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C. H. THURBER, of the Department of Pedagogy, University of Chicago; Dean
of Morgan Park Academy, Morgan Park, II.
The Report was approved by the Association by a vote of 276 to 4.
At the Joint Meeting of the Departments of Higher and of Secondary Education of the National Educational Association, held at Buffalo, July 9, 1896, copies of the first edition of this Report were distributed. The following resolution was offered by Principal E. W. Coy, of the Hughes High School, Cincinnati, and after remarks by several speakers was carried by a unanimous and hearty vote :
Resolved, That the Report on Latin of the Committee of Twelve of the American Philological Association meets with the cordial approval of the Departments of Higher and of Secondary Education of the National Educational Association.
The Report as approved was afterwards ordered printed in the Proceedings of the National Educational Association.
A telegram from the Secretary of the National Educational Association, then in session at Buffalo, was then read, as follows:
The joint committee on college entrance requirements of the departments of higher and secondary education, of the National Educational Association, formally invite the American Philological Association to prepare at its convenience a report on the proper course of secondary instruction in Latin and Greek, for the information and use of our joint committee,
After discussion, it was voted that the Committee of Twelve should prepare such a report, and that, in so doing, they should take into consideration the results reached by the conferences of the College and School Associations of the New England and Middle States,
It was then voted to authorize the Chairman of the Committee of Twelve (Professor W, W. Gooriwin, of Harvard Chiversity) to till vacancies in the Committee created by the temporary alysence in Europe of two members, - Professor(;»dwin, and Professor Warren, of Johns Hopkins University,
In place of Professor Goodwin, Professor Herbert Wrir Smythi, of Bryn Mawr College, was appointed ; in place of Professo) Warren, Professor Clement L. Sunith, of llarvard Iniversity. All the request of Professor Goodwin, Professor T. 1), Seymour, of Yule Cniversity, accepted the position of Chairman of the Committee,
Professor Hewitt, of Williams College, then proposed the following vote of thanks, which was carried :
Resolved, That the members of the American Philological Association desire to express their hearty thanks to the Trustees and Faculty of Brown University for the use of their buildings and for their many courteous attentions on the present occasion; to the Local Committee, – of which Professor William C. Poland is Secretary,- for their efficient labors in the interests of the session; and also to Dr. and Mrs. Albert Harkness, for the pleasant reception given at their residence on the afternoon of Wednesday, July 8.
Professor F. A. March, of Lafayette College, reported as Chairman of the Committee on Spelling Reform.
The Committee has not been calld on for any official action since the last meeting of the Association. It reports progress.
The “ Orthographic Union” of publishers, authors, and the like, with a new Secretary, – F. A. Fernald, Morris Heights, N. Y. City, — has been adding to its membership, and preparing a word-list of “such changes only as a considerable number of authors, editors, and educators have exprest willingness to unite in using."
The London Times opend its columns towards the close of 1895 to correspondents who protest against the tyranny of orthodox spelling, especially against examiners in the schools and Civil Service Commissioners, who pluck’ a lad because he spels judgment' with two e's. Professor Earle and Dr. Abbott join the protestants, and the editor of the Times sums up, agreeing with Dr. Abbott that “moderate latitudinarianism would be reasonable.” “The present system is wasteful and unprofitable.” Professor Earle wrote that “the way to slow but natural reform is to relinquish coercion and let all men spel as they like, trusting that the natural process of survival of the fittest wil in due time bring about improvement."
The practical necessity of uniformity of spelling in a printing establishment has heretofore bard the progress of spelling reform. But varied spellings hav now cum to be recognized in dictionaries and lernd by printers to such an extent that the London Association of Correctors for the Press recognize it as a cause of the loss of so much time and money as to call for action. They hav compiled a list of the most common doutful words, and agreed upon the spelling they wil use.
Mr. Horace Hart, printer to the University of Oxford, has also compiled a set of rules to bring about uniformity in connection with the Clarendon Press. Upon his offer to send copies to those chiefly interested, he receivd letters asking for them from all parts of Britain, Ireland, India, America, and the Colonies.
It seems that the same difficulties which hav led to the appointment of government commissions on the spelling of geographic names ar leading the printers to demand authoritativ regulation of all doutful spelling, and there can be no dout that all regulativ action deliberately taken wil promote orthografic reform.
The action of the United States Board on Geographic Names constituted by President Harrison in 1890 has been cordially accepted by the general public, and embodied in gazetteers and school books. It may be hoped that President
Cleveland wil constitute a similar Board of Scientific Terms from the specialists whose reports ar printed by the goverment.
