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since southern would be more rapid than stroy the judiciary that their impeach. northern development;' that states cre- ments were finally abandoned. ated west of the Mississippi would injure The Republicans closed their first nathe commerce of New England, and they tional administration with high prestige. even went so far as to say that the “ad- They had met several congressional re

mission of the Western World into the verses on questions where defeat proved v Union would compel the Eastern States to good fortune, for the Federalists kept a

establish an eastern empire,” Doubts watchful defence, and were not always were also raised as to the right of Louisi- wrong. The latter suffered numerically, anians, when admitted to citizenship un- and many of their best leaders had fallen der our laws, as their lineage, language in the congressional cortest of 1800 and and religion were different from our own. 1802, while the Republicans maintained Its inhabitants were French and descend their own additions in talent and number. ants of French, with some Spanish cre In 1804, the candidates of both parties oles, Americans, English and Germans— were nominated by congressional caucuses. in all about 90,000, including 40,000 slaves. Jefferson and Clinton were the RepubliThere were many Indians of course, in a can nominees; Charles C. Pinckney and territory then exceeding a million of square Rufus King, the nominees of the Federalmiles—à territory which, in the language ists, but they only received 14 out of 176 of First Consul Napoleon, “strengthens electoral votes. forever the power of the United States," The struggle of Napoleon in Europe 1 and which will give to England a mari- with the allied powers now gave Jefferso a time rival that will sooner or later humble an opportunity to inaugurate a foreign her pride”—a military view of the change policy. England had forbidden all trade fully justified by subsequent history. Na- with the French and their allies, and poleon sold because of needed prepara- France had in return forbidden all comtions for war with England, and while he merce with England and her colonies. had previously expressed a willingness to Both of these decrees violated our neutral take fifty million francs for it, he got sixty rights, and were calculated to destroy our through the shrewd diplomacy of his min-commerce, which by this time had become isters, who hid for the time their fear of quite imposing. the capture of the port of New Orleans by Congress acted promptly, and on the 21st the English navy.

of December passed what is known as the Little chance was afforded the Federal- Embargo Act, under the inspiration of the jsts for adverse criticism in Congress, for only choice of the people lay between the

Republican party, which claimed that the people greatly increased the majority in embargo and war, and that there was no both branches of the eighth Congress, and and France. But the promised effects of

other way to obtain redress from England Jefferson called it together earlier for the the measure were not realized, and so son purpose of ratification. The Senate ratified the treaty on the 20th of October, 1803, the

people, the Federalists made the ques-e

as any dissatisfaction was manifested by by a vote of 24 to 7, while the House tion a political issue. They declared it adopted a resolution for carrying the treaty unconstitutional because it was not limited into effect by a vote of 90 to 25. Eleven million dollars of the purchase money was

as to time; that it helped England as appropriated, the remaining four millions against France (a cunning assertion in being reserved for the indemnity of Amer- for the cause of the French), and that it

view of the early love of the Republicans ican citizens who had sustained losses by laid violent hands on our home commerce French assaults upon our commerce--from which fact subsequently came what is creased the discontent, and public opinion

and industries. Political agitation inknown as the French Spoliation Bill.

at one time turned so strongly against the Impeachment trials were first attempted law that it was openly resisted on the before the eighth Congress in 1803. Judge eastern coast, and treated with almost as Pickering, of the district court of the open contempt on the Canadian border." United States for New Hampshire, was The bill had passed the House by 87 to impeached for occasional drunkenness, 35, the Senate by 19 to 9. In January, and dismissed from office, Judge Chase 1809, the then closing administration of of the U. S. Supreme Court, and Judge Jefferson had to change front on the quesPeters of the district court of Pennsylva- tion, and the law was repealed on the 18th nia, both Federalists, were charged by arti- of March. The Republicans when they! cles proposed in the House with illegal changed, went all the way over, and advoand arbitrary conduct in the trial of par- cated full protection by the use of a navy, ties charged with political offenses. The of all our rights on the high seas. If the Federalists took alarm at these proceed- Federals could have recalled their old ings, and so vehement were their charges leaders, or retained even a considerable against the Republicans of a desire to de- portion of their power, the opportunity

