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cheapen the price of whiskey is to increase direction it would, in my judgment, be a its consumption enormously. There would wise and beneficent policy. Some honest be no sense in urging the reform wrought by but misguided friends of temperance have high license in many States if the National urged that the government should not use Government neutralizes the good effect by the money derived from the tax on whiskey. making whiskey within reach of every one My reply that the tax on whiskey by the at twenty cents a gallon. Whiskey would Federal Government, with its suppression be everywhere distilled if the surveillance of all illicit distillation and consequent enof the government were withdrawn by the hancement of price, has been a powerful remission of the tax, and illicit sales could agent in the temperance reform by putting not then be prevented even by a policy as it beyond the reach of so many. The amount rigorous and searching as that with which of whiskey consumed in the United States Russia pursues the Nihilists. It would de- per capita to-day is not more than 40 per stroy high license at once in all the States. cent. of that consumed thirty years ago.

"Whiskey has done a vast deal of harm After a few moments' silence Mr. Blaine in the United States. I would try to make added that in his judgment the whiskey tax it do some good. I would use the tax to should be so modified as to permit all who fortify our cities on the seaboard. In view use pure alcohol in the arts or mechanical of the powerful letter addressed to the pursuits to have it free from tax. In all such democratic party on the subject of fortifi- cases the tax should be remitted without cations by the late Samuel J. Tilden, in danger of fraud, just as now the tax on 1885, I am amazed that no attention has spirits exported is remitted. been paid to the subject by the democratic “Besides your general and sweeping opadministration. Never before in the his- position to the President's recommendation tory of the world has any government al. have you any further specific objection ?'' lowed great cities on the seaboard, like “Yes,'' answered Mr. Blaine; “I should Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Balti- seriously object to the repeal of the duty more, New Orleans, and San Francisco, to on wool

. To repeal that would work great remain defenceless."

injustice to many interests and would But,” said the reporter, "you don't seriously discourage what we should enthink we are to have a war in any direction?'' courage, namely, the sheep culture among "Certainly not," said Mr. Blaine, “Nei- farmers throughout the Union. To break ther, I presume, did Mr. Tilden when he wool-growing and be dependent on foreign wrote his remarkable letter. But we should countries for the blanket under which we change a remote chance into an absolute sleep and the coat that covers our back is impossibility. If our weak and exposed not a wise policy for the National Governpoints were strongly fortified; if to-day we ment to entorce.' had by any chance even such a war as we “Do you think if the President's rehad with Mexico our enemy could procure commendation were adopted it would inironclads in Europe that would menace our crease our export trade ?? great cities with destruction or lay them * Possibly in some articles of peculiar under contribution.”

construction it might, but it would increase “But would not our fortifying now pos- our import trade tenfold as much in the sibly look as if we expected war?'' great staple fabrics, in woollen and cotton

"Why should it any more than fortifica- goods, in iron, in steel, in all the thousand
tions made seventy or eighty years ago by and one shapes in which they are wrought.
our grandfathers when they guarded them- How are we to export staple fabrics to the
selres against successful attack from the markets of Europe unless we wake them
armaments of that day. We don't neces- cheaper than they do in Europe, and how
sarily expect a burglar because we lock are we to manufacture them cheaper than
our doors at night, but if by any' possibility they do in Europe unless we get cheaper
a burglar comes it contributes vastly to our labor than they have in Europe?'
peace of mind and our sound sleep to feel "Then you think that the question of
that he can't get in."

labor underlies the whole subject?''
“But after the fortifications should be “Of course it does,” replied Mr. Blaine.
constructed would you still maintain the "It is, in fact, the entire question. Whenever
tax on whiskey?"

we can force carpenters, masons, ironworkers, "Yes," said Mr. Blaine, "So long as and mechanics in every department to work there is whiskey to tax I would tax it, and as cheaply and live as poorly in the United when the National Government should have States as similar workmen in Europe, we do use for the money I would divide the tax can, of course, manufacture just as cheaply as among the Federal Union with specific ob- they do in England and France. But I ject of lightening the tax og real estate

. totally opposed to a policy that would entail The houses and farms of the whole country such results. To attempt it is equivalent pay too large a proportion of the total taxes. to a social and financial revolution, one that lf'ultimately relief could be given in that would bring untold distress."



"Yes, but might not the great farming enormous gold yieid in California. The class be benefited by importing articles from powers made peace in 1856, and at the same Europe instead of buying them at higher time the output of gold in California fell prices at home?''

off. Immediately the financial panic of "The moment,” answered Mr. Blaine, 1857 came upon the country with disastrous you begin to import freely from Europe force. Though we had in these years you drive our own workmen from mechan- mined a vast amount of gold in California, ical and manufacturing pursuits. In the every bank in New York was compelled to same proportion they become tillers of the suspend specie payment. Four hundred soil, increasing steadily the agricultural millions in gold had been carried out of the products and decreasing steadily the large country in eight years to pay for foreign home demand which is constantly enlarg- goods that should have been manufactured ing as home manufactures enlarge. That, at home, and we had years of depression of course, works great injury to the farmer, and distress as an atonement for our folly.' glutting the market with his products and “Then do you mean to imply that there tending constantly to lower prices.

should be no reduction of the national “Yes, but the foreign demand for farm revenue?'' products would be increased in like ratio, “No; what I have said implies the rewould it not ?''

