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tacitly ignored or openly denied by scholars. It has been assumed that in these times there was no essential difference between the forms of letters as engraved on the monuments and as written on soft wax tablets or on sheets of papyrus. In the earliest period, when there was little writing, this may well have been the case; and the prevalence for the most part of epigraphic forms on the vases of the earlier period proves it. But with the abundant preparation of books and with the teaching of writing at school, it was inevitable that a cursive style should set in, the evidence for which is furnished not only by the vases, but also by the inscriptions on stones.

Now, as I shall try to show, not only were there cursive forms of letters in the earlier period (or before 403 B.C.), but there were cursive forms both for letters of the Old Attic alphabet and for those of the newly adopted Ionic alphabet, alphabets which at least in private inscriptions were concurrently used throughout the larger part of the fifth century. To the much that has been written proving the use of the Ionic alphabet in Athens for literary purposes in the fifth century I will add nothing :2 I wish, however, to emphasize the fact that the Attic was also used for literary purposes. This clearly appears from the language of Theopompus,3 from which we learn that the decree of Archinus proniulgating the Ionic as the official alphabet from 403–2 B.C. onward had reference not only to public documents, but also to writing in the schools (TOùs ypaje patiotàs maideteLV TTV Iwviknu ypajpatunv). In the schools manuscript 4 copies of literary works, especially of epic and lyric poets, were used; these, then, at least to some extent, must have been previously written in the Attic alphabet. A pretty proof, not only of the use of manuscripts in schools, but also of the

1 Wilamowitz, Philol. Untersuchungen, VII. P. 307. His statement, however, that the vases give a ‘lediglich monumentales alphabet' needs qualification.

2 Wilamowitz, ibid., pp. 286 ff.; Kretschmer, Griechische Vaseninschriften, p. 106. But cf. Blass, loc., pp. 301 ff.

3 Schol. Dion. Thrac., ap. Bekker, Anecd. 783. 20; Phot. Biblioth. cod. 176. Cf. Usener, Rhein. Mus. XXV. pp. 591 ff. Kretschmer, Griech. Vaseninschriften, pp. 103, 106, note.

4 Plato, Prot. 325 E.

presence in the manuscripts of Attic (as well as Ionic) forms, is accessible in the charming scene on the familiar Duris vasel in the Berlin Museum, where a teacher holds in his hand a papyrus roll on which are written phrases from an epic passage in which we find in close juxtaposition Attic and Ionic forms 2 (S, , etc.).

Side by side, then, if we may infer from the inscriptions of the fifth century, the Attic and Ionic forms of the same letter were not infrequently used — much as long and short s's occur simultaneously in the same page in an English manuscript. This concurrent use would lead the average writer and reader to forget their difference of origin, and, in due time, of the two forms the one best adapted for writing would supersede the more difficult one. Thus, on my theory, Attic cursive sigma C (from s) superseded, for general literary use, the Ionic cursive sigma Ş (from 3). But I anticipate. It remains to be proved that there were in use in the fifth century B.C. distinctly cursive forms as contrasted with the more familiar epigraphic forms.

It is impossible here to treat exhaustively the subject of cursive letters in fifth century Greek writing. But for a period ending not much later than 350 B.C. and running well back into the fifth century, we have, at least, the following forms, which I believe may be safely assumed to have been normal cursive letters:

E for E.3

i Berlin Vasensammlung, No. 2285. Figured in Mon. dell' Inst. IX. 54; Arch. Zeit, 1873, pl. 1 (Michaelis); Gardner-Jevons, Manual of Greek Antiquities, frontispiece and pp. 309 ff.; Anderson-Schreiber, Atlas of Classical Antiquities, pl. 90. 2, etc. Cf. Kretschmer, 1.c., pp. 104 ff.

2 There are many cases of mixture of the Ionic and Attic alphabets on the vases. Cf. Kretschmer, ibid., p. 105. Add Boston, Perkins coll. (Brygus? 9312). See also below, pp. 86-9, for a few additional instances, especially of 3, s, C.

