Seldom have two parties emerged from and what is there in his character, his ana conflict with less of joy in the victors, tecedents, the nature of his northern supmore of hope in the vanquished. The port, to authorize the expectation that he pro-slavery party has elected its Presiden- will disregard their will? Nothing will be tial candidate, only, however, by the votes so likely to restrain him and counteract of a minority, and that of such a character their extreme measures, as a vigorous and as to stamp the victory as the offspring of growing Republican organization, as nothsectionalism and temporary causes. The ing would be more necessary to save the Republicans, wherever able to present cause of freedom and the Union, should he, clearly to the public the real issue of the as we have every reason to believe, concanvass-slavery restriction or slavery ex- tinue the pro-slavery policy of the present tension-have carried the people with them incumbent. Let us beware of folding our by unprecedented majorities; almost break- arms, and waiting to see what he will do. ing up in some States the organization of We know the ambition, the necessities, the their adversaries. A sudden gathering to- schemes of the slave power. Its policy of gether of the people, alarmed at the in- extension and aggrandizement and univerroads of the slave power, rather than a sal empire, is the law of its being, not an well organized party, with but a few accident–is settled, not fluctuating. Covert months to attend to the complicated de- or open, moderate or extreme, according to tails of party warfare; obstructed by a se- circumstances, it never changes in spirit or cret Order, which had pre-occupied the aim. With Mr. Buchanan, the elect of a field, and obtained a strong hold of the party controlled by this policy, administernational and religious prejudices of the ing the government, the safety of the masses; opposed to an old party, com- country and of free institutions must rest in mencing the canvass with the united sup- the organization of the Republican party, port
of a powerful section, hardened by What, then, is the duty before us ? long party drill, accustomed to victory, Organization, vigilance, action; action on wielding the whole power of the federal the rostrum, through the press, at the baladministration-a party which only four lot-box; in state, county, city, and town years ago carried all but four of the States, elections; everywhere, at all times; in every and a majority of the popular vote-still
, election, making Republicanism, or loyalunder all these adverse circumstances, they ty to the policy and principles it advocates, have triumphed in eleven, if not twelve of the sole political test. No primary, or the free States, pre-eminent for enterprise municipal election should be suffered to and general intelligence, and containing I go by default. The party that would suc
ceed nationally must triumph in states, time and means to consolidate its strength triumph in the state elections, must be and mature its plans, which comprehend prepared by municipal success.
not only the enslavement of Kansas, and Next to the remaining power in the the recognition of slavery in all territory of states already under their control, let the the United States, but the conversion of Republicans devote themselves to the the lower half of California into a slave work of disse ninating their principles, State, the organization of a new slavery and initiating the true course of political territory in the Gadsden purchase, the fuaction in the states which have decided the ture annexation of Nicaragua and subjuelection against them. This time we have gation of Central America, and the acquifailed, for reasons nearly all of which may be sition of Cuba; and, as the free States are removed by proper effort. Many thousand not expected to submit to all this, ultimate honest, but not well-informed voters, who dismemberment of the Union, and the forsupported Mr. Buchanan under the delu- mation of a great slaveholding confeder: sive impression that he would favor the acy, with foreign alliances with Brazil and cause of free Kansas will soon learn their Russia. It may assume at first a moderato mistake, and be anxious to correct it. The tone, to prevent the sudden alienation of its timid policy of the Republicans in New Northern allies; it may delay the developJersey, Pennsylvania, and Indiana, in post- ment of its plot, as it did under the Pierce poning their independent action, and tem- administration; but the repeal of the Misporizing with a party got up for purposes souri compromise came at last, and so will not harmonizing with their own, and the come upon the country inevitably the final conduct of Mr. Fillmore's friends in either acts of the dark conspiracy. When that voting for Mr. Buchanan, or dividing the hour shall come, then will the honest Demopposition by a separate ticket, can hardly ocrats of the free States be driven into our be repeated again. The true course of the ranks, and the men of the slave States who Republicans is to organize promptly, bold- prefer the republic of Washington, Adams ly, and honestly upon their own principles, and Jefferson—a republic of law, order so clearly set forth in the Philadelphia and liberty—to an oligarchy of slaveholdplatform, and, avoiding coalitions with ers and slavery propagandists, governed by other parties, appeal directly to the masses Wise, Atchison, Soulé, and Walker, founded of all parties to ignore all organizations in fraud and violence and seeking aggranand issues which would divert the public dizement by the spoliation of nations, will mind from the one danger that now threat- bid God speed to the labors of the Repubens the honor and interests of the country, lican party to preserve liberty and the and the subtlety of the Union-slavery Union, one and inseparable, perpetual and propagandism allied with disunionism. all powerful.
