Графични страници
PDF файл
ePub
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

------:-::-::::-:::-inin:

[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]

-::::::

Total Number of Deaths.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

[merged small][ocr errors]

--:::::-:::ni-ni:-:-:--:-ia

[ocr errors]

::::::::

VII.

::::::

2.

:--:--iw----wine-w:::-:-:-::

III.

3.

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

- -

- : : : : : : : : : : : - ឯ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

,

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

422
I4

[merged small][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed]

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : |

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : - : : : : : : - : : : : : - - : : - : : - : : : : : : :

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::N:::::--:::::::-:::::ni-iiw-i--Ai munint

VIIL

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][subsumed][ocr errors]

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

IIA

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::-::::

::::

:::

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::::

::::

:

Total Number of Deaths.

Examining the figures, we find a very large proportion dying in Rome between the ages of 5 and 40 as compared with modern Italy, and a very small percentage after this period. The difference here indicated can hardly represent a real difference between the conditions of ancient and modern times. If we were to trust the figures, we should be compelled to believe that as large a percentage died in ancient Rome before the age of 45 as in modern Italy before the age of 75. We cannot suppose that there was anything like the difference here indicated between the average length of life in ancient and modern Italy. While Pliny the Younger speaks of 67 as an age which even the strongest seldom exceed (I, 12, 11), Pliny the Elder (N. H. 7, 50) mentions that in the year of our Lord 76 there were living in that part of Italy situated between the Apennines and the Po upwards of 100 persons between the ages of 100 and 150.

The most important statement which we have in ancient literature relating to length of life in the Roman Empire is the calculation of Ulpianus (Dig. 35. 2. 68) with regard to the expectation of life at different periods of life. His conclusions were adopted in the Digest to determine the worth of life-rights. These calculations were doubtless made with reference to the upper classes, among whom length of life would be considerably greater than among the lower classes. According to Ulpianus' statement, the expectation of life for those below 20 years of age was 30 years; for those between 20 and 25 was 28 years. These calculations of the Roman jurist are about 12 years less than the expectation of life as given in tables for modern England,' and about 12 years more than our tables for Rome present for the same periods of life. Taking the period of 55 to 60 years of age, Ulpianus gives the expectation of life as 7 years; for all over this age as 5 years. The table for Rome shows about 15 years as the expectation of life for those over 60 years of age, or a longer period than we find in modern tables. This suggests that the ages of those who, according to their contemporaries,

1 Mulhall's “ Dictionary of Statistics,” 355.

seem to have died before the natural time of death or to have lived to an unusual age were recorded in larger proportion than those who died between the ages of 45 and 60, and if we may judge by the number presented by the epitaphs, those who lived to a very advanced age in ancient times were very few as compared with modern times.

The average age at death of the 7994 cases recorded in Rome is 22.3 years. As we have already noticed, the children who died under one year of age are not recorded, and these, judging by modern statistics, must have amounted to at least 20 per cent of the whole number. If we take this into account, the average age at death would be only 18 years. If the population of Rome were constant in numbers, and that of France is nearly so, the mean age at death would be the same as the mean duration of life. The relation of these is chiefly affected by the relation of births to deaths. We have, however, reason to suppose that the births in Rome were not largely in excess of deaths; that in this respect ancient Rome resembled Paris rather than London. This is suggested, for example, by the various devices resorted to for the purpose of encouraging marriage, as the “ius trium liberorum." The average age at death, whether we make allowance for the omission of the records of those who died under the age of one, or whether we take the figures as they appear in the tables for Rome, is so low that our previous conclusions with regard to the omission of the age in the case of those who died between the ages of 45 and 60, is confirmed. As the method of recording ages was apparently the same among the different classes in Rome and throughout the empire, with the single exception of Africa, a comparison of the average age at death of different classes in Rome or of different parts of the empire will present facts of some interest.

If we compare the mean age at death of those mentioned in the alphabetical list of epitaphs of Rome (VI, 10424–29680) with the 1225 who are mentioned outside of this list and who belonged, as a rule, to the upper classes, we find the mean age at death of these to be a little more than four years

« ПредишнаНапред »