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states. There was confusion which must four political history must ever bei npressed soon have approached violence, for no with the fact that changes and reforms authority beyond the limits of the state ever moved slowly, and that those of slowwas respected, and Congress was notably est growth seem to abide the longest. powerless in its attempts to command aid from the states to meet the payment of the war debt, or the interest thereon. Instead of general respect for, there was al The Federal and Anti-Federal Parties. most general disregard of law on the part The Strong Government Whigs, on the of legislative bodies, and the people were submission of the constitution of '1787 to not slow in imitating their representatives. Congress and the legislatures, and indiCivil strife became imminent, and Shay's rectly through the latter to the people, who Rebellion in Massachusetts was the first select the members on this issue, became twarlike manifestation of the spirit which the Federal party, and all of its power was was abroad in the land.

used to promote the ratification of the inAlive to the new dangers, the Assembly strument. Its ablest men, headed by of Virginia in 1786, appointed commis- Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, sioners to invite all the states to take part advocated adoption before the people, and in a convention for the consideration of their pens supplied much of the current questions of commerce, and the propriety political literature of that day. Eightyof altering the Articles of Confederation. five essays, still noted and quoted for their This convention met at Annapolis, Sept. ability, under the nom de plume of “Pub. 11th, 1786. But five states sent representa- lius,” were published in “The Federalist.” tives, the others regarding the movement They were written by Hamilton, Madison with jealousy. This convention, however, and Jay, and with irresistible force advoadapted a report which urged the appoint-cated the Federal constitution, which was menit of commissioners by all the states, ratified by the nine needed states, and “to devise such other provisions as shall, Congress was officially informed of the fact to them seem necessary to render the con- July 22, 1788, and the first Wednesday, in dition of the Federal government adequate March, 1789, was fixed as the time " for to the exigencies of the Union; and to re- commencing proceedings under the conport such an act for that purpose to the stitution.”. United States in Congress assembled, as, This struggle for the first time gave the when agreed to by them and afterwards Federalists an admitted majority. The confirmed by the legislatures of every state, complexion of the State legislature prior will effectually provide for the same. to it showed them in fact to be in a miCongress approved this action, and passed nority, and the Particularist Whigs, or resolutions favoring a meeting in conven- Anti-Federals opposed every preliminary tion for the “sole and express purpose of step looking to the abandonment of the revising the Articles of Confederation, and Articles of Confederation and the adoption report to Congress and the State legisla- of a Federal constitution. They were v tures." The convention met iri Philadel- called Anti-Federals because they opposed phia in May, 1787, and continued its ses- a federal government and constitution and sions until September 17th, of the same year. adhered to the rights of the States and The Strong Government Whigs had previ- those of local self-government. Doubtless ously made every possible effort for a full party rancor, then as now, led men to opand able representation, and the result did pose a system of government which it not disappoint them, for instead of simply seems they must have approved after fightrevising the Articles of Confederation, the ing for it, but the earlier jealousies of the convention framed a constitution, and sent States and the prevailing ideas of liberty it to Congress to be submitted to that body certainly gave the Anti-Federals a popuand through it to the several legislatures. I larity which only a test so sensible as that The act submitting it provided that, if it proposed could have shaken. They were should be ratified by nine of the thirteen not without popular orators and leaders. states, it should be binding upon those Patrick Henry, the earliest •of the paratifying the same. Just here was started triots, and“the-old-man-eloquent,” Samuel the custom which has since passed into Adams, took special pride in espousing law, that amendments to the national con- their cause. The war questions between stitution shall be submitted after approval Whig an i Tory must have passed quickly by Congress, to the legislatures of the sev- away, as living issues, though the news. eral states, and after approval hy three- papers and contemporaneous history show fourths thereof, it shall be binding upon all that the old taunts and battle cries were -a very proper exercise of constitutional applied to the new situation with a plain, authority, as it seems now, but which ness and virulence that must still be envied would not have won popular approval by the sensational and more bitterly partiwhen Virginia proposed the Annapolis san journals of our own day. To read convention in 1786. Indeed, the reader of these now, and some of our facts are gath

BOOK 1]

FEDERALS AND ANTI-FEDERALS.