The Committee was continued.
24. Vergil's use of the word Atrium, by Dr. H. W. Magoun, of Oberlin, O.
The word atrium occurs in Vergil six times. Servius and the commentators seem to take it for granted that he always had a Roman atrium in mind, and either ignore it altogether or comment upon it as though used in its ordinary sense. There are, however, reasons for believing that Vergil was strongly influenced in certain passages by his Homeric sources, and took atrium as the best Latin equivalent for a word which had long been obsolete in this sense in the Greek itself, and could not therefore be readily Latinized. The passages are all in the Aeneid, and are as follows: – I. 725 f. fit strepitus tectis, vocemque per ampla volutant
atria; II. 483 f. apparet domus intus et atria longa patescunt;
apparent Priami et veterum penetralia regum,
armatosque vident stantes in limine primo. 528 f.
porticibus longis fugit et vacua atria lustrat
saucius [Polites]. IV. 665 f.
it clamor ad alta atria; etc. VII. 378 ff. ceu quondam torto volitans sub verbere turbo
quem pueri magno in gyro vacua atria circum
intenti ludo exercent; etc.
pervolat et pennis alta atria lustrat hirundo,
The two last citations occur in similes — Amata raving through the city like a flying top, and Juturna driving through the ranks of the foe like a swallow that flies through the house of a wealthy man. They offer little to consider; for the plural is the favorite form in the poets, and is therefore without special significance. It has been questioned, Beck. Gal. tr. by M., P. 251, whether the “fountain” mentioned in the last passage is the one in the atrium ; but it seems best to take it so; for passages in Cicero make it clear that in Vergil's time atria built in the Corinthian style with pillars were common among the rich, and it may be assumed that he refers to such an atrium here. The citation from book IV. refers to the main hall of Dido's palace and may be passed over, since the passage from book I. refers to the same, and it will be quite sufficient to consider that. The citations from book II. refer to a single room. Vergil is describing the assault on the palace of Priam. Pyrrhus is raging at the doors, a hole is cut through the stout oak, and the interior is seen (citation). Terror reigns within, the women run to and fro, the Danaans burst in the doors, and the guards are overcome. In the meantime, Priam puts on his armor; the women flee to an altar in the midst of the palace, near which were the Penates, shaded by an aged bay-tree; and Hecuba sees Priam and calls him to her side. Then a son of Priam, escaping the general slaughter, flees [citation] through the long porticoes and traverses the deserted halls, only to be overtaken and slain in the sight of his parents.'
There are now several things to be noted. The bay-tree, 513, growing in the house, aedibus in mediis, seems to be Homeric and may perhaps have been suggested by the olive in the house of Ulysses, Od. XXIII. 190 f., although Servius places it in the impluvium, as if it were like the foliage in the later Roman atria, and Metcalfe, Beck. Gal. p. 251, thinks that Vergil has the atria of his own day in mind. They have failed to note, however, that the house seems to have been built about the tree as it stood in the primeval forest, cf. VII. 59-63, which was not the Roman method by any means in the days of Vergil; and where atria were fine enough to contain trees, the Penates in his time were provided with a special place in the interior of the house. It may safely be asserted that they were never found in the atria of such houses in his day, although they may possibly have been in those of the humbler sort. Again, Priam has scarcely armed himself before Hecuba sees him and calls him to the altar. The arms, then, must have been somewhere near. Lastly, Polites flees, after the slaughter at the threshold, first through porticoes and then through atria, and is finally slain in the penetralia, since it is close by the altar and the Penates that he falls and perishes at the hand of Pyrrhus. Now it appears from such passages as Hom. II. VI. 242 ff. and 316, that the Homeric house had first an aủań, an open court made with porticoes, and then a large hall, the uéyapov (called also owua), in which the arms were hung, cf. Od. XIX. 4 ff. and XXII. 23 ff., and at the inner end of which the hearth was placed, cf. Od. VI. 303 ff. and XX. 122 f. This hearth, eo xápn, which might also be termed the altar of 'Iotín, was the sanctuary of suppliants, cf. Od. VII. 153, and it is further clear from such passages as Eur. Med. 396 that the Deoi KTŃOLOL (the Greek Penates) were regularly placed in its near neighborhood, although the Ocol natpợol had an altar in the aủký, cf. Il. XI. 774. Vergil must have been acquainted with all these facts, and it is hard to escape the conviction that he had them in mind in this place. The description of the first glimpse of the interior (see citation) also agrees with this idea and becomes, on this basis, very lifelike and natural: a hole is burst in the door, a swift glance reveals the aúlý (domus intus), the uéyapov (atria) with the hearth, or altar, and the Penates at its further end (penetralia), and the eye then returns and rests upon the armed men that await them at the threshold. Moreover, the Homeric arrangement of the Penates and the hearth appears to be referred to in other passages dealing with the city of Troy and the camp of Aeneas, cf. II. 297 and V. 660; and finally, in line 503, in the very midst of the story he distinctly mentions the TEUTÝKovta Oálauor of Il. VI. 244. The use of penetralia in line 508 does not invalidate the reasoning; for Vergil uses the word in a still more general sense of the cells of the ant, Geor. I. 379, and it may here be taken to mean that he saw the enemy invading the sanctity of his home. On the above considerations, it seems only fair to Vergil, although this view
upsets the theory held by Metcalfe, Henry, and Kappes that Vergil follows the plan of a Roman house in this place and refers to the cavaedium by cavae - aedes in line 487, to suppose that he uses the word atria in these two passages, not in its ordinary sense, but as an equivalent for the Homeric uéyapov, which appears to have also had an open roof.
