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THE CAMPAIGN OF 1887.
INTEREST in the forthcoming Presiden- License act, and thus angered the Tempertial campaign was everywhere manifested in ance Democrats, while the Republicans had the struggles of 1887. The first skirmish failed to submit to a vote of the people the was lost by the Republicans, and while it prohibitory amendment, thus angering an encouraged Mr. Cleveland's administration, additional number of Republicans, so that it gave warning to the Republicans through the Prohibitory vote was swelled to 42,000. out the country that they must heal all New York's complete vote for Secretary differences and do better work. So quickly of State was: was this determination reached that Rhode Island came back to the Republican column
452,822 Cook, Democrat
469,802 in November, by the election of a Con
George, United Labor
69,836 The elections of the year, as a whole, Beocher, Greenback were largely in favor of the Republicans, Preston, Union Labor and three pivotal States were captured
Hall, Progressive Labor
7,768 Connecticut, New Jersey, and Indiana, with
1,351 Virginia claimed by both parties. True the
1,045,405 issues and candidates in Indiana and Connecticut were purely local, a fact which The Republicans of Pennsylvania met contributed largely to the continued hope- the growing temperance agitation in such a fulness of the Democracy, who had again way as to keep within and recall to its lines carried New York by an average majority nearly all who naturally affiliated with that of 14,000, notwithstanding Henry George party, The State Convention of 1886 now ran for Secretary of State in the hope promised to submit the prohibitory amendof more greatly dividing the Democratic ment to a vote of the people, and the Rethan the Republican vote. He did this, in publican Legislature of 1887 passed the somewhat less proportion than when he ran amendment for a first time, and also passed for Mayor of the city, but the agitation of a High License law, which placed the High License for the cities alone, and the heaviest licenses upon the cities, but inProhibitory agitation led to the union of all creased all, and gave four-fifths and threethe saloon interests with the Democracy. fifths of the amount to the city and country These interests, headed by the organization treasuries. of brewers, established Personal Liberty During the closing week of the campaign Leagues in all of the larger cities, which of 1885 in Pennsylvania, a combination was Leagues held a State Convention at Albany made by the brewers of Allegheny County said to represent 75,000 voters, or 509 to with the Democracy for a combined raid each delegate. The figures were grossly against the Republican State ticket headed exaggerated, but nevertheless an alliance by General Beaver. A large sum of money was formed with the Democratic party in was raised, and the singing societies, or such the State by the substancial adoption of the of them as could be induced to enter the anti-sumptuary plank in its platform. Suf- movement, were marshalled as a new and ficient Republicans were in this way won potent element. The result was a surprise to balance the Henry George defections to the Republicans and a reduction of about from the Democracy, and the result was 4,000 in their majority. Thus began the practically the same as in 1886. The Mug- movement which this year culminated in pumps supported the Republicans in 1886, the organization of Personal Liberty Leagues but they cut little if any figure in 1887. throughout the cities of New York and It was very plain to the hind-sight of the Pennsylvania. Encouraged by this local Republican leaders of New York, that if success in Pennsylvania and angered by the they had resisted and resented the forma passage of a High License law, an immense tion of the Personal Liberty Leagues, and fund was raised in Philadelphia and Pittsmade a direct and open issue against the burg, and the Democratic workers in all control of the saloon in politics, they would singing and social clubs and societies were hare easily won a victory like that achieved employed to create from these, as their in Pennsylvania. Two acts contributed to nucleus, the Personal Liberty Leagues. In the sweling of the Prohibitory vote, which Philadelphia alone the Central Convention in 1887 came more equally from both par represented over 300 societies, and this fact ties. Governor Hill had vetoed the High led to extravagant claims as to the number
of voters whose views were thus reflected. | all branches of religious Germans—CathoThe organization was secret, but the brew- lics, Lutherans, Mennonites, Dunkards, etc. ers, maltsters, and wholesale dealers who --and called forth the protests of nearly all created it, opened State headquarters and of the pulpits. The fact that in Philadellikewise established a State headquarters phia and Allegheny the brewers and wholefor the Leagues. Much the same plan was sale dealers, just as they do in the great cities adopted in Pittsburg and great boasts were of New York, own nearly all of the saloons made that it would be extended to all the --drinking places without accommodations towns and cities of the State. From the for strangers and travellers—and that their first combinations were made by the Demo- battle was for the saloon in competition cratic city comuittees, the State Committee with the hotel, inn or tavern, divided the giving them a friendly wink.
