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hoff has óvouá o ovot. The future is certainly to be desired, but the change is unnecessary: the tense can be explained on the basis of the praesens propheticum.

1. 42. Apayua: MSS. Wilamowitz changes to malol, unnecessarily. His reviewer in the Classical Review says that it is a harmless reading, if it had MS. authority, and harmonizes with 520, as the traditional reading does with 690. Neither line affects the question particularly. Line 41 gives the negative, 42 the positive side. In ll. 43-46 mention is made of the death of Hippolytus, in 47 of Phaedra; so we have a regular gradation in time: Theseus, Hippolytus, Phaedra, the events referred to occurring in the reverse order — a sort of io tepoy a pótepov. The chorus swears undèv kak@ vowv és páos delfeLV TOTé (714); nevertheless, the whole matter does come to the light. Cf. the exclamation of the chorus in 367 8lwlas, é géanvas és páos kará.

1. 79. Öpois : MSS. Porson changed őools to 60TIS, a reading which is not objectionable, to be sure; but it is not so natural as 80s. Nauck says: mit Porson's Aenderung ist dem Sinn der Stelle wenig gedient. In spite of the fact that most editors have followed Porson (Monk, Weil, Wilamowitz, Nauck in the third edition) the MSS. reading seems to me to be preferable. Cf. 3, 6, 442, 451, 1015, 1302. Consider the sentence ålx'... Öpws parenthetical, understanding aútous with ellnxev, and it becomes clear. It is not necessary to make €llnxev neuter, as in Hom. Od. IX. 160, for the verb means here “took them for her own.'

11. 168–169. Translate Much-revered by me she always comes to the rescue,' not as Mahaffy and Bury (after Weil) explain : she walks in the number of the gods,' nor as Paley takes it, thanks to the gods.' oùv Oeoioi is a stereotyped phrase meaning with the blessing of heaven. Pouta is not used absolutely (the meaning is ‘she comes to me') and this verb is purposely selected. Met à dew v occurs only in H. F. 180, where it is a matter of gods among gods. It is strange that this line has been so often misunderstood. Tycho Mommsen explained it correctly. Herwerden in Revue de Philol. for 1878, p. 19, says: requiro é v Oeoioi poltậ, showing that he has the same conception of the passage as Weil, but is dissatisfied with the preposition σύν. Hadley changes φοιτα to έφοίτα, unnecessarily.

1. 277. Daveîv. This is the reading of the MSS. The only possible interpretation is that the nurse repeats the Oaveîv of the chorus by way of reply, and then adds ασιτεί δ' εις απόστασιν βίον to explain the means Phaedra chose: she desires to die, and to accomplish this, you see, she is starving herself.' The nurse knows her mistress wishes to die (248-9, 305, 314, and especially 322), but the cause which lies back of this resolution (το δεινόν τούθ' ό σ' εξαίρει θανείν) is what she has been trying so hard to discover (39-40, 271, 273 Távta yàp olyệ táde, 279, 283, 284, 297, 303) and the very thing which Phaedra takes such pains to conceal. Consequently, no valid objection can be raised to the reading of the MSS. Wilamowitz feels sure that Daveîv has crept in from the preceding line; so he removes the word and fills up the gap with oủk old', a harmless realing, but no better than many others which suggest themselves, e.g. oiyê (cf. 273, 279, 297): the nurse reiterates that all her efforts have been in vain, and this word would be very appropriate here, in fact, more appropriate than oủk old', for the nurse does know the answer to the latter of the two questions (Daveîv telpwuéon), as is shown by her interrogation in 322.

11. 468 ff. Nauck and Wilamowitz read ňs karnpepels bouwv with the MSS. Hartung has ñ karnpepeis dóuous, Weil ei kat npe on dokous. Musgrave proposed κανών ακριβώσει' άν in the next line. Wecklein made a further change: ουδε otéynu av eis katnpepeis dókovs kavwv åkpıß elev. Barthold rejects the three lines; Nauck reads åkpußwo alev and Wilamowitz äv ňkpißwo av for the MSS. åkpupurelav. Probably the whole difficulty originated with this verb. If Eur. wrote åkpißoel áv, the two words would soon coalesce, forming the plural, which would account for the changes in the preceding line. Hence I propose TIS karnpeo ñ dóuwv for vs karnpepeis dóuoi. Cf. Soph. El. 380 év kat mpedei OTéY?.

