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TROUTERS IN CANADIAN WATERS. and he scrambled out, and I was picking up the rods to shallow sandy bar, sit down, if within casting distance, adjourn to another spot; but no, he refused to move, and wait a few moments and try it. If you strike and took another fish.
only a small fish, mark the spot very carefully, and apI observed that the bites occurred first in the line of proach it in a boat, taking care to paddle, not row, say muddy water ; acting on this hint, we took a large string at evening or early morning, and you will say with of fine fish.
Squeers: “Here's richness." This would show that they were attracted by what they The trout frequent these submarine springs to cool off supposed to be rainwater washing down grubs, etc., from and feed, but the shallow water makes them very wary, the bank, and were not much alarmed by the noise of my and easily frightened. Anchor, therefore, at both ends friend's impromptu bath. On the other hand, I have been of the boat, at least thirty or forty feet away, and keep anchored at a spring-hole, and observed trout cooling off perfectly and absolutely still. If possible, remove obin the hole, and any slight movement of the feet at the structions of brush, etc., from it, or you will lose hooks bottom of the boat would start them off to deeper water, and fish ad libitum. In river-fishing for trout, note the
To the stranger armed with all equipments, but lacking shelving banks and quiet eddies of pools; at morning knowledge, it is aggravating beyond measure to see aand evening you will find them on the shallows, requiring fellow taking fish apparently at leisure, while he, poor a long line to reach them with success. wretch, can't raise a fin. The reason is, the latter knows The really killing flies for trout are few in number, and the spring-holes.
may be obtained of any reliable tackle-manufacturer. If It is almost useless to try pond-fishing without a know- | possible, obtain them on loops of sinew, being thus more ledge of these.
lasting and Sometimes
easier fastened they may be
to the leader. detected by
A few good the tempera
palmers, and Lure of the
hackles with water, but the
a scarlet ibis better plan is
for August, to sneak like
and white a shadow
moth for late round the
evening sport, shore of the
are all that are pond on a
needed. Obhot, bright
serve, also, for day, and look
dark days to for fish.
use a brightWherever you
colored fly, see three or
and reverse four brown
for cloudy shadows shoot
weather. out from a
Trout are hole perhaps
not gregarious only three or
in rivers, but four feet deep,
they are so in som etimes
ponds. If divided from
worm - fishing the lake by a FEEDING THE YOUNG TROUT.
on a raft or
bank, you will take several fish in succession, and then the shoal having passed by, you must wait for another to come along. It is not, as observed before, the actual killing propensity that constitutes the charm of fishing— it is the innocent and unconscious pleasure of being a critic of Nature's ever-changing and ever-beautiful pictures. How familiar you become with the birds—even the chattering gray kingfisher will fail to be afraid of you, and, perched on the boughs overhead, will deftly dive in and bring out a shining meal before your eyes. The watchful loon, cleaving the deep waters, will laugh to you for company. The woodcock, flushed beneath your feet, will drop ahead among the quivering ferns. And then the glorious clouds! you will never grow a weary of their stately march across the blue fields of the sky, their lustre blending the western walls and crimsoning the zenith, giving place to
that “Pale-orbed maiden with white-fire laden,
Whom mortals call the moon,”
whose silvery radiance will light your quiet path to camp or cozy chimney-corner, to review the memories of a happy day; and sweeter still the fact that time makes all such memories more precious and tender. Rest assured, in hours of care and struggle these memories will come
to you “Like the benediction that follows after prayer.”
FLORAL WREATHS 3,000 YEARS OLD.
DR. GEORGE SCHwBINFURTH has made an interesting discovery of plants in the coffin of an Egyptian princess who died about 1,100 years before the Christian era. The find comprises numerous wreaths, in which are leaves of the willow, leaves of the date-palm, corn-poppy flowers and corn flowers. The inner parts of the poppies are so wonderfully preserved that Dr. Schweinfurth declares that botanists rarely succeed in getting such perfect specimens of those fragile flowers for their herbaria, while the color—a dark brown-red—is maintained in as high degree as in the dried specimens of the present day. Pine cones which must have been employed as funeral offerings at Thebes 1,100 or 1,200 years earlier, are now to be seen in a museum at Cairo, together with a variety of seeds, grains, tubers, and fruits, which were found in the same tomb.
A BEAR FISHERMAN.
VERY few people know that bears take to water naturally. They love the water not, perhaps, as well as the moose or deer, but better than most dry-land animals. They are very fond of fish and are expert fishermen. I came suddenly upon a very large bear in a thick swamp, lying upon a large hollow log across a brook, fishing, and he was so much interested in his sport that he did not notice me until I had approached very near to him, so that I could see exactly how he baited his hook and played his fish.
The ingenious animal fished in this wise: There was a large hole through the log on which he lay, and he thrust his open paw in the water and waited for the fish to gather around and into it, and when full he clutched his fist and brought up a handful of fish, and sat and ate them with great gusto; then down with the paw again, and so on. The brook was fairly alive with little trout and red-sided suckers, and some black suckers, so the old fellow let himself out on the fishes. He did not eat their heads. There was quite a pile of them on the log.
I suppose the oil in his paw attracted the fish and baited them even better than a fly-hook, and his toe-nails were his hooks, and sharp ones too, and once grabbed, the fish are sure to stay.