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danked by bringing about a reconciliation |

presented by the embargo issue could between Monroe and Madison. The now have brought them back to full political usual Congressional caucus followed at power, but lacking these leaders, the op- Washington, and although the Virginia portunity passed

Legislature in its caucus proviously held had been unable to decide between Madison and Monroe, the Congressional body

chose Madison by 83 to 11, the minority Democrats and Federals.

beipg divided between Clinton and MonDuring the ninth Congress, which as-roe, though the latter could by that time sembled on the second of December, 1805, hardly be considered as a candidate. This the Republicans dropped their name and action broke up Randolph's faction in aecepted that of " Democrats." In all Virginia, but left so much bitterness betheir earlier strifes they had been charged hind it that a large portion attached them. by their opponents with desiring to run to selves to the Federalists. In the election the extremes of the democratic or "mob which followed Madison received 122 elecrule," and fear of too general a belief in toral votes against 47 for C. C. Pinckney, the truth of the charge led them to denials of South Carolina, and 6 for Geo. Clinton and rejection of a name which the father of New York. of their party had ever shown a foldness Before Jefferson's administration closed for

. The earlier dangers which had he recommended the passage of an act to threatened their organization; and the re- prohibit the African slave trade after Jan

collection of defeats suffered in their at- uary 1st, 1808, and it was passed accord:

tempts to establish a government anti-fed- ingly. He had also rejecte the form of a eral and confederate in their composition, treaty received from the British minister had been greatly modified by later suc- Erskine, and did this without the formalite Cesses

, and with a characteristic cuteness of submitting it to the Senate--first, bepeculiar to Americans they accepted an cause it contained no provision on the obepithet and sought to turn it to the best jectionable practice of impressing our seascount

. In this they. imitated the patriots men; second, * because it was accompanied . who accepted the epithets in the British by a note from the British ministers, by satirical song of " Yankee Doodle," and which the Britislı government reserved to called themselves Yankees. From the itself the right of releasing itself from the ninth Congress the Jeffersonian Republi- stipulations in favor of neutral rights, if cans called themselves Democrats, and the the United States submitted to the British word Republican passed into disuse until decree, or other invasion of those rights by later on in the history of our political France.” This rejection of the treaty by parties

, the opponents of the Democracy Jefferson caused public excitement, and accepted it as a name which well filled the the Federalists sought to arouse the commeaning of their attitude in the politics of mercial community against his action, and

cited the fact that his own trusted friends, Mr. Randolph of Roanoke, made the Monroe and Pinckney had negotiated it. first schism in the Republican party under The President's party stood by him, and Jefferson, when he and three of his friends they agreed that submission to the Senate voted against the embargo act. He resisted was immaterial, as its advice could not its passage with his usual earnestness, and bind him. This refusal to consider the all attempts at reconciling him to the mea- treaty was the first step leading to the war sure were unavailing. Self-willed, strong of 1812, for embargoes followed, and Britain in argument and sarcasm, it is believed openly claimed the right to search Amerthat his cause made it even more desirable ican vessels for her deserting seamen. In for the Republicans to change name in 1807 this question was brought to issue the hope of recalling some of the more by the desertion of five British seamen wayward “Democrat;” who had advoca- from the Hal fax, and their enlistment on toed Jacobin democracy in the years gone the U, S. frigate Chesapeake

. Four sepaby. The politicians of that day were rate demands were made for these men, never short of expedients, and no man so but all of the commanders, knowing the abounded in them as Jefferson himself.

firm attitude of Jefferson's administration Randolph improved his opportunities by against the practice, refused, as did the getting most of the Virginia members to Secretary of State refuse a fifth demand het with him against the foreign policy of on the part of the British minister. On the administration, but he was careful not the 23 of June following, while the to join the Federalists, and quickly denied Chesapeake was near the capes of Virginia, any leaning that way. The first fruit of Capt. Humphreys of the British ship LeoLif faction was to bring forth Monroe as a pard attempted to search her for deserters. candidate for President against Madison--|Capt. Barron denied the right of search,

sorement which proved to be quite but on being fired into, lowered his fag,
popular in Virginia
, but which Jefferson

* From the Statesman' Manual, Vol. 1., by Edwin

the country.