11. 566 and 568. Wecklein, Johnson (conj. et opt, usu Euripideo), Hadley and others transpose these two lines. The order in the MSS. is correct, for as soon as Phaedra says ételpyáo ueda, the chorus is eager to know what is the matter and can not refrain from asking. This necessitates a repetition of the command, which is given, not because the singing annoys the queen, but because she wishes to hear whai is going on inside. Then the chorus complies with Phaedra's request and answers olyû.

1. 485. uâllov aliwothis is a pleonasm which occurs as early as Homer. In Latin it is very old. Of the double comparative Pautus has three examples (Men. prol. 55, Poen. prol. 83, Pseud. 220-1). In early English it is by no means rare. I have been at the pains to count the number in Shakespeare's plays, and find 29 examples (not counting lesser ').

1. 1019. apáo Delv ydp eề: this is the reading of CVPNT and the scholiast. Nauck and Wilamowitz omit the eů and insert te before yàp. If this reading be accepted, the meaning must be: 'you have time to work,' i.e. to devote to any. thing which may interest you or engage your attention, whereas a monarch has no leisure, and, indeed, this is the interpretation of Wilamowitz, for he translates: so bleibt Raum zu schaffen und zu wirken. But apáo celv without a complement is rare except in the phrase éYELV Te kai apáoo Elv. Ion, 730, seems to indicate the true reading: oùv Tois plnous ràp ñ ù mèv a páo Delv kals. This verse (1019) is introduced merely as an explanation or amplification of the preceding – πράσσειν εύ is merely another way of saying ευτυχείν. Moreover, this thought harmonizes with the character of Hippolytus.

1. 1069. The MSS. read kakĝv at the end. So Nauck and most editors. The text must be corrupt. Wilamowitz reads dóuwv. I propose é xwv. A participle which has the same construction as kouiçwv seems to be needed, and EU VOLkoúpous é xwv could easily have become Çuvolkoúpous kak@v.

The paper was read by Professor Ebeling.

27. Old-English Runic anipu lufu, by Professor George Hempi, of the University of Michigan (read by title).

In his “Old Northern Runic Monuments” (III. p. 236 = Handbook, p. 193), Stephens places side by side two gold coins, one of which presents a runic inscription. This coin was found in England, and is in the British Museum; the other is in the Leyden Museum. Stephens, as usual, regards the foreign coin as a copy of the English, but this is manifestly impossible; both are, rather, barbarian

imitations of the same or similar originals. The faces of the coins present the head and shoulders of a beardless person facing the right. At his back is a square cross followed by an inscription running around the edge of the coin. The reverses of both present two full figures, hand in hand, and at the left a square cross followed by an inscription, of which only the letters ENE seem certain in both. The inscription on the faces of the coins is, however, much better preserved. On the Leyden coin it appears distinctly

+C O R N ILI O For the English coin Stephens gives

+CAYA 1101 +7L I O It will be observed that the engraver had first copied CORNILIO from his original, and had then erased as much as was necessary to make room for his runic inscription, which is written from right to left, as is often the case in very early runic inscriptions. Inverting the runes, they are:

AXIOnnen

All of these are regular Germanic as well as Old-English runes with the exception of the one before the last, which could only be a Scandinavian form of the rune for k. As nothing Scandinavian can be made out of the inscription, it is simplest to suppose that r is for y, and the loss of the small stroke is due either to inaccuracy in copying the coin, or to the fact that the coin is imperfectly struck, the ornamental rim being quite gone at this point, while the edge of the metal runs across the top of the rune itself.

The inscription is then quite clear

AtIDA MPM
@ п і Ви 2 и fu
'unity

love'

Of these, lufu is the regular Old-English form for 'love.' In ônibu we have a primitive Old-English form of an abstract formed from ān 'one' by the usual abstract ending -ibu (Kluge, Stammbildungslehre, $ 121, etc.), the later classical form of which would be *@npu, still later *ænþ (Sievers, § 144 b, 244). In showing the original unsyncopated -z- of the ending -ibu (Gothic -ipa), this primitive ēnipu is, so far as my knowledge goes, the only Old-English form yet found.

