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(7) The couch or bench on which all the women sat together is called ($ 8) a klivtýp. In § 44 the same word is used of the couch apparently on the opposite side of the room, where Hermon sends Diphilus head-foremost årò toû Kleurspos. Klívn, however, is used ($ 47) where the Cynic throws himself in a drunken sleep ti tñs klivms. Cf. ópóklivoi, Hdt. IX. 16.

Only some such arrangement as that here proposed can meet the requirements of the text. The question of the length of the couches and whether they were placed closely together or continued on around the left-hand end of the room · must, I think, be left open.

In regard to the place of honor 1 a word may be said. The rich old father of the bridegroom — the guest of honor — lies first of all and next above the host thus combining two of the points mentioned by Plutarch (Quest. Sympos. II. $ 4 and III.). The bridegroom, too, might be regarded perhaps as in one of Plutarch's places of honor. He comes per altatos so far as the twelve guests ranged along tò å vtloupov are concerned. Becker, or the reviser (Charik., Göll's revision, 1877, Germ. ed. Vol. II. p. 305), makes a curiously vague or inaccurate statement. He says: “Auch bei Lucian (Conv. 9) liegt der Bräutigam neben dem Schwiegervater und Wirth.” As a matter of fact he lies (No. 7) five places below them.

7. A Study in the History of German Metrics, by Professor Julius Goebel, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University.

I. Accent. Among the German grammarians of the sixteenth century who made the first attempt at a scientific inquiry into the nature of German versification, Johann Clajus (1535-92) takes the principal place. In his Grammatica Germanicae linguae (1578) he devotes two chapters to German metrics in which he exhibits a clear understanding of the vital differences in verse-structure that separate the Germanic languages from the ancient tongues. Besides, he defines in the same chapters with remarkable precision the law upon which the metrics of all the Germanic languages are based: the law of accent. While the critical efforts of Clajus produced little effect upon contemporary German versifiers, the little book by Martin Opitz, Buch von der deutschen Poeterey (1624), also marked an epoch in the history of German metrics. In the seventh chapter of this famous book he says :

‘Nachmals ist auch ein jeder Vers entweder ein lambicus oder Trochaicus; nicht zwar, dass wir auf Art der Griechen und Römer eine gewisse Grösse der Sylben können in acht nehmen, sondern, dass wir aus den Accenten und dem T'hone erkennen, welche Sylbe hoch und welche niedrig gesetzt soll werden.'

It seems that Opitz in establishing this fundamental fact concerning German metrics did not know of Clajus. Nor is there any evidence of the influence of Opitz on Friedrich von Spee, who, in the preface to his Trutznachtigall (written previous to 1635), makes the same discovery of the law of accent in German versification. Spee goes even beyond Opitz and approaches the modern view by claiming that the accent of the verse must be that of the living speech. “Die

1 Jowett's trans. of čoyatov, in Plato's Symposium, as' at the end of the table ' is infelicitous for other reasons and possibly misleading to the English reader acquainted only with the Roman arrangement of the tables.

Quantitat aner, das ist die Länge ini Kirze der Stačen ist gemeinlich vom Accent gencm.nes, a.so tass teen: jea rasel, zif veicke in gemeiner Ausspriche der Accent fact, fir ang recent seind mi že anire für kurtz.'

For more than a centir e infuence fritz's buck male itself felt in a gecat regiarity of German Tersiicatio, 1 retuart: to parziny regular for the geniis of the Germaa aagiage Tie icve result of Opitz's rules — that verses constrictei akter the principle of ruancty were impossible in the German langiage - fun, waver, es attendua saa ae wcu expect from poets and the writers ca metrics. This becomes eviteat especialy during the eighteenth century when the rervai Hima: sm azeite desire of imitating the muchadmired Greek metres. Hipciy the great pets te stuck, Goethe, and Schiller were possessed to ine a feeing Er the genes of their language to alicw themselves to be rief en reiy by metrical ar-nakers like Joh. Heinrich Voss. Stil we can notice in ther metrical practice a constant struggle between treir German Sri il 12. the rige reçurements of the classical metricians. We bave an arcg iccument of this in the famous strophe by Goethe:

Ein ewiges Kochen start tibicbem Soemarss!
Was sol desa das Zābes, as Wägen, das Grollen?
Bei ailem dem sommt nicks berais,
As dass wir keine Herameter machen schen,
Und sollen uns patriotisch fügen,
An Knitte versea uns begzigen.

In 1832 Lackmann's famous essay, Laber abisch jeutsche Betonung und Verskunst was published, a treatise which, by a careful inquiry into the nature of accent, laid the foundation for all the future investigations of Germanic metrics. Starting from the fact that in all the Germanic dialects the principal accent is placed on the first syllable of every word, Lachmann establishes the following laws of accentuation:

(1 Wenn in drei. oder mehrsilbigen Wörtern des ut- und Mittelhochdeutschen die erste, d. h. die betonteste Silbe lang ist, so hat die zweite den nächsthohen Accent; (2) ist dagegen die erste kurz, so hat die dritte den Vebenton.