liquor interests and induced all who favored This work was allowed to go on for a full the High License bill, partially_framed to month, the Republican State Committee, protect this class, to support the Republican and the Republican city committees as well, party. So true was this that a resolution giving such careful investigation to the facts before the Convention of the State Liquor that every charge could be proven. Then League indorsing high license save a few it was that the State Address was issued, vexatious features, came so near passing wherein all the leading facts were given and that the saloon keepers subsequently estabeach and every challenge accepted. The lished a separate organization. Republican party thus publicly renewed its The battle at no time and in no place pledge to cast the second and final legisla- took shape for prohibition beyond that tive vote for submission to the people the sense of fair play which suggests submission prohibitory amendment for the mainten- to a vote of the people any question whlch ance of high license, and just as unequivo- a law-abiding and respectable number desire cally pledged the maintenance of the Sun- to vote upon. The battle was almost disday laws assailed by the Personal Liberty tinctly for and against the Sunday laws and Leagues.
for and against high license, and the RepubThe effect was to group in a solid and an licans everywhere gave unequivocal support aggressive mass of good citizens all who to these measures. In Allegheny, shocked believed that the people should not be de- the year before by the sudden raid of the nied the right to make their own laws upon brewers, some of the leading politicians for liquor as upon other questions; all who a time feared to face the issues as presented valued a high license which, while general, by the Republican State Committee, and placed the higher charges upon the cities, really forced upon them by the Democratic and which gave three and four-fifths of all liquor combination, but an eloquent Presbythe revenues to the city and county treas- terian divine sounded from his pulpit the uries, and as well all who believed in main- slogan, a great Catholic priest followed, the taining an American Sabbath.
Catholic Temperance Union and the T. A. The grouping of these three positions B.'s, not committed to prohibition, but pubproved more powerful than the quarter of licly committed to high license, passed resoà million dollars supplied the combination lutions denouncing the combination. Some by the brewing and wholesale liquor inter- of the assemblies of the Knights of Labor ests; more powerful than the hundreds of followed, and in open battle the Republicans social and singing societies supposed to be of Allegheny accepted the issue and the grouped with the Democratic liquor com- challenge and were rewarded for their courbination ; more powerful than all of the age by a gain of 1,200 just where brewing combined elements of disorder planted by and distillery interests are strongest. The the side of the Democracy.
Democratic liquor combination did not show It was a royal battle, fought out in the a gain over their Gubernatorial majorities open day! Indeed, the Republican address in a single German county except Northcompelled publicity and made a secret battle ampton, where a citizens' local movement thereafter impossible. Every effort at con- by its sharp antagonism drew out the full tinued secrecy was immediately exposed by Democratic vote for their State ticket. The the Republican State Committee and the combination, with all of the power of money, leading daily Republican journals, and every with the entire saloon interests, with the country paper bristled with these exposures. Personal Liberty Leagues, called from the In very desperation the combination became Republican ranks in the entire State not more and more public as the canvass ad- over 12.000 votes, of which 6,000 were in vanced. It was shown that the Personal Philadelphia and 4,000 in Allegheny. These Liberty Leagues were under the direction were more than made up by 15,000 out of of the Socialists, and this arrayed against 32,000 Prohibitionists who returned to the them all of the Israelites in the State be- Republican party, and by 5,000 Democrats sides thousands of other law-abiding citi- who joined the Republican column. Given zens; the demand for the repeal of the more time, and with the issues as univerSunday laws compelled the opposition of sally acknowledged by all parties as they
have been since the election, far more Pro To this should be added the defeat of hibitionists would have returned and more prohibition in Atlanta and Fulton counties, Democrats would have voted the Republican Ga., by 1122 majority, where it had won ticket. As it was, the Prohibition vote cast two years before by 228 majority. The inwas about equally divided between the terest shown in local option and high license Democrats and Republicans; there was as a solution of the temperance question, probably more Democrats than Republi- and its popularity wherever adopted, is also cans. In 1886 the 32,000 Prohibitionists a marked feature of the year's politics. In comprised 24,000 Republicans and 8000 Michigan local option succeeded the failure Democrats. All of the latter remained and of prohibition, while in Pennsylvania the were reinforced in nearly every quarter. people are promised a choice between high There had always been from 5,000 to 6,000 license and prohibition. third party Prohibitionists.
The elections of 1887 as a whole, without If the Republicans had not bravely faced rem
moving doubts as to the future, were genthe issues thus forced upon them they erally accepted as favorable to the Repubwould have lost the Stare, for the Demo- licans. The following is a fair comparison cratic liquor combination polled 15,000 votes with Rhode Island omitted, for the plain more than the Republican candidate-Col- reason that her spring result was reversed onel Quay, an exceptionally strong man- in the fall: had received in 1885; but the bravery of
1883. the Republicans and the fact that their
1887. attitude was right called out 60,000 more
Rep. Dem. Rep. Dem. votes than the party cast in '85, and in Mass ........ 160,092 150,228 136,000 118,394 this way increased its majority despite all New York.. 429,757 445,976 452,435 489,888 combinations.