It might be asked whether the inscription is not perhaps to be read ānipu, that is, that F has its Germanic value of a rather than the Old-English value of æ, and that the inscription belongs to the time preceding i-mutation. But, as I have shown in an article in Modern Language Notes for June 1896, the change of Germanic ai to Old-English ā was accompanied by the change of runic to N, and we should therefore expect N if the ā were not yet mutated to ã. .

The inscription õnipu lufu, or .unity (and) love,' may have a political application, like the “Concordia,” “ Consensus,” etc., of Roman coins (cf. “ Consesus exercit” around two figures clasping hands, on a coin of Vespasian); or the coin

may have been struck in honor of a royal wedding, and the figures on the reverse be regarded as symbolic.

It may be added that Stephens' interpretation of the inscription is, as usual, not worth copying. He does not hesitate to render p by k, as though he were dealing with a Scandinavian inscription, and he perverts the perfect (=p) into a bad P (=w), and then reads Æniwuluku(nung), which he thinks means 'King Anwulf,' though it sounds more like the name of a king of the Sandwich Islands. The consideration of the original of these barbarian coins, and of the lettering on the reverses, I shall reserve for another occasion.

Adjourned at 11.30.

BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD.

JULY 1894 TO JULY 1896.

This list of philological publications by members of the ASSOCIATION has been compiled from information furnished, at the request of the Executive Committee, by the members themselves.

ABBREVIATIONS: AJA = American Journal of Archæology; AFP= American Journal of Philology; APA = American Philological Association; CR= Classical Review; ER= Educational Review; HSCP= Harvard Studies in Classical Philology; JAOS = Journal of the American Oriental Society; MLA = Publications of the Modern Language Association; MLN = Modern Language Notes; SR=School Review.

FRANK FROST ABBOTT.

SIDNEY G. ASHMORE. Valde in den Briefen an Cicero; | On the atrium and cavum aedium of

Archiv für lateinische Lexikogra a Rcman dwelling; SR., June, phie, vol. ix. 1895, p. 462 ff.

1895; cf. APA. Proceed., xxvi. Rev. of Cooper's Word-formation in p. xiv.

the Roman Sermo Plebeius; AJP., | Rev. of Scholia Terentiana collegit et xvi. 1895, pp. 506-508.

disposuit Frid. Schlee, Leipzig, FREDERIC D. ALLEN.

1893; CR., Oct. 1894.

An account of the classical conference On the Oscan words prúffed and

at Ann Arbor; Book Reviews, May, prúftúset; CR., X. p. 18, Jan. 1896.

1895. On os columnatum (Plautus, Miles

Article on Terence, Harper's DictionGlor. 211) and ancient instru- |

ary of classical antiquities. ments of confinement; HSCP., / vii. pp. 37–64.

W. J. BATTLE. FRANCIS G. ALLINSON.

Magical curses written on lead tablets;

APA. Proceed., Dec. 1894, xxvi. Third and revised edition of Greek |

p. liv. prose composition; Allyn & Bacon,

CHAS. E. BENNETT. JOSEPH ANDERSON.

Tacitus, dialogus de oratoribus; Ginn

& Co., 1894. The town and city of Waterbury,

A Latin Grammar; Allyn & Bacon, Conn., 3 vols. 8vo, pp. 2300; New

1895. New editions in 1895 and Haven : Published by the Price & Lee Company, 1896. Chapter IV. |

Appendix to Bennett's Latin Gramof Vol. I. (pp. 39-55), entitled |

mar; Allyn & Bacon, 1895. 232 + Indian geographical names, is

xiii pp. largely philological.

Louis BEVIER, JR. W. Muss-ARNOLT.

The Delphian hymns and the pronunA concise dictionary of the Assyr

ciation of the Greek vowels; APA. ian language (Assyrian-EnglishGerman), parts 1 and 2, 64 pp.

Proceed., Dec. 1894, xxvi. p. iv. each; Berlin : Verlag von Reuther | HIRAM H. Bice. & Reichard, 1895; New York: B. The sacred city of the Ethiopians; Westermann & Co.

Biblia, Aug. 1894. Report of Rheinisches Museum, vol. Woman in ancient Egypt; Biblia, 47; AJP., xv. 382–388.

March, April, and May, 1895.

1895.

1896.

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