Let us not forget that it is not the want Washington, D. C., Nov. 27, 1856. of generous sentiment, but of sufficient information, that prevents the American people from being united in action against the aggressive policy of the slave power. Were
The Kansas Struggle. these simple questions submitted to-day to It was the remova of the interdiction the people of the United States :- Are you against slavery, in all the territory north in favor of the extension of slavery? Are of 36° 30, by the repeal of the Missouri you in favor of such extension by the aid Compromise which gave legality to the or connivance of the federal government? struggle for Kansas, and it was the docAnd could they be permitted to record their trine of popular sovereignty which gave votes in response, without embarrassment, an impartial invitation to both sides to enwithout constraint of any kind, nineteen- ter the struggle. The aggressive men of twentieths of the people of the free States, both parties hurried emigrants to the Terand perhaps more than half of the people ritory. Each accused the other of organof the slave States, would return a decided ized efforts, and soon in the height of the negative to both.
excitement these charges were rather conLet us have faith in the people. Let us fessed than denied. believe, that at heart they are hostile to A new question was soon evolved by the the extension of slavery, desirous that struggle, for some who entered from the the territories of the Union be consecrated South took their slaves with them. The to free labor and free institutions; and that Free State men now contended that slathey require only enlightenment as to the very was a local institution and confined most effectual means of securing this end, to the States where it existed, and that it to convert their cherished sentiment into a an emigrant passed into the territory with fixed principle of action.
his slaves these became free. The SouthThe times are pregnant with warning. ern view was, that slaves were recognized That a disunion party exists in the South, as property by the National Constitution; no longer admits of a doubt. It accepts that therefore their masters had a right to the election of Mr. Buchanan as affording take them there and hold them under con
stitutional guarantees, the same as any question which was now rapidly dividing other property; that to assert anything the two great sections of the Union. The else would be to deny the equality of the result of the long Congressional struggle States within their common territory, and over the admission of Kansas and Nebrasdegrade them from the rank of equals to ka was simply this: “That Congress was that of inferiors. This last proposition neither to legislate slavery into any Terrihad such force that it would doubtless have tory or State, nor to exclude it therefrom; received more general recognition if the but to leave the people thereof perfectly North had not felt that the early compact free to form and regulate their domestic dedicating the territories north of 36° 30' institutions in their own way, subject only to freedom, had been violated. In answer to the Constitution of the United States,"* to this proposition they therefore pro- and it was specially prescribed that when claimed in their platforms and speeches, the Territory of Kansas shall be admitted and there was no other logical answer, as a State, it shall be admitted into the " that freedom was National, and slavery Union with or without slavery as the conSectional."
stitution adopted should prescribe at the We cannot enter upon a full description time of admission. of the scenes in Kansas, but bloodshed This was, as it proved, but a temporary and rapine soon followed the attempts of settlement on the principle of popular the opposing parties to get control of its sovereignty, and was regarded at the time government. What were called the “ Bor- as a triumph of the views of Stephen A. der Ruffians” by the Free State men, be- Douglas by the friends of that great policause of active and warlike organization tician. The more radical leaders of the in Missouri and upon its borders, in the South looked upon it with distrust, but earlier parts of the struggle, seemed to the blood of the more excitable in both have the advantage. They were supported sections was rapidly rising toward fever by friends near at hand at all times, and heat, and the border men from the Free warlike raids were frequent. The Free and Slave States alike were preparing to State men had to depend mainly upon act upon a compromise which in effect inNew England for supplies in arms and vited a conflict. means, but organizations were in turn The Presidential election in 1856 had rapidly completed to meet their calls, and singularly enough encouraged the more the struggle soon became in the highest aggressive of both sections. Buchanan's degree critical.
election was a triumph for the South; The pro-slavery party sustained the Fremont's large vote showed the power of Territorial government appointed by the a growing party as yet but partially oradministration ; the anti-slavery party re- ganized, and crippled by schisms which pudiated it, because of its presumed com- grew out of the attempt to unite all elemittal to slavery. The election for mem- ments of opposition to the Democrats. bers of the Territorial legislature had been The general plan of the latter was now attended with much violence and fraud, changed into an attempt to unite all of the and it was claimed that these things prop- free-soil elements into a party organization erly annulled any action en by that against slavery, and from that time forbody. A distinct and separate convention ward until its total abolition slavery was was called at Topeka to frame a State con- the paramount issue in the minds of the stitution, and the Free State men likewise more aggressive men of the north. Linelected their own Governor and Legisla- coln voiced the feelings of the Republiture to take the place of those appointed cans when he declared in one of his Illiby Buchanan, and when the necessary nois speeches :preliminaries were completed, they ap “We will, hereafter, speak for freedom, plied for admission into the Union. After and against slavery, as long as the Constia long and bitter struggle Congress decided tution guaranties free speech; until every: the question by refusing to admit Kansas where, on this wide land, the sun shall under the Topeka Constitution, and by re. shine, and the rain shall fall, and the cognizing the authority of the territorial wind shall blow upon no man who goes government. These proceedings took place forth to unrequited toil." during the session of 1856-7, which ter In the Congressional battle over the adminated immediately before the inaugura- mission of Kansas and Nebraska, Douglas ation of President Buchanan.
was the most conspicuous figure, and the At the beginning of Buchanan's admin- language which we have quoted from istration in 1857, the Republicans almost Buchanan's inaugural was the literal solidly faced the Democrats. There still meaning which Douglas had given to his remained part of the division caused by idea of “popular” or “squatter sover. the American or Know-Nothing party, but eignty.” its membership in Congress had already Prior to the Kansas struggle the Free been compelled to show at least the tendency of their sentiments on the great • President Buchanan's Inaugural Address.