Humphreys then took four men from the proposal, and received the benefits of the Chesapeake, three of whom had previously act, and the direct result was to increase entered the British service, but were the growing hostility of England. From Americans by birth, and had been form- this time forward the negotiations had more ally demanded by. Washington. The act the character of a diplomatic contest than was a direct violation of the international an attempt to maintain peace. Both counlaw, for a nation's ship at sea like its ter- tries were upon their mettle, and early in ritory is inviolable. The British govern- 1811, Mr. Pinckney, the American minister ment disavowed the act of its officer and to Great Britain, was recalled, and a year offered apology and reparation, which later a formal declaration of war was made were accepted. This event, however, by the United States. strengthened Jefferson's rejection of the Just prior to this the old issue, made by Monroe-Pinckney treaty, and quickly stop- the Republicans against Hamilton's ped adverse political criticism at home. scheme for a National Bank, was revived Foreign affairs remained, however, in a by the fact that the charter of the bank complicated state, owing to the wars be- ceased on the 4th of March, 1811, and an tween England and the then successful attempt was made to recharter it. A bill Napoleon, but they in no wise shook the for this purpose was introduced into Confirm hold which Jefferson had upon the gress, but on the 11th of January, 1811, it people, nor the prestige of his party. He was indefinitely postponed in the House, stands in history as one of the best poli- by a vote of 65 to 64, while in the Senaté ticians our land has ever seen, and then it was rejected by the casting vote of the as now no one could successfully draw the Vice-President, Geo. Clinton, on the 5th line between the really able politician and of February, 1811—this notwithstanding the statesman. He was accepted as both. its provisions had been framed or approved His administration closed on the 3d of by Gallatin, the Secretary of the Treasury. March, 1809, when he expressed great The Federalists were all strong advocates gratification at being able to retire to pri- of the measure, and it was so strong that vate life.

it divided some of the Democrats who enMr. Madison succeeded at a time when joyed a loose rein in the contest so far as the country, through fears of foreign aggres- the administration was concerned, the sion and violence, was exceedingly gloomy President not specially caring for political and despondent—a feeling not encouraged quarrels at a time when war was threatened in the least by the statements of the Fed with a powerful foreign nation. The views eralists, some of whom then thought politi- of the Federalists on this question descendcal criticism in hours of danger not un-ed to the Whigs some years later, and this patriotic. They described our agriculture fact led to the charges that the Whigs as discouraged, our fisheries abandoned, were but Federalists in disguise. our commerce restrained, our navy dis The eleventh Congress continued the mantled, our revenues destroyed at a time large Democratic majority, as did the when war was at any moment probable twelfth, which met on the 4th of Novemwith either France, England or Spain. ber, 1811, Henry Clay, then an ardent

Madison, representing as he did the same supporter of the policy of Madison, sucparty, from the first resolved to follow the ceeding to the House speakership. He had policy of Jefferson, a fact about which there previously served two short sessions in the was no misunderstanding. He desired to U. S. Senate, and had already acquired a avert war as long as possible with England, high reputation as an able and fluent debatand sought by skilful diplomacy to avert er. He preferred the House, at that period the dangers presented by both France and of life, believing his powers better calcuEngland in their attitude with neutrals. lated to win fame in the more popular repEngland had declared that a man who resentative hall. Calhoun was also in the was once a subject always remained a House at this time, and already noted for subject, and on this plea based her deter- the boldness of his views and their assermination to impress again into her service tion. all deserters from her navy. France, be In this Congress jealousies arose against cause of refusal to accede to claims equally the political power of Virginia, which had at war with our rights, had authorized the already named three of the four Presiseizure of all American vessels entering dents, each for two terms, and De Witt the ports of France. In May, 1810, when Clinton, the well-known Governor of New the non-intercourse act had expired, Madi. York, sought through these jealousies to son caused proposals to be made to both create a division which would carry him belligerents, that if either would revoke its into the Presidency; His efforts were for a hostileedict, the non-intercourse act should time warmly seconded by several northern be revived and enforced against the other and southern states. A few months later nation. This act had been passed by the the Legislature of New York formally tenth Congress as a substitute for the em- opened the ball by nominating DeWitt bargo. France quickly accepted Madison's | Clinton for the Presidency. An address