New Jersey 97,047 103,856 107,026 104,407 These are the leading facts in the most Penna...... 319,106 302,031 385,514 340,269 novel of all the campaigns known to Penn- Maryland.. 80,707 92,694 86,644 98,936 sylvania's history. The situation was much
347,164 359,793 356,937 333,205 the same in New York. The total vote for State Treasurer was :
Kentucky.. 89,181 133,615 126,476 143,270
Iowa.. 164,182 139,093 168,696 152,836 Hart, Republican
Nebraska .. 56,381 41,998 86,725 56,548 McGrann, Democrat .
340,269 Irish, Prohibitionist .
Virginia ... 144,419 124,080 119,380 119,806 Kennedy, Green back
Totals...... 1,888,036 1,893,364 2,025,833 1,937,607
5,328 An important feature of the year was Republican majority in 1887......... 88,226 the interest shown in the question of pro-Gain in the Dem. vote in four years........ 44,243 hibiting the manufacture and sale of intox- Gain in the Rep. vote in four years.........137,797 icating liquors. Four States have voted on this issue, Michigan leading off in April, Texas voting in August. Tennessee in Sep
The vote in Rhode Island would probably tember, and Oregon in November. Prohi- reduce the Republican gain of the year bition was defeated in each instance, but about 5000. But as the figures for Virginia its advocates succeeded in polling a sur
are disputed and not the official vote, which prisingly large vote. The poll in these it is known would add several thousand to States was as follows:
the Republican total, the above result can For Pro. Against Pro. be taken as a just estimate of the gain made Michigan
.178,488 184,429 by the Republicans in these eleven states, Texas ............................ 129,273 221,627 where general elections were held. It would Tennessee....................
..117,504 145,197 be at least 25,000 larger if the vote of the Oregon..
19,973 27,958 highest candidate, instead of the head of Totals.......................445,238
the ticket, were taken.
579,211 Majority against prohibition 133,973
OPENING OF THE CAMPAIGN OF 1888.
The fiftieth Congress convened in De- that the exaction of more than this is inde. cember, 1887, the Senate consisting of 38 fensible extortion, and a culpable betrayal Republicans, 37 Democrats, and 1 Read- of American fairness and justice. This juster, Mr. Riddleberger, of Virginia. In wrong inflicted upon those who bear the the House there were 168 Democrats, 153 burden of national taxation, like other Republicans, and 4 Independents-Ander- wrongs, multiplies a brood of evil conseson, of Iowa and Hopkins, of Virginia, quences. The public treasury, which should classed with the Democrats, and Smith of only exist as a conduit conveying the people's Wisconsin and Nichols of North Carolina, tribute to its legitimate objects of expendiclassed with the Republicans upon tariff ture, becomes a hoarding-place for money and educational subjects-two questions needlessly withdrawn from trade and the which in the form of Revenue measures people's use, thus crippling our national and of the Blair educational bill, gave early energies, suspending our country's developpromise of becoming the issues for the ment, preventing investment in productive campaign of 1888.
enterprise, threatening financial disturbance, Upon the assembling of the fiftieth Con- and inviting schemes of public plunder. gress President Cleveland, instead of send This condition of our treasury is not ing the usual message describing the con- altogether new; and it has more than once dition of the Nation and its relations with of late been submitted to the people's repforeign nations, together with such recom- resentatives in the Congress, who alone can mendations as he desired to make, sent apply a remedy. And yet the situation still simply a message upon questions of revenue, continues, with aggravated incidents, more and in this way gave the subject such em than ever presaging financial convulsion and phasis as to make his views the issue in the widespread disaster. campaign to follow. The message excited It will not do to neglect this situation bewide and varied political comment, and cause its dangers are not now palpably when Mr. Blaine, who at the time was in imminent and apparent. They exist none Paris, permitted an answer to be wired to the less certainly, and await the unforeseen the New York Tribune, the two opposing and unexpected occasion when suddenly views seemed to meet the wishes of the two they will be precipitated upon us great opposing parties, and they were at On the 30th day of June, 1885, the once accepted as defining the tendencies of excess of revenues over public expenditures each party, at least, upon tariff and revenue after complying with the annual requiresubjects.
ment of the sinking-fund act, was $17,859,As these two papers will prove the text 735 84; during the year ended June 30, for much of the discussion incident to the 1886, such excess amounted to $49,405,campaign of 1888, we give below their 545.20; and during the year ended June text:
30, 1887, it reached the sum of $55,567,President Cleveland's Message.