The remaining citation has reference to the feast in the palace of Dido, of which he says, I. 638: mediisque parant convivia tectis; cf. the Homeric use of dwua for uéyapov, Il. VI. 316, etc. Servius regards both this passage and the citation as having reference to the early customs of the Romans, and Metcalfe, Beck. Gal. p. 250, cites his quotation from Cato on line 726 (730) as an evidence that in the early days the atrium was the dining-room of the house. The same authority, however, on the following page cites the passage itself as an evidence that the atria of Vergil's time had become “very magnificent." This comes painfully near convicting Vergil of an anachronism; but is it necessary? We have no means of knowing what idea Vergil had of a Carthaginian house; but as Carthage was destroyed more than seventy years before he was born, and the scene is laid in Homeric times, it seems very unlikely that any factor of that kind entered into the question. On the other hand (there is hardly a page of the Aeneid which does not contain some item suggestive of Homer), the palace of Dido is represented as magnificent, I. 637, cf. Od. VII. 81 ff., the city excites the admiration of Aeneas, I. 421 f., cf. Od. VII. 43 ff., and the whole setting of the passage seems to be Homeric. Again, the Méyapov, or dŵua, was the dininghall in which feasts were held, cf. Od. XX. 248 ff. etc., and finally, Dido, while upbraiding her faithless lover, laments that she has no little Aeneas to play in her aula, IV. 328. It does not help matters to suppose that aula here stands for atrium, as is commonly done in the case of III. 354 (Servius and Heyne seem to regard it as an aúlń), although Vergil expressly says, 295, that Helenus is reigning over Grecian cities. It is much simpler to believe that Vergil is consistent (it is like him), and as he must have been acquainted with Greek houses, cf. Hor. Car. I. 3, 1-3, it seems quite probable that he conceives of Helenus as receiving his guests in an aủlý such as he himself had seen. The other three passages in which aula occurs all point to an intentional use of the word as appropriate to the passage, not as a poetic makeshift — Aen. I. 140, the palace of Aeolus, cf. Od. X. 10; G. II. 504, of foreign conquests, cf. lines 487-97, which tend to give a Greek tone to the passage and suggest that the conquests are in the East; and G. IV. 202, where the bees in question are of the Greek variety, cf. 177, and therefore make an aúlý, figuratively speaking, even if they do elect Quirites, 201; for the poet is not to be held to too strict an account. Again, there is abundant evidence that Vergil was a careful user of words. The huts of Carthage are called magalia, I. 421 and IV. 259, and those of Libya mapalia, G. III. 340; a Trojan in prayer speaks of the tholos of a temple, IX. 406; and even his use of thalamus (the metre forbids cubiculum and dormitorium is late) goes to show how careful he was to be consistent. In three passages it refers to a room in Dido's palace, IV. 133, 392, 495; but in fourteen (?) others, — G. IV. 189, 333, 373: Aen. II. 503; VI. 280, 397, 521, 528, 623; VII. 97; VIII. 372; X. 497: Ciris (?) 217, 512, — with hardly an exception, the color or setting is so distinctly Greek or Trojan (Homeric) that the word seems not merely appropriate, but technically correct. In the Latin sense, ‘marriage-bed,''marriage,'