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ered from such sources, is to account for by the congressional caucus and appointed the frequent use of the saying touching by the electoral college. He selected his

the ingratitude of republics," for when cabinet from the leading minds of both partisan hatred could deride the still re- parties, and while himself a recognized cent utterances of Henry before the startled Federalist, all felt that he was acting for assembly of Virginians, and of Adams in the good of all, and in the earlier years of advocating the adoption of the Declaration, his administration, none disputed this there must at least to every surface view fact. bare been rank ingratitude. Their good As the new measures of the government names, however, survived the struggle, as advanced, however, the anti-federalists orgood names in our republic have ever sur- ganized an opposition to the party in vired the passions of the law. In politics power. Immediate danger had passed. the Americans then as now, hated with The constitution worked well. The laws promptness and forgave with generosity. of Congress were respected; its calls for The Anti-Federals denied nearly all that revenue honored, and Washington dethe Federals asserted. The latter had for voted much of his first and second mesthe first time assumed 'the aggressive, and sages to showing the growing prosperity had the advantage of position. They of the country, and the respect which it showed the deplorable condition of the was beginning to excite abroad. Buty country, and their opponents had to bear where there is political power, there is the burdens of denial at a time when nearly opposition in a free land, and the great all public and private obligations were dis- leaders of that day neither forfeited their honored; when labor was poorly paid, work. reputations as patriots, or their characters men getting but twenty-fivecents a day, with as statesmen by the assertion of honest diflittle to do at that; when even the rich in ferences of opinion. Washington, Adams," lands were poor in purse, and when com- and Hamilton were the recognized leaders merce on the seas was checked by the cold- of the Federalists, the firm friends of the ness of foreign nations and restricted by constitution. The success of this instruthe action of the States themselves ; when ment modified the views of the antimanufactures were without protection of Federalists, and Madison of Virginia, its any kind, and when the people thought recognized friend when it was in preparatheir struggle for freedom was about to end tion, joined with others who had been its in national poverty. Still Henry, and friends-notably, * Doctor Williamson, of Adams and Hancock, with hosts of others, North Carolina, and Mr. Langdon, of claimed that the aspirations of the Anti- Georgia, in opposing the administration, "Federals were the freest, that they pointed and soon became recognized leaders of the to personal liberty and local sovereignty. anti-Federalists. Langdon was the PresiYet many Anti-Federals must have accept- dent pro tem. of the Senate. Jefferson wa ed the views of the Federals, who under then on a mission to France, and not untii the circumstances must have presented the some years thereafter did he array himself better reason, and the result was as stated, with those opposed to centralized power in th: ratification of the Federal constitution the nation. He returned in November, of 1787 by three-fourths of the States of 1789, and was called to Washington's Vthe Union. After this the Anti-Federalists cabinet as Secretary of State in March, were given a new name, that of “Close 1790. It was a great cabinet, with JefferConstructionists,” because they naturally son as its premier (if this term is suited to desired to interpret the new instrument in a time when English political nomenclature such a way as to bend it to their views. was anything but popular in the land ;) *The Federalists became “ Broad Construc- Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury; tionists,” because they interpreted the con- Knox, Secretary of War, and Edmund stitution in a way calculated to broaden Randolph, Attorney-General. There was the power of the national government. no Secretary of the Navy until the adThe Confederacy once dissolved, the ministration of the elder Adams, and no Federal party entered upon the enjoy- Secretary of the Interior. ment of fall political power, but it was not The first session of Congress under the without its responsibilities. The govern- Federal constitution, held in New York, ment had to be organized upon the basis sat for nearly six months, the adjournment of the new constitution, as upon the suc- taking place September 29th, 1789. Nearly cess of that organization would depend not all the laws framed pointed to the organialone the stability of the government and zation of the government, and the discusthe happiness of its people, but the repu- sions were able and protracted. Indeed, tation of the party and the fame of its these discussions developed opposing views,

which could easily find separation on much Fortunately for all, party hostilities were the same old lines as those which separated not manifested in the Presidential election. the founders of constitutional government All bowed to the popularity of Washing; ton, and he was unanimously nominated * Edwin Williams in Statesman's Manual.

leaders as statesmen.