3 The classical example is in a correction in C. I. A. II'. 17 A, 45 (B.C. 377), where we read MENOI. Cf. also C. I. A. II. 1137, 8 (B.C. 305-4). The vases furnish many examples; e.g. LEAAPOS. Brit. Mus. B 325 (Walters), or Munich, 48 (Jahn); SIME, Naples, S. A. 172 (Heydemann). To be sure on the Artemisia papyrus and in the Heracles fragments (see above, p. 79, note 5), E has the angular form, but the retention of epigraphic forms with cursive forms is not surprising.

Perhaps ) for 4,1 to distinguish it from A (a).

s for <. There are several pieces of evidence that tend to show that this form, with waving outline, was the normal cursive for {, rather than { or E, and that the latter where found are rather of the nature of casual cursives.

(1) Some Ionic inscriptions give the form {, or 3, for the four-bar sigma.? That this is a normal and not a casual cursive, appears probable from the fact that this waving, rounded form occurs sometimes in the midst of rather carefully executed angular forms, where indeed it would have been easier for the stone-cutter to have used the angular form. In these and all similar cases we may safely assume that the stone-cutter was merely imitating, perhaps inadvertently, the cursive forms occurring in his hastily prepared manuscript copy.

(2) Further evidence is afforded by well-known descriptions of sigma that have come down to us. Thus the shepherd in Euripides's Theseuso describes the third letter in the name of Theseus as βόστρυχός τις ώς ειλιγμένος ; and the rustic, in a play of Theodectes,4 says of the same letter that it is ÉLKTỘ Bootpúx® Tipogeubepés, and later that it is Bóotpuxos. These phrases mean a 'curl of hair,' a .wavy lock. Such waving locks we see, for example, on the ancient statues of Apollo, and in the tresses of Nike on vase paintings." Agathon 6 likens the letter to a Scythian bow — EkvdikỘ te TÓFQ Tpítov nv Trpooeudepes — the shape of which was {. Neither of these descriptions fits the form { or €, which Blass postulates as the transitional forms of sigma lunatum.

1 This form is a cursive in the Antiope fragments (Petrie Papyri, plates 1, 2). It also occurs on a red-figured 'amphora’ in the Ashmolean collection (Gardner, No. 276), of the “fine style,' where we read — incised on the bottom of the vase – KANI (okos), the name of the vase. Of A = a the vases furnish many examples; cf. also C. I. A. II!. i b, passim (B.C. 403).

2 Cf. Roberts, Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, Nos. 133, 134 (Miletus). The forms are more correctly given in Roehl, Imagines Inscriptionum Graecarum Antiquiss., 2d ed., p. 48, Nos. 2, 3. See also Roberts, l.C., 42 a (Sigean inscription), or Roehl, 1.c., p. 50. 8.

8 Athen. X. 454 C (Nauck, T. G. F2. p. 477). 4 Athen. X. 454 E (Nauck, T. G. F2. p. 803).

5 Cf. the Nike in the Ashmolean collection, Gardner, No. 274, pl. 2. Gardthausen, however, seems to assume that the word ßbot puxos in these passages refers to the crescent sigma, but hardly correctly (Griechische Paläographie, p. 106) Cf. Blass, loc., p. 304.

6 Athen. X. 454 D. There is no doubt whatever as to the shape of the Scythian bow. To the evidence on this point, cited by Saglio in Daremberg-Saglio, Dic1 On E for o, on the stones, see Larfeld, Griech. Epigraphik (I. Müller, Handbuch, 12.), p. 535; add C. I. A. IV. 2, 53 a (after B.C. 418). Vases furnish a few instances of {=0. See also C. I. A. I. 510 (somewhat later than 450 B.c.). Meisterhans, Grammatik der Attischen Inschriften, 2d ed., pp. 1, 2, and notes.

