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4. AAKIM AHC | KANOC | ALE+YATAO. 'Arxiu[v]ons kalòs Alo xulidov. White lecythus from Gela, in Oxford (Ashmolean Museum, No. 266, Gardner), figured in Klein, ibid., p. 83. Beautiful drawing of the fifth century' (Gardner).

5. 11+AC | KANOC. Aixas kalós. Polychrome white lecythus from Eretria, in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (No. 448, Robinson). Klein, ibid., pp. 82, 83, cites three other Lichas vases (two Nolan amphorae and a lecythus), on one of which we read 11+ASI KANOC | EAM · 0. Aixas kalós Láulos. To Klein's list must now be added our No. 5 (Boston, No. 448); a second Boston lecythus (Perkins collection); and a third lecythus in Athens, cited by Pollak, Arch.-Epigr. Mitt. aus Öst., 1895, p. 19. 18, making six vases with Lichas as “love-name. These vases are of Athenian origin, and belong not later than 350 B.C.

6. EVAINETOC || KANOG || CAA.. ISTE || KAMIAS ||| EVAION. Elaivemos || Kakos || Ta[vap]íU Tn (so Heydemann) || Kallias || Eủaiwv. Red-figured bell-crater from Sorrento, now in Naples, Coll. Santangelo, No. 281 (Heydemann, p. 697); Klein, ibid., p. 69. 4. Inscription also in C. I. G. 8077 ; cf. Arch. Zeit. 1869, p. 82, 16. Euaeon, as a “love-name,' occurs on six vases indexed by Klein, none of which can be later than 350 B.C. This Callias is identified by Klein with “ Kallias III”; a cylix bearing his name contains a design drawn ‘im Stil der Parthenonfigur' (Hartwig ap. Klein, p. 62).

These examples, which might be multiplied, are sufficient to prove—with the other considerations — that sigma lunatum was in use as a cursive form while the Attic alphabet was still employed, — before 403 B.C. (as well as long afterward). It remains, however, to be shown that it was a simplification not of the Ionic four-bar sigma, as has been generally maintained, but of the Attic three-bar letter.

As we have found it in use along with Ionic sigma at a date when various Attic letters were concurrently used with the Ionic, it may very well have been one of the Attic letters. Again, in the great Eastern group of Greek alphabets, in branches closely related to the Ionic alphabet, if not in the alphabet itself, the symbol < Chad — at least in the fifth

century B.C. - a very different value from that of sigma. Thus, at Paros, Delos, Naxos, and Ceos, it had the value of B1; at Melas it had the value of o?; and at Samothrace, in an angular form (retrograde), it had the value of 7,3 while at Corinth, Corcyra, Rhodes, etc., in its curved form, it had the same value. It seems highly improbable that the symbol could have had in the Ionic alphabet also at the same time the value of sigma.

We should be obliged to accept the derivation of ( from I only if ( had first come into existence at a period when { was the sole form in use, long after the disappearance of s. Such is by no means the fact. As we have seen above, C occurs, simultaneously with s, in inscriptions that belong not later at least than B.C. 403.

The Athenian vase inscriptions furnish numerous examples of forms of s, originally casual cursives, which inevitably led the way to the form ( and secured its adoption as the normal cursive form in Attic writing. Greatest caution must be exercised in the use of this evidence: many of the examples are undoubtedly of the nature of casual cursives, but there is a good residuum from which safe inferences may be drawn.

Innumerable instances occur where the lower bar of threebar s is abbreviated; these are of course carelessly written three-bar sigmas, but they led the way to the final dropping of the lower bar and the establishment of the form < ( as a form of sigma. Many vases signed by Tleson (late sixth century B.C.) show this form, which at this early date can

1 Cf., e.g., Roberts, Gr. Epigraphy, Nos. 17 (Paros), 24 a (Delos), 26 a (Naxos), No. 32 (Ceos?).

2 Roberts, ibid., Nos. 8 f.
3 Roberts, ibid., No. 162.
4 Roberts, ibid., Nos. 87 (Corinth), 98 (Corcyra), 131 a (Rhodes).

5 The history of the ancient form of R offers a parallel to that of sigma lunatum. In the later forms of the Greek alphabet R lost its appendage, and became P, while in the Italic alphabets it lengthened the appendage and became R. Similarly, on my theory, s dropped, in the Attic alphabet, its lower bar and became sigma lunatum, while in the Italic alphabets it became established, with a lengthening and rounding of both upper and lower bars, in the form S.

only have been a casual cursive: 0.g., Naples, Coll. Santangelo, 271; Berlin, 1756; Munich, 17, 19; Boston, 364. Other cases of the same and of later date, where the other letters of the inscriptions are prevailingly, though not universally, written in the Attic alphabet, are Berlin, 1732, 1758; Coll. Spagna, in Kretschmer, p. 138; Naples, Rac. Cumana, 207 ; Berlin, 2531 ; Dresden, in Arch. Anz. 1892, p. 166; Berlin, 2529; Palermo, in Klein, l.c., p. 71; etc., etc. .

In this paper I have endeavored to show (1) that < ( form the close of a continuous series of developments of Attic s; (2) that the form was used in inscriptions of a date earlier than that at which the Attic alphabet passed out of use, and as there used in connection with Attic letters may well have been an Attic letter (though not necessarily so); (3) that it could not have been Ionic in origin, since at this time the symbol had another significance in several alphabets closely related to the Ionic; and (4) that it could not have been the Ionic cursive form of <, since this letter had at this time established itself in another and quite different cursive form. The conclusion is therefore forced upon us that sigma lunatum is derived from the three-bar Attic sigma. And in the text-criticism of the earliest autographic copies of the great writers of the classical age, as well as in the transcripts of much later date, we shall hereafter have to deal with the crescent form of sigma.



DENCE, R. I., 1896.






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