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states. There was confusion which must four political
soon have approached violence, for no with the fit
authority beyond the limits of the state ever moved
was respected, and Congress was notably est growth se
powerless in its attempts to command aid
from the states to meet the payment of
the war debt, or the interest thereon. In-
stead of general respect for, there was al The Federal
most general disregard of law on the part

The Strong
of legislative bodies, and the people were submission of
not slow in imitating their representatives. Congress and
Civil strife became imminent, and Shay's rectly through
Rebellion in Massachusetts was the first elect the memb
twarlike manifestation of the spirit which the Federal part
was abroad in the land.

used to promote Alive to the new dangers, the Assembly strument. Its of Virginia in 1786, appointed commis- Alexander Hamil sioners to invite all the states to take part advocated adoption in a convention for the consideration of their pens supplie questions of commerce, and the propriety political literature of altering the Articles of Confederation. five essays, still not This convention met at Annapolis, Sept. ability, under the 11th, 1786. But five states sent representa- lius,” were publishes tives, the others regarding the movement They were written by with jealousy. This convention, however, and Jay, and with in adapted a report which urged the appoint-cated the Federal cor ment of commissioners by all the states, ratified by the nine “to devise such other provisions as shall, Congress was officially to them seem necessary to render the con- July 2d, 1788, and the dition of the Federal government adequate March, 1789, was fixed to the exigencies of the Union; and to recommencing proceeding port such an act for that purpose to the stitution.” United States in Congress assembled, as, This struggle for the fi when agreed to by them and afterwards Federalists an admitted confirmed by the legislatures of every state, complexion of the State will effectually provide for the same.” to it showed them in fac Congress approved this action, and passed nority, and the Particular resolutions favoring a meeting in conven- Anti-Federals opposed ever's tion for the “sole and express purpose of step looking to the abando revising the Articles of Confederation, and Articles of Confederation and report to Congress and the State legisla- of a Federal constitution. tures. The convention met iri Philadel- called Anti-Federals because phia in May, 1787, and continued its ses- á federal government and const sions until September 17th, of the same year. adhered to the rights of the The Strong Government Whigs had previ- those of local self-government. ously made every possible effort for a full party rancor, then as now, led and able representation, and the result did pose a system of government not disappoint them, for instead of simply seems they must have approved an revising the Articles of Confederation, the ing for it, but the earlier jealousie convention framed a constitution, and sent States and the prevailing ideas of it to Congress to be submitted to that body certainly gave the Anti-Federals and through it to the several legislatures. Ilarity which only a test so sensible The act submitting it provided that, if it proposed could have shaken. The should be ratified by nine of the thirteen not without popular orators and le states, it should be binding upon those Patrick Henry, the earliest of the ratifying the same. Just here was started triots, and“ the-old-man-eloquent," San the custom which has since passed into Adams, took special pride in espon law, that amendments to the national con- their cause. The war questions betw stitution shall be submitted after approval Whig an 1 Tory must have passed quic by Congress, to the legislatures of the sev- away, as living issues, though the ner eral states, and after approval by three-papers and contemporaneous history sho fourths thereof, it shall be binding upon all that the old taunts and battle cries wat

-a very proper exercise of constitutional applied to the new situation with a plain authority, as it seems now, but which ness and virulence that must still be envic would not have won popular approval by the sensational and more bitterly parti when Virginia proposed the Annapolis san journals of our own day. To reati convention in 1786. Indeed, the reader of these now, and some of our facts ar

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ace. ( politica, thought and action. They were heir the immediate cause of the Kentucky and V * of Virginia resolutions of 1798, Jefferson beeiring the author of the former and Madison nd of the latter. of These resolutions were full of political 3- significance, and gave tone to sectional dis

cussion up to the close of the war for the e Union. They first promulgated the doc

trine of nullification or secession, and political writers mistake who point to Calhoun as the father of that doctrine. Itv began with the old Republicans under the leadership of Jefferson and Madison, and though directly intended as protests against

he alien and sedition, and the naturaliza'ion laws of Congress, they kept one eye 'pon the question of slavery-rather that iterest was kept in view in their declara. ins, and yet the authors of both were ything but warm advocates of slavery. sy were then striving, however, to reine the opposition to the Federal party, ch the administration of Adams had - far apparently weakened, and they in view the brief agitation which had

up in 1793, five years before, on the in to Congress of a Pennsylvania

“to use its powers to stop the traffic 7." On the question of referring ion to a committee there arose a debate. Men took sides not behe party to which they belonged, tion, and for the first time the South were arrayed against each Festion not then treated either as political, but which most minds ist soon become both partisan 1. Some of the Southern dcair protests against interfer. y threatened civil war. With r protect their rights to slave

then advocated and suc. ng the first fugitive slave proved February 12, 1793.