Although later investigations modified and corrected these laws, by their discovery, Lachmann was enabled to unfoli the secrets of Old-Germanic versification, especially in Otirid and in the Hillebrinistied. Starting from the verse of Otiri I, Lachmann pointed out that the Old Germanic verse consisted of four arses or accents, showed why the thesis in certain cases could be omitted, and, by a careful examination of the various parts of speech, established the rules which governed the position of the accent. An excellent account of Lachmann's principles, supplemented by original research and subtle metrical observations, may be found in the Deutsche Verskunst nach ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung by Vilmar-Grein (1870).

While Lachmann had confined himself chiefly to the word-accent, Max Rieger in his essay Die Alt- und Angelsächsische l'erskunst (Zeitschr. f. deutsche Phil. Vol. 7) made the sentence-accent and its relation to Germanic versification the object of his investigations, reaching the result that alliterative verse had but two and not four accents.

II. Rhythm. The importance of rhythm for Germanic versification was not recognized by the writers on metrics during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Our knowledge of the nature of rhythm and its relation to metrics has a history like that of the accent. The first attempt at a scientific treatment of rhythm in German versification I believe is found in the Zeitmessung der deutschen Sprache (1802) by the same Joh. H. Voss, who must be considered the strictest advocate of ancient metrics in German versification. In the chapter Vom Verse (p. 170) he says: —

Der gemessene Gang des Verses, worin eine Folge ausdrucksvoller Bewegungen zu einem harmonischen Ganzen sich vereinigt, muss für sich ohne Worte gedacht werden. ... Ein Versmass also oder ein Metrum heisst uns eine rhythmische Composition der man zutreffende Worte unterlegt.

A revolution was caused in the history of German versification, when, in 1870, R. Westphal published his Theorie der neuhochdeutschen Metrik. Proudly he could say in the preface of the first edition : Bisher sind die rhythmischen Formen der deutschen Poesie noch in kein System gebracht. Selbst den Begriff des Verses zu bestimmen hat bisher unserer Aesthetik nicht gelingen wollen.

He begins his discussion with a careful analysis of rhythm, the nature of which he finds in motion (Bewegung), and which he defines as the order of time in which this equally measured motion takes place. While his predecessors had always treated of single feet, of verses composed of feet, and strophes composed of verses, Westphal discards these terms by saying:

Wollen wir uns über unsere Metrik wirklich ins Klare bringen, so dürfen wir nicht mehr mit den drei Kategorien : Verssüsse, Verszeilen, Strophen operiren, sondern mit folgenden vieren: mit Tacten, mit rhythmischen Reihen oder Gliedern, mit Perioden, mit Strophen.

Westphal's theories were in their essential features verified and supplemented by Brücke in his little book Die physiologischen Grundlagen der neuhochdeutschen Verskunst (1871). For the history of rhythm the chapter on Versaccent (p. 5) in Brücke's book is especially interesting, for it is here that he makes the discovery of the change of rhythm in the same verse or strophe. He says: der Wechsel des Rhythmus in einem und demselben Systeme der Versification ist nicht nur erlaubt, sondern häufig sogar geboten und Niemand wird z. B. Anstoss daran nehmen, dass in den folgenden Trochäen zuerst der Ictus auf der ersten Arsis der Dipodie liegt, dann aber ein Wechsel eintritt, so dass der Ictus bei sachgemässem Vortrage auf die zweite Arsis der Dipodie fällt:

Kéine hat wie ich im Herzen
Ímmerdar dein Bíld getragen,
Eine Braut war ich im Geiste,

Wars in Wónne, wars in Thränen. Brücke's fundamental discovery was soon afterwards applied to German lyric poetry of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries by W. Brambach in his excellent little pamphlet Ueber die Betonungsweise in der deutschen Lyrik (1871). Brambach shows that without the various changes of rhythm, the rhythmic construction of the German lyrics of the last five centuries cannot be understood, saying: es haben sich Eigenthümlichkeiten in der Inordnung ler Hebungen bis in unsere klassische Zeit erhalten, welche ihrem Ursprung nach auf die Technik des Versbaues im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert, und weiter ins Mittelalter zurückgehen. Auch unsere klassischen Dichter gestatten noch eine zweifache Accentrückung: erstens unterbrechen sie die Folge von Hebung und Senkung durch einfache Umkehr, es wird z. B. eine trochäische Betonung eingemischt, wo das Accentschema eine jambische verlangen würde, zweitens rücken sie Hebungen an einander ohne die entsprechende Senkung einzulegen.