The annual contributions to the sinkingTo the Congress of the United States : fund during the three years above specified,
You are confronted at the threshold of amounting in the aggregate to $138,058,your legislative duties with a condition of 320.94, and deducted from the surplus as the national finances which imperatively stated, were made by calling in for that demands immediate and careful considera- purpose outstanding three per cent. bonds tion.
of the government. During the six months The amount of money annually exacted, prior to June 30, 1887, the surplus revenue through the operation of the present laws, had grown so large by repeated accumulafrom the industries and necessities of the tions, and it was feared the withdrawal of people, largely exceeds the sum necessary to this great sum of money needed by the meet the expenses of the government. people would so affect the business of the
When we consider that the theory of our country that the sum of $79,864, 100 of institutions guarantees to every citizen the such surplus was applied to the payment of full enjoyment of all the fruits of his the principal and interest of the three per industry and enterprise, with only such cent. bonds still outstanding, and which deduction as may be his share towards the were then payable at the option of the careful and economical maintenance of the government. The precarious condition of government which protects him, it is plain financial affairs among the people still need:
ing relief, immediately after the 30th day bution to the sinking fund which furnishes of June, 1887, the remainder of the three the occasion for expenditure in the purchase per cent. bonds then outstanding, amount- of bonds has been already made for the curing with principal and interest to the sum rent year, so that there is no outlet in that of $18,877,500, were called in and applied direction. to the sinking-fund contribution for the cur In the present state of legislation the only rent fiscal year. Notwithstanding these pretence of any existing executive power to operations of the Treasury Department, restore, at this time, any part of our surplus representations of distress in business circles revenues to the people by its expenditure, not only continued but increased, and abso- consists in the supposition that the Secrelute peril seemed at hand. In these circum- tary of the Treasury may enter the market stances the contribution to the sinking fund and purchase the bonds of the government for the current fiscal year was at once com- not yet due, at a rate of premium to be pleted by the expenditure of $27,684,283.55 agreed upon. The only provision of law in the purchase of government bonds not from which such a power could be derived yet due bearing four and four and a half is found in an appropriation bill passed a per cent. interest, the premium paid thereon number of years ago; and it is subject to averaging about twenty-four per cent. for the suspicion that it was intended as temthe former and eight per cent. for the latter. porary and limited in its application, inIn addition to this, the interest accruing stead of conferring a continuing discretion during the current year upon the outstand- and authority. No condition ought to ing bonded indebtedness of the government exist which would justify the grant of was to some extent anticipated, and banks power to a single official, upon his judgselected as depositories of public money were ment of its necessity, to withhold from or permitted to somewhat increase their de- release to the business of the people, in an posits.
unusual manner, money held in the Treas. While the expedients thus employed, to ury, and thus affect, at his will, the financial release to the people the money lying idle situation of the country; and if it is deemed in the Treasury, served to avert immediate wise to lodge in the Secretary of the Treasdanger, our surplus revenues have continued ury the authority in the present juncture to to accumulate, the excess for the present purchase bonds, it should be plainly vested, year amounting on the 1st day of December and provided, as far as possible, with to $55,258,701.19, and estimated to reach such checks and limitations as will define the sum of $113,000,000 on the 30th of this official's right and discretion, and at June next, at which date it is expected that the same time relieve him from undue this sum, added to prior accumulations, responsibility: will swell the surplus in the Treasury to In considering the question of purchasing $140,000,000.
bonds as a means of restoring to circulation There seems to be no assurance that, with the surplus money accumulating in the such a withdrawal from use of the people's Treasury, it should be borne in mind that circulating medium, our business community premiums must of course be paid upon such may not in the near future be subjected to purchase, that there may be a large part of the same distress which was quite lately these bonds held as investments which canproduced from the same cause. And while not be purchased at any price, and that comthe functions of our National Treasury .binations among holders who are willing to should be few and simple, and while its best sell may unreasonably enhance the cost of condition would be reached, I believe, by such bonds to the government. its entire disconnection with private business It has been suggested that the present interests, yet when, by a perversion of its bonded debt might be refunded at a less purposes, it idly holds money uselessly sub- rate of interest, and the difference between tracted from the channels of trade, there the old and new security paid in cash, thus seems to be reason for the claim that some finding use for the surplus in the Treasury. legitimate means should be devised by the The success of this plan, it is apparent, must government to restore in an emergency, depend upon the volition of the holders of without waste or extravagance, such money the present bonds; and it is not entirely to its place among the people.
certain that the inducement which must be If such an emergency arises there now offered them would result in more financial exists no clear and undoubted executive benefit to the Government than the purpower of relief. Heretofore the redemption chase of bonds, while the latter proposition of three per cent. bonds, which were pay- would reduce the principal of the debt by able at the option of the government, has actual payment, instead of extending it. afforded a means for the disbursement of The proposition to deposit the money the excess of our revenues; but these bonds held by the Government in banks throughhave been all retired, and there are no out the country, for use by the people, is, bonds outstanding the payment of which we it seems to me, exceedingly objectionable in have the right to insist upon. The contri- principle, as establishing too close a rela