was issued by his friends, August 17th, 1812, hac actually been intriguing for the diswhich has since become known as the Clin- memberment of the Union. tonian platform, and his followers were The act declaring war was approved by known as Clintonian Democrats. The ad- the President on the 18th of June, 1812, dreas contained the first public protest and is remarkably short and comprehenagainst the nomination of Presidential can- sive. It was drawn by the attorney-general didates by Congressional caucuses. There of the United States, William Pinckney, was likewise declared opposition to that and is in the words following:" official regency which prescribed tenets of An act declaring war between the United political faith.” The efforts of particular Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and states to monopolize the principal offices the dependencies thereof, and the United, was denounced, as was the continuance of States of America and their territories. public men for long periods in office.

Be it enacted, &c. That war be, and Madison was nominated for a second the same is hereby declared to exist beterm by a Congressional caucus held at tween the United Kingdom of Great Britain Washington, in May, 1812. John Langdon and Ireland, and the dependencies thereof, was nominated for Vice-President, but as and the United States of America, and their he declined on account of age, Elbridge territories; and that the President of the Gerry of Massachusetts, took his place. United States is hereby authorized to use In September of the same year a conven- the whole land and 'naval force of the tion of the opposition, representing eleven United States to carry the same into effect, states, was held in the city of New York, and to issue to private armed vessels of the which nominated De Witt Clinton, with United States commissions, or letters of Jared Ingersoll for Vice-President. This marque and general reprisal, in such form was the first national convention, partisan as he shall think proper, and under the seal in character, and the Federalists have the of the United States, against the vessels, credit of originating and carrying out the goods, and effects, of the government of idea. The election resulted in the success the United Kingdom of Great Britain and of Madison, who received 128 electoral Ireland and the subjects thereof." votes to 89 for Clinton.

This was a soul-stirring message, but it Though factious strife had been some- did not rally all the people as it should what rife, less attention was paid to poli- have done. Political jealousies were very tics than to the approaching war. There great, and the frequent defeats of the Fedwere new Democratic leaders in the lower eralists, while they tended to greatly reduce House, and none were more prominent their numbers and weaken their power, than Clay of Kentucky, Calhoun, Cheves seemed to strengthen their animosity, and and Lowndes, all of South Carolina. The they could see nothing good in any act of policy of Jefferson in reducing the army the administration. They held, especially and navy was now greatly deplored, and in the New England states, that the war had the defenceless condition in which it left been declared by a political party simply, the country was the partial cause, at least a and not by the nation, though nearly all of stated cause of the factious feuds which fol- the Middle, and all of the Southern and lowed. Madison sought to change this Western States, warmly supported it. policy, and he did it at the earnest solici- Clay estimated that nine-tenths of the peotation of Clay, Calhoun and Lowndes, who ple were in favor of the war, and under the were the recognized leaders of the war inspiration of his eloquence and the strong party. They had early determined that state papers of Madison, they doubtless Madison should be directly identified were at first. Throughout they felt their with them, and before his second nomina- political strength, and they just as heartily tion had won him over to their more de- returned the bitterness manifested by those cided views in favor of war with England. of the Federalists who opposed the war, He had held back, hoping that diplomacy branding them as enemies of the republic, might avert a contest, but when once con- and monarchists who preferred the reign of vinced that war was inevitable and even Britain. desirable under the circumstances, his Four Federalist representatives in Conofficial utterances were bold and free. In gress went so far as to issue an address, the June following the caucus which re- opposing the war, the way in which it had nominated him, he declared in a message been declared, and denouncing it as unjust. that our flag was continually insulted on Some of the New England states refused the high seas; that the right of searching the order of the President to support it American vessels for British seamen was with their militia, and Massachusetts sent still in practice, and that thousands of peace memorials to Congress. American citizens had in this way been A peace party was formed with a view to impressed in service on foreign ships ; that array the religious sentiment of the counpeacful efforts at adjustment of the diffi- try against the war, and societies with simculties had proved abortive, and that the ilar objects were organized by the more British ministry and British emissaries I radical of the Federalists. To such an ex

treme was this opposition carried, that jesty and the United States are desirous of some of the citizens of New London, Conn., continuing their efforts to promote its entire made a practice of giving information to abolition, it is hereby agreed that both the the enemy, by means of blue lights, of the contracting parties shall use their best endeparture of American vessels.

deavors to accomplish so desirable an object."