'I would reduce it by a prompt re"Even suppose it were," said Mr. Blaine, peal of the tobacco tax, and would make

do you know the source from which it will here and there some changes in the tariff, be supplied? The tendency in Russia to- not to reduce protection, but wisely foster day, and in the Asiatic possessions of Eng. it.”. land, is toward a large increase of the grain “Would you explain your meaning more supply, the grain being raised by the cheap- fully?" est possible labor. Manufacturing countries I mean," said Mr. Blaine, “that no will buy their breadstuffs where they can great system of revenue, like our tariff, can get them the cheapest, and the enlarging operate with efficiency and equity unless of the home market for the American the changes of trade be closely watched farmer being checked, he would search in and the law promptly adapted to those vain for one of the same value. His foreign changes. But I would make no change sales are already checked by the great com- that should impair the protective character petition abroad. There never was a time of the whole body of the tariff laws. Four when the increase of a large home market years ago, in the act of 1883, we made Was so valuable to him. The best proof is changes of the character I have tried to that the farmers are prosperous in pro indicate. If such changes were made, and portion to the nearness of manufacturing the fortifying of our sea coast thus undercentres, and a protective tariff tends to taken at a very moderate annual outlay, no spread manufactures. In Ohio and Indiana, surplus would be found after that already for example, though not classed as manu- accumulated had been disposed of. The facturing States, the annual value of fabrics outlay of money on fortifications, while is larger than the annual value of agricul- doing great service to the country, would tural products.

give good work to many men." "But those holding the President's “But what about the existing surplus ?" views,'' remarked the reporter," are always "The abstract of the message I have quoting the great prosperity of the country seen," replied Mr. Blaine, contains no under the tariff of 1846."

reference to that point. I, therefore, make “That tariff did not involve the one de- no comment further that to endorse Mr. structive point recommended by the Presi- Fred. Grant's remark, that a surplus is dent, namely, the retaining of direct in- always easier to handle than a deficit.” ternal taxes in order to abolish indirect The reporter repeated the question taxes levied on foreign fabrics. But the whether the President's recommendation country had peculiar advantages under it would not, if adopted, give us the advantage by the Crimean War involving England, of a large increase in exports. France, and Russia, and largely impairing “I only repeat, answered Mr. Blaine, their trade. All these incidents, or acci- it would vastly increase our imports while dents, if you choose, were immensely stimu the only export it would seriously increase lating to the trade in the United States, would be our gold and silver. That would regardless to the nature of our tariff. But flow out bounteously, just as it did under mark the end of this European experience the tariff of 1846. The President's recomwith the tariff of 1846, which for a time mendation enacted into law would result, gave an illusory and deceptive show of pros- as did an experiment in drainage of a man perity. Its enactment was immediately who wished to turn a swamp into a profollowed by the Mexican War; then, in ductive field. He dug a drain to a neigh1848, by the great convulsions of Europe ; boring river, but it happened, unfortunately, then, in 1849 and succeeding years, by the that the level of the river was higher than


the level of the swamp. The consequence The truth has been so long obscured by need not be told. A parallel would be certain local questions of unreasoning prejufound when the President's policy in at- dice that nobody can hope for industriai tempting to open a channel for an increase enlightenment among the leaders just yet. of exports should simply succeed in making But in my view the South above all secWay for a deluging inflow of fabrics to the tions of the Union needs a protective tariff

. destruction of home industry."

The two Virginias, North Carolina, Ken"But don't you think it important to in- tucky, Missouri, Tennessee, Alabama, and crease our export trade?''

Georgia have enormous resources and facili"Undoubtedly; but it is vastly more im- ties for developing and handling manufacportant not to lose our own great market tures. They cannot do anything without for our own people in vain effort to reach protection. Even progress so vast as some the impossible. It is not our foreign trade of those States have made will be checked that has caused the wonderful growth and if the President's message is enacted into expansion of the republic. It is the vast law. Their Senators and Representatives domestic trade between thirty-eight States can prevent it, but they are so used to foland eight Territories, with their population fowing anything labelled 'democratic that of, perhaps, 62,000,000 to-day. The whole very probably they will follow the Presiamount of our export and import trade to- dent and the progress already made. By gether has never, I think, reached $1,900,- the time some of the Southern States get 06).000 any one year. Our internal home free iron ore and coal, while tobacco is trade on 130,000 miles of railway, along taxed, they may have occasion to sit down 15,000 miles of ocean coast, over the five and calculate the value of democratic free great lakes and along 20,000 miles of navi- trade to their local interests.,' gable rivers, reaches the enormous annual Will not the President's recommendaaggregate of more than $40,000,000,000, tion to admit raw material find strong supand perhaps this year $50,000,000,000.

