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ON GENERAL HENRY WITHERS,
IN WESTMINSTER-ABBEY, 1729.
HERE, WITHERS, rest! thou bravest, gentlest mind,
WITHERS, adieu ! yet not with thee remove
Of manners gentle, of affections mild;
INTENDED FOR SIR ISAAC NEWTON,
Hoc marmor fatetur. Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night: God said, Let Newton be! and all was light.
ON EDMUND DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM, WHO DIED IN THE NINETEENTH YEAR OF HIS AGE, 1735.
If modest youth, with cool reflection crown'd,
WHO DIED IN EXILE AT PARIS, 1732, (HIS ONLY DAUGHTER HAVING EXPIRED IN HIS ARMS, IMMEDIATELY AFTER SHE ARRIVED
IN FRANCE TO SEE HIM.)
SHE. Yes, we have lived-one pang, and then we part ! May Heaven, dear father ! now have all thy heart. Yet ah ! how once we loved, remember still, Till you are dust like me.
Dear shade! I will :
FOR ONE WHO WOULD NOT BE BURIED IN
HEROES and KINGS ! your distance keep :
ANOTHER ON THE SAME.
UNDER this marble, or under this sill,
AN ESSAY ON MAN.
In four Epistles.
TO H. ST. JOHN, LORD BOLINGBROKE.
THE DESIGN. HAVING proposed to write some pieces on Human Life and Manners. such as (to use my Lord Bacon's expression) come home to men's business and bosoms, I thought it more satisfactory to begin with considering Man in the abstract, his nature and his state, since, to prove any moral duty, to enforce any moral precept, or to examine the perfection or imperfection of any creature whatsoever, it is necessary first to know what condition and relation it is placed in, and what is the proper end and purpose of its
The science of human nature is, like all other sciences, reduced to a few clear points; there are not many certain truths in this world. It is therefore in the anatomy of the mind as in that of the body; more good will accrue to mankind, by attending to the large, open, and perceptible parts, than by studying too much such finer nerves and vessels, the conformations and uses of which will for ever escape our observation. The disputes are all upon these last, and, I will venture to say, they have less sharpened the wits than the hearts of men against each other, and have diminished the practice, more than advanced the theory, of morality. If I could flatter myself that this Essay has any merit, it is in steering betwixt the extremes of doctrines seemingly opposite, in passing over terms utterly unintelligible, and in forming a temperate, yet not inconsistent, and a short, yet not imperfect, system of ethics.
This I might bave done in prose, but I chose verse, and even rhyme, for two reasons. The one will appear obvious; that principles, maxims, or precepts, so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards: the other may seem odd, but is true. I found I could express them more shortly this way than in prose
grace of arguments or instructions depends on their conciseness. I was unable to treat this part of my subject more in detail, without becoming dry and tedious; or more poetically, without sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without wandering from the precision, or breaking the chain of reasoning: if any man can unite all these without diminution of any of them, I freely confess he will compass a thing above my capacity.
What is now published, is only to be considered as a general map of MAN, marking out no more than the greater parts, their extent, their limits, and their connection, but leaving the particular to be more fully delineated in the charts which are now to follow. Consequently these Epistles in their progress (if I have health and leisure to make any progress) will be less dry, and more susceptible of poetical ornament. I am here only opening the fountains, and clearing the passage. To deduce the rivers, to follow them in their course, and to observe their effects, may be a task more agreeable.