The influence of these theories and discoveries concerning rhythm beginning with Westphal, may also be noticed in the famous recent attempt of Sievers, which aims at a systematization of the rhythmic forms of old Germanic alliterative poetry (cf. Sievers' Altgermanische Metrik). Sievers' theory is known as the Typentheorie, or the theory of certain types of rhythm which he claims to have discovered for the first time. I believe that I am in the position to show that the various forms or types of rhythm, named A, B, C, D, E by Sievers, were already known to Lachmann, as is made evident by the latter's accentuation of the verses of the Hildebrandslied, from which I quote below, giving at the same time Sievers’ accentuation of the same verses.

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Type C.

iro sáro ríhtừn

iro sáro ríhtun ibu dù dâr énic reht hàbês

ibu dô dâr ênic reht habês

Type D. súnufátarungos

súnufátarùngo séolídante


Type E.
Heribrantes sunu

Héribrantes súnu To be sure, Lachmann does not speak of these various forms of rhythm, nor does he anywhere attempt to systematize them, but he evidently had them in mind when he said in the essay on the Hildebrandslied (cf. Kleinere Schriften, 1.414): So entsteht bei sehr strengem Rhythmus eine grosse Mannigfaltigkeit der Betonungen; zwei bis vier höchst betonte Silben auf Hebungen, und, sind ihrer nur zwei oder drei, noch zwei oder eine ebenfalls starke Hebung, ferner vier schwächere Betonungen auf den übrigen Hebungen, alle diese Betongungen in willkürlicher Ordnung.

I will add in conclusion, that previous to Sievers the various forms or 'types' of rhythm in the alliterative verse had been systematized by Grein in the Deutsche Verskunst (1870) quoted above. He says in § 18: Bei zwei Haupthebungen sind es die erste und dritte (Type A) oder die erste und vierte (Type E) oder die zweite und vierte (Type B) oder endlich die zweite und dritte Hebung (Type C); and in § 20 he adds: das zunächst aus Otfrid erkannte Gesetz für die Stellung der Haupthebungen (§ 18) gilt aber ebenso auch für die althochdeutsche Alliterationspoesie.

8. An Important Side of Aristophanes' Criticism of Euripides, by Professor H. Rushton Fairclough, of the Leland Stanford Jr. Univer


Aristophanes' most concentrated criticism of Euripides occurs in the Frogs, where he makes Aeschylus recite parodies upon the choral songs and melodies of the younger poet.2 According to the commentators the following points are to be noticed in the parodies: (1) The general confusion of the scenes; (2) the trivial objects and circumstances; (3) the misuse of rhetorical figures; (4) the unnecessary repetitions; (5) metrical and musical innovations.

These additional features, however, should be observed : (a) The prominence given to the sights and sounds of external nature, e.g. vines and grapes; the sea, rivers, and dewy 3 water; the halcyons chattering, the spiders spinning, and the dolphin at his gambles. In Euripides the botanical world plays a much larger part than in Aeschylus or Sophocles. He revels in meadows and grassy glades, forests and groves, fruits and flowers, and some of his plays, like the Bacchae, Ion, and Phoenissae, are permeated with the beauties of hill and field and dale. More varied and abundant, too, are his references to birds, insects, and animals, wild and domestic,4 and in some of these allusions he displays a peculiar tenderness. More conspicuous, too, in him are streams and rivers, which are often invested with considerable sentimental interest.

(6) The invocation and the characterizations of night (11. 1331, 1335, 1337). Some of the most beautiful characterizations of night and day to be found in all Greek literature are in Euripides.6 Picturesque night scenes are also frequent.?

(c) A reference to Euripides fondness for various expressions for darkness 8 and light.

(d) A hit at Euripides' fondness for color (v. tpypais kvaveußbabis, 1. 1318). Euripides indulges in more frequent references to color and has a wider range of color-vocabulary than either Aeschylus or Sophocles. He is fond, too, of contrasting different hues.'

1 This paper will appear in full as a chapter in The Attitude of the Greek Tragedians toward Nature, published by Rowsell and Hutchison, Toronto, Canada.

2 Ran. 1301 ff.
8 Spóoos of water is very common in Euripides.

* His allusions to the horse, cow, dog, and sheep are nearly twice as frequent as those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together.

5 Cf. Ion 179, El. 151, Iph. T. 1089, Tro. 669, etc.
6 Tro. 847, Ion 1150, Fr. 593, El. 54, Or. 174.
? Rhes. 41-3, Tro. 543, 547, Alc. 450, Iph. Aul. 6.

8 v. kvepaios, 1. 1350. Besides kvepaios (found once in Aesch. Pr. 1029), Euripides has also used duyaios, yvosions, außlûtes avyai, außAUWTós, Sodepos, and duod yov vúkta, expressions not found in Aesch. or Sophocles. On the other hand, Euripides is even more lavish than Sopho. cles in his use of terms that denote brilliance and splendor, and he has a wider vocabulary.

Cf. Iph. Aul. 222-5, Heracl. 855, Cy. 16, Hec. 151, H. F. 361, 573, Hel. 179, 1501.

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