GLOVES, PAST AND PRESENT,
THE etymology of the word glove has puzzled the antiquarians. One of the pioneers of lexicographical literature, Minsheu, in his “Guide to the Tongues,” finds the root of the word in the Belgic gheloore, faithfulness, because gloves were the testimony of faith, and suggests an alternative derivation in gift-love, since gloves were so often the gifts of lovers and the pledges of affection. Another writer thinks the word comes from old English, go!—the hand—and the Anglo-Saxon ober. Dr. Johnson quotes the Anglo-Saxon glose, and the Danish gloffure—to cover—as probable roots. The old Norse klaus, and AngloSaxon cliof-an—equivalent to cleft—cleaving of the handcovering into stalls for fingers—are also suggested. The Gaelic is lamhainn, from lamh–a hand. “Dat is mein glove”—“That is my belief,” antedated the word glore. It was a phrase before the word glove was used as hand-corer in German. So the mediaeval knight, in expressing an act which became a symbol, gave the name to the glove. The term glosi is common to all Scandinavian nations, and the word glove descends to us from that, probably, though Germans now term a glove a hand-shoe—hand-schuh, reminding us of the Greek chirotheca (hand-case). It is rather perplexing to the wearer of seven-buttoned gloves to learn that the ante-glacial dweller in caves wore them. There is nothing new under the sun Professor Boyd Dawkins, in his learned work on “Pre-historic Man,” has found a drawing of one of these long gloves, in Duruthy Cave, on a perforated canine tooth. Evidently this glove was made of roughly-dressed skin, and sewn with elaborate needles of bone. It is an exact representation of the long glove of to-day. Why should cave-men have worn gloves 2 Were the ante-glacial shell-fish particularly prickly 2 or did the spines of the pre-historic gooseberry pierce the tender skin of the unhappy troglodyte, who, on his emergence from the mud–which seems to have been his native bath—felt nervous apprehension and physical pain as his first claims to the honors of manhood 2 One would think that the insensibility of the neighboring toad would have been enviable. At what time these cave-men lived is not yet decided. Perhaps they crept out of the mud 240,000 years ago, and having worn their seven-button gloves for 100,000 years, retired before a higher development, some 80,000 years ago. The author of “Early Man in Britain” may know—we do not. The Anglo-Saxons wore gloves, as we know from the poem of Beowulf, a romance of the seventh century. Strange to say, the men were the glove-wearers, AngloSaxon ladies using their voluminous sleeves (sometimes with a sort of thumb-thimble) in place of gloves. The Normans, however, wore very ugly gloves, with long streamers attached to them, and over the right hand a thin gauze, or linen cloth, was wrapped, if birds were carried in the hand. From the infrequency of the glove in early Norman drawings, it is inferred it was only used by high personages. It is supposed by many Biblical scholars that the word shoe should have been rendered glove in the famous passage, “Over Edom will I cast my shoe.” The Hebrew rabbins are unanimous that the word here means glore. The Targum, a Chaldaic paraphrase of the Scripture,
made perhaps in the fourth century, translates the disputed phrase “narthek yad,” as the case or covering of the right hand. It is unquestionable that the employment of the word glore, in the symbolical sense of the passage, could bear as a token of faith the testimony of antiquity better than the word shoe. Gloves are not in common use amongst the Jews. Bishop Tyndal included gloves, with sandals, among the “pomp of the disguising,” and the “false signs” of women, but they are not comprehended as amongst the necessary apparel of women. They seem to have been worn chiefly by men of rank, and only by them on occasions of display. They formed a part of the dress of kings, as we learn from the mural paintings at Thebes. The long-sleeved dresses of both sexes and the heat of the climate, both, probably rendered them unnecessary and unfashionable. Xenophon speaks of the unwonted luxury of the Persians, who had umbrellas borne over them and “had coverings of hair made for their fingers and hands.” Gloves were certainly known amongst the Romans, if not to the Greeks. Homer describes Laertes, the father of Ulysses, as wearing gloves to shield his hands from the thorns, and we are familiar with the ancient “knuckleduster,” worn by the Greek wrestlers, from antique sculpture and friezes. As instruments of torture, ‘‘the gloves” are mentioned in the fourth century of the Christian era. Among the Roman epicures, we read of those who came to table habited in gloves. It betokened a considerable degree of effeminacy. It is probable that the Romans brought the first gloves to Britain. Custom and comfort combined to recommend gloves to the rude people in that cold cóuntry, and, as they wore shoes of untanned leather, they probably also protected the hands with gloves. The glove-trade is under great obligations to the Church. In the year 700 Charlemagne granted to the abbot and monks of Sithin an unlimited right of hunting, for making their gloves and girdles of the skins of the deer they killed, and also for covers for their books. But gloves had a more near connection with the Church than the industry of the monastery. They had distinctire employment in the rites and services. They were worm by the priests officiating. The laity were expected to take off their gloves in church, while ecclesiastics alone might wear them, a reversal of our modern fashions. The symbolism of the Church did not forget the glove as gifted with hidden significance. Bruno, Bishop of Segni, says that “they are made of linen to denote that the hands they cover should be chaste, clean, and free from all impurity.” The gloves on the hands of Boniface VIII. at the time of his interment were of white silk, beautifully wrought with pearls. Gloves are still used by Roman Catholic bishops and advertised in the lists of clerical necessaries. According to St. Charles Borromeo, a bishop's gloves should have a golden circle on the outside, and this is seen on the gloves of Bishop William of Wykeham, preserved in New College, Oxford. Gloves were in 1416 often set with precious stones, and sufficiently valuable to be left as legacies. The jeweled gloves of St. Martial were said to have rebuked an act of sacrilege. The gloves of Bishop Gravesend, worked with "old and enamel, were priced at five pounds, a great sum in 1810.
But the sturdier Bishop Button wore thick yellow leather gloves, at ten pence a pair. However, that love of luxury and of vestments, which then, as now, threatened to sap a certain division of the Church, led to the passing of sumptuary restrictions. The clergy “might not wear gloves,” red or green or striped; “neither ring, brooch, ornamental girdle nor gloves.” Monks were not to wear gloves of deerskin, but were to content themselves with gloves