of 1798 will be found in
i to political platforms.
sif esteemed by the Re.
lar, and by the interests

so shrewdly invited,
counterbalanced the
the Federals in their
and 1800 they
Cabinet of Adams.
ection of 1100 John ;
· for President and
ice-President. A
on” of Republi,
lia, nominated
in Burr as can-
n the election
pin chose 73

65. Each
and the Re.

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Neither etermined

states. There was confusion which must four political history must ever be i npressed soon have approached violence, for no with the fact that changes and reforms authority beyond the limits of the state ever moved slowly, and that those of slowwas respected, and Congress was notably est growth seem to abide the longest. powerless in its attempts to command aid from the states to meet the payment of the war debt, or the interest thereon. Instead of general respect for, there was al The Federal and Anti-Federal Parties. most general disregard of law on the part The Strong Government Whigs, on the of legislative bodies, and the people were submission of the constitution of 1787 to not slow in imitating their representatives. Congress and the legislatures, and indiCivil strife became imminent, and Shay's rectly through the latter to the people, who Rebellion in Massachusetts was the first elect the members on this issue, became twarlike manifestation of the spirit which the Federal party, and all of its power was was abroad in the land.

used to promote the ratification of the inAlive to the new dangers, the Assembly strument. Its ablest men, headed by of Virginia in 1786, appointed commis- Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, sioners to invite all the states to take part advocated adoption before the people, and in a convention for the consideration of their pens supplied much of the current questions of commerce, and the propriety political literature of that day. Eighty. of altering the Articles of Confederation. five essays, still noted and quoted for their This convention met at Annapolis, Sept. ability, under the nom de plume of "Pub. 11th, 1786. But five states sent representa- lius,' were published in “The Federalist." tives, the others regarding the movement They were written by Hamilton, Madison with jealousy. This convention, however, and Jay, and with irresistible force advoadapted a report which urged the appoint-cated the Federal constitution, which was ment of commissioners by all the states, ratified by the nine needed states, and “ to devise such other provisions as shall, Congress was officially informed of the fact to them seem necessary to render the con- July 20, 1788, and the first Wednesday. in dition of the Federal government adequate March, 1789, was fixed as the time" for to the exigencies of the Union; to re- commencing proceedings under the conport such an act for that purpose to the stitution.". United States in Congress assembled, as, This struggle for the first time gave the when agreed to by them and afterwards Federalists an admitted majority. The confirmed by the legislatures of every state, complexion of the State legislature prior will effectually provide for the same. to it showed them in fact to be in a miCongress approved this action, and passed nority, and the Particularist Whigs, or resolutions favoring a meeting in conven- Anti-Federals opposed every preliminary tion for the “sole and express purpose of step looking to the abandonment of the revising the Articles of Confederation, and Articles of Confederation and the adoption report to Congress and the State legisla- of a Federal constitution. They were v tures.” The convention met ir Philadel-called Anti-Federals because they opposed phia in May, 1787, and continued its ses- a federal government and constitution and sions until September 17th, of the same year. adhered to the rights of the States and The Strong Government Whigs had previ- those of local self-government. Doubtless ously made every possible effort for a full party rancor, then as row, led men to op. and able representation, and the result did pose a system of government which it not disappoint them, for instead of simply seems they must have approved after fightrevising the Articles of Confederation, the ing for it, but the earlier jealousies of the convention framed a constitution, and sent States and the prevailing ideas of liberty it to Congress to be submitted to that body certainly gave the Anti-Federals a popuand through it to the several legislatures. larity which only a test so sensible as that "The act submitting it provided that, if it proposed could have shaken. They were should be ratified by nine of the thirteen not without popular orators and leaders, states, it should be binding upon those Patrick Henry, the earliest of the paratifying the same. Just here was started triots, and“the-old-man-eloquent,"

,," Samuel the custom which has since passed into Adams, took special pride in espousing law, that amendments to the national con- their cause. The war questions between stitution shall be submitted after approval Whig an 1 Tory must have passed quickly by Congress, to the legislatures of the ser- away, as living issues, though the news. eral states, and after approval by three- papers and contemporaneous history show fourths thereof, it shall be binding upon all that the old taunts and battle cries were

a very proper exercise of constitutional applied to the new situation with a plainauthority, as it seems now, but which ness and virulence that must still be en vied would not have won popular approval by the sensational and more bitterly parti, when Virginia proposed the Annapolis san journals of our own day. To read convention in 1786. Indeed, the reader of these now, and some of our facts are gath

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