"It is into this illimitable trade, even * Not by wise Protectionists in our time. now in its infancy and destined to attain a Perhaps some greedy manufacturers may magnitude not dreamed of twenty years ago, think that with free coal or free iron ore that the Europeans are struggling to enter. they can do great things, but if they should It is the heritage of the American people, succeed in trying will, as the boys say, catch of their children, and of their children's it on the rebound. If the home trade in children. It gives an absolutely free trade raw materials is destroyed or seriously inover a territory nearly as large as all Eu- jured railroads will be the first to feel it. rope, and the profit is all our own. The If that interest is crippled in any direction genuine Free-trader appears unable to see the financial fabric of the whole country or comprehend that this continental tradem will feel it quickly and seriously. If any not our exchanges with Europe - is the man can give a reason why we should argreat source of our prosperity. President range the tariff to favor the raw material of Cleveland now plainly proposes a policy that other countries in a competition against our will admit Europe to a share of this trade." material of the same kind, I should like to

"But you are in favor of extending our hear it. Should that recommendation of foreign trade, are you not?''

the President be approved it would turn "Certainly I am, in all practical and ad- 100,000 American laborers out of employvantageons ways, but not on the principle ment before it had been a year in operaof the Free-traders, by which we shall tion." be constantly exchanging dollar for dime. What must be the marked and general Moreover, the foreign trade is often very effect of the President's message ?" delusive. Cotton is manufactured in the “It will bring the country where it ought city of my residence. If a box of cotton to be brought--to a full and fair contest on goods is sent 200 miles to the province of the question of protection. The President New Brunswick, it is foreign trade. If himself makes the one issue by presenting shipped 17,000 miles round Cape Horn to no other in his message. I think it well to Washington Territory it is domestic trade. have the question settled. The democratic The magnitude of the Union and the im- party in power is a standing menace to the mensity of its internal trade require a new industrial prosperity of the country. That political economy. The treatises written for menace should be removed or the policy it European States do not grasp our peculiar foreshadows should be made certain. No

thing is so mischievous to business as un"How will the President's message be certainty, nothing so paralyzing as doubt.”' received in the South?". "I don't dare to answer that question.




The Democratic Convention, better than anything else, illustrate the lines The Democratic party, being in power, of difference between them. One of the assumed the customary role of the majority lines was plainly drawn by President Cleveparty, and after a close struggle its National land's message to Congress. This paper Committee called its Convention at St. plainly advocated a reduction of tariff duties Louis, June 5th, two weeks in advance of with a view to reduce to the actual requirethe time fixed by the Republicans. The ments of an economic administration of sessions continued throughout three days, governmental affairs, the surplus in the being somewhat prolonged by the differ- treasury, then approximating $80,000,000. ences of opinion upon the platform, the He opposed the repeal or reduction of the immediate friends of the Cleveland admin. internal revenue taxes, upon the ground istration desiring an unqualified endorse that thewere placed upon luxuries. Mr. ment of the Presidential message relating Blaine answered this message for the Re. to the tariff

, and as well to the Mills bill, publican party, and opposed any system of the measure supported in the lower House tariff reduction which tended to free trade, of Congress by all of the Democrats save and favored the repeal of the internal those led by Samuel J. Randall, who stood revenue taxes upon tobacco and upon all upon the platform "straddle" of 1884. liquors used in the arts. So that the truthFinally

, the differences were partially ad- ful and probably the most compact statejusted by a reaffirmation of the platform of ment of the position of the two great parties 1884, and very decided endorsements of is this: The Democratic party in the camboth the President's message and the Mills paign of 1888 favors an established tendency bill

. The result was not satisfactory to the to free trade; the Republican party opposes Protective-Tariff Democrats, but they were any such tendency, and rather than prowithout large or courageous representation, mote it in any way, would repeal all of the and the platform was adopted with but one internal revenue taxes and enlarge the dissenting vote. (For platform and com- pension list—in this way disposing of the parison of platforms of the Conventions of treasury surplus. The platform of the the two great parties, see Book II.) Republican party not only followed, but

On the third day Grover Cleveland, of weut beyond the expressed views of Mr. New York, was nominated for President by Blaine, and accepted in the plainest way acclamation. A ballot was started for the issue thrust upon the country by Mr. Vice-President, between Allen G. Thurman, Cleveland's message. The position of the of Ohio, and Governor Gray, of Indiana, two great parties had been anticipated by bat before it closed Thirman's nomination their respective leaders, and both Convenwas so apparent that Gray was withdrawn, tions advanced beyond the lines laid down and the nomination made unanimous. In by these leaders, and entered upon the the midst of the applause which followed, campaign in this shape. the California delegation presented to the