The eleventh and last article provides for

binding effect of the treaty, upon the exThe Hartford Convention.

change of ratifications. This opposition finally culminated in the

The position of New England in the war assembling of a convention at Hartford, at

is explained somewhat by her exposed powhich delegates were present from all of the sition. Such of the militia as served enNew England states. They sat for three dured great hardships, and they were alweeks with closed doors, and issued an ad- most constantly called from their homes to dress which will be found in this volume alty, the general government had with

meet new dangers. Distrusting their loyin the book devoted to political platforms. held all supplies from the militia of MassaIt was charged by the Democrats that the real object of the convention was to nego- and these States were forced to bear the

chusetts and Connecticut for the year 1814, tiate a separate treaty of peace, on behalf of New England, with Great Britain, but burden of supporting them, at the same time this charge was 'as warmly denied. The contributing their quota of taxes to the exact truth has not since been discovered, general government-hardships, by the the fears of the participants of threatened way, not greater than those borne by Penntrials for treason, closing their mouths, it sylvania and Ohio in the late war for the their professions were false. The treaty of the border States at the same time. True,

Union, nor half as hard as those borne by Ghent, which was concluded on December 11th, 1814, prevented other action by the the coast towns of Massachusetts were subHartford convention than that stated. It jected to constant assault from the British had assembled nine days before the treaty, navy, and the people of these felt that they which is as follows:

were defenceless. It was on their petition that the legislature of Massachusetts final

ly, by a vote of 226 to 67, adopted the report Treaty of Ghent.

favoring the calling of the Hartford Con

vention. A circular was then addressed to This treaty was negotiated by the Right the Governors of the other States, with a Honorable James Lord Gambier, Henry request that it be laid before their legislaGoulburn, Esq., and William Adams, Esq., tures, inviting them to appoint delegates, on the part of Great Britain, and John and stating that the object was to deliberQuincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry | ate upon the dangers to which the eastern Clay, Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gal. section was exposed, "and to devise, if latin, on behalf of the United States. practicable, means of security and defence

The treaty can be found on p. 218, vol. which might be consistent with the preser. 8, of Little & Brown's Statutes at Large. vation of their resources from total ruin, The first article provided for the restora- and not repugnant to their obligations as tion of all archives, records, or property members of the l'nion.” The italicized portaken by either party from the other dur- tion shows that there was at least then no ing the war. This article expressly pro- design of forming a separate treaty, or of vides for the restoration of “slaves or other promoting disunion. The legislatures of private property.” The second article pro- | Connecticut and Rhode Island endorsed vided for the cessation of hostilities and the call and sent delegates. Those of New limitation of time of capture. The third Hampshire and Vermont did not, but de article provided for the restoration of legates were sent by local conventions. prisoners of war.

These delegates, it is hardly necessary to The fourth article defined the boundary remark, were all members of the Federal established by the treaty of 1783, and pro- party, and their suspected designs and acvided for commissioners to mark the same. tion made the “Hartford Convention” a

The fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth bye-word and reproach in the mouths of articles established rules to govern the pro- Democratic orators for years thereafter. It ceedings of the commissioners.

gave to the Democrats, as did the entire The ninth article bound the United history of the war, the prestige of superior States and His Britannic Majesty to end patriotism, and they profited by it as long all hostilities with Indian tribes, with whom as the memory of the war of 1812 was they were then respectively at war. fresh. Indeed, directly after the war, all

The tenth article reads as follows: men seemed to keep in constant view the “Whereas the traffic in slaves is irrecon- reluctance of the Federalists to support the cilable with the principles of humanity war, and their almost open hostility to it and justice; and, whereas, both His Ma-l in New England. Peace brought fros

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