Indeed, apart from the considerations just urged, E could not have been a normal cursive form for sigma. It was, as we have seen, already in current use for E, and it is extremely improbable that two distinct letters could have had the same normal cursive form. A few cases are cited where { or E do duty for sigma. I am disposed to explain these as casual cursives, if not at times, especially in the case of €, actually clumsy attempts to change a C already written or cut into something looking more like {, by adding the cross-bar. Indeed, for C. I. A. II. 236, 8 (B.C. 312) this explanation is highly probable: the stone-cutter had — ex hypothesi — carelessly cut a sigma lunatum (following his papyrus copy): observing his blunder, he seeks to correct it. The curved line already cut cannot be changed; the horizontal line is an approach to the reëntrant angle of the four-bar sigma.

In view of these considerations it seems probable that in the cursive writing of the fifth century B.C., the Ionic fourbar sigma had taken on the normal form {, and that the other shapes of this letter are merely irregular and accidental.

Instances have been given above of several cursive forms of letters in use as early as the last half of the fifth century B.C. That sigma lunatum — C foro — was also an early cursive form (ie. before 403–2 B.C.) admits of easy demonstration : (1) This form occurs on vases of Athenian manufacture, known, from external evidence,2 to be earlier than tionnaire des Antiquités, I. p. 389, add Amphis, fr. 13 (Kock), where Plato's knit brows (okvpwr áŠELV . . . ea mpws tds oopūs) had the form of a Scythian bow (cf. Aristoph. Lys. 7, un o kvpúras', TÉKvov. I oủ yàp a péTEL OOL TO&OTOLEîv ta's oopūs).

2 Some of the vases,- of Athenian origin, - on which the form occurs, come from the Greek graves in Gela, where entombment had ceased after the capture of the city by the Carthaginians in B.C. 405; Gardner, Ashmolean Museum, p. vi (Evans). Other forms are on Athenian vases from Nola, to which, as Winter has 3. HVETAINON KANOC. 'Yylaivwv kalòs. Polychrome lecythus with white ground, in the British Museum ; Klein, ibid., p. 86. 1. The use of H=' and O=w point to a date that can hardly be later than 403 B.C.

403 B.C. ; (2) it occurs on vases showing in their technique both of form, drawing, and other ornamentation, the early fine' or the fifth century' style of Athenian vase painters ;1 (3) it occurs in vase inscriptions along with the distinctive forms (and values) of the Attic alphabet, some of which are universally admitted to have passed out of use about 403 B.C. and others before 300 B.C. In nearly all of these cases, then, the form must belong to a period at least as early as the closing years of the fifth century B.C. And as this form, which occurs frequently, is often carefully and not hurriedly drawn, it must be assumed to have become a normal and must not be regarded as a casual cursive.

A few representative examples may be cited.

I. KAENIACI KAASC. Klavias kalós. Red-figured Nolan amphora, in the British Museum, E 297; Klein, Lieblingsins., p. 84. 4. The many vases with this · love-name' belong to the same period as those with Charmides, which Cecil Smith would date between 400 and 380 B.C. (Journ. Hellen. S., 1883, p. 97), which is perhaps too late. Klein suggests that Cleinias may well have been the father of Alcibiades; Percy Gardner thinks the brother of Alcibiades may here be meant (Ashmolean Museum, on No. 309).

2. AAKIMAXE I KAAS2C | ErixAPOC. 'Alkimaxos kados ’ETxápovs. Red-figured amphora from Nola, in the British Museum, E 330 ; Klein, ibid., p. 85. 2. Two other vase-inscriptions with Alcimachus as “love-name,' in which C=o, are cited by Klein, ibid., 4(KAAOS, KANOC, etc.), and 6.

In our 1 and 2 the writing of 2= o suggests an Athenian-ParianThasian artist, or at least one working under the influence of the great Thasian master Polygnotus in the fifth century B.C.

shown, the export of Athenian vases ceased about 425 B.C.; Winter, Die Jüngeren Attischen Vasen, pp. 3, 4.

1 E.g., Ashmolean Museum, No. 266 (from Gela), No. 288 (from Chiusi); Klein, Lieblingsinschriften, p. 86 (our No. 3); Boston, Robinson's Catalogue, No. 448 (from Eretria); Berlin, No. 2529 (from Chiusi).

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