During the ballotings of the Republican Convention thonsands of the red ban- Convention Mr. B'aine was upon all save dina" worn by the “old Roman " Thur: the last solidly supported by the California man, and it was immediately placed upon delegation and by scattering votes On the the standard of every State and accepted last day Hon. Charles A. Boutelle, Chairman as the emblem of the Democratic party.

of the Maine delegation, read two cablegrams

from Mr. Blaine, who was then in Edinboro, The Republican Convention.

Scotland, asking his friends to respect his

Paris letter of declination. It was at any The National Convention of the Repub-time within the power of his friends to lican party met in Chicago, June 19th, nominate him, but his final refusal led and continued its sessions until the evening nearly all of them to vote for General of the 25th. Major McKinley, of Ohio, Benjamin Harrison, of Indiana, at all times was the Chairman of the Committee on one of the leading candidates before the Platform, and on the second day made a Convention. There was no general combiunanimous report, which was adopted with nation, but the nomination was largely great enthusiasm.

traceable to the expediency of selecting The platforms of the two great parties, both of the candidates from pivotal States



Summary of the Ballots.

the name of William R. Moore, of that
Saturday Monday. State.
1st 2d 3d 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th

One ballot was taken, resulting as folSherman, 229 249 244 235 224 244 231 119 lows: Gresbam, 111 108 123 98 87 91


59 Dерек, , 99 99 91 Withdrawn.


.............. 591 Alger, 84 116 122 135 142 137 120


119 Harrison, 80 91 94 217 213 231 278 544


......... 103 Allison, 72 75 88 88 99 73 76


11 Ingalls, 28 16 Withdrawn.


1 Phelps, 25 18 5 Rusk, 25 20 16

The nomination was then made unani. 24 Withdrawn.

mous. Hawley, 13 Withdrawn.

Mr. Boutelle, of Maine, then addressed Lincoln, 3 2 2 1

2 McKinley, 2 3

the Chair and stated that he desired to 8 11 14 12

16 Miller, 2

offer a resolution to be added to the platDouglas 1

form, as follows: Poraker,


“ The first concern of all good governGrant,

1 ment is the virtue and sobriety of the Haymond,

people and the purity of the home. The Blaine, 35 33 35 42 48 40 15

Republican party cordially sympathizes Total, 830 830 830 829 827 829 832 831 with all wise and well-directed efforts for

the promotion of temperance and morality.” Mr. Griges, of New Jersey, presented As soon as this was read there was a rush the name of William Walter Phelps, of from the various States to second the New Jersey, for Vice-President, which was motion, and, after some time, the question seconded by Mr. Gibson, of Ohio, Mr. was put and the resolution adopted by a Eagan, of Nebraska, and Mr. Oliver, of rising vote, only one delegate from Marylowa, and others.

land recording himself in the negative. Senator Warner Miller, of New York, In this way the above temperance sentipresenteil the name of Hon. Levi P. Mor- ment was made part of the platform. It ton, of New York, which was seconded by was due largely to the attitude of the ReMr. Sage, of California, Governor Foster, publican party within many of the States, of Ohio, Mr. Oliver, of South Carolina, where in the current and previous year it General Hastings, of Pennsylvania, and favored high-license laws and the submisothers.

sion to a vote of the people prohibitory Mr. McElwee, of Tennessee, presented constitutional amendments.

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SHORTLY after the adjournment of the hundred thousand to their National ComNational Conventions, the National Com- mittee. It was a business battle, largely mittees of the two great parties

opened head- waged between the manufacturing and imquarters in New York City, Senator M. S. porting interests, the smaller farmers being Quay being Chairman of the Republican allies of the manufacturers, the planters National and Executive committees, with adhering to their support of the Free Trade ful authority in one head, while ex-Senator tendencies of the Democratic party. The Baraum headed the Democratic National, literary and oratorical features of the canand Calvin Brice its Executive Committee vass were not neglected, and tariff discussion Both Committees devoted themselves to was the order of the day and the night practical political work, and the result was throughout the entire country. The pivotal a greater expenditure of money than was States were, in the order of their importerer previously known. From information ance, New York, Indiana, Connecticut, gathered by the writer, it can be safely New Jersey, West Virginia, and California. stated that the Democratic National Com- From the day of General Harrison's pomimittee

, with its drafts upon the Federal nation, Indiana became, and continued, the office-holders, raised two millions of dollars, scene of the most intense political excitewhile the Republican business men and ment. Visiting delegations called upon the manufacturers contributed one million three nominee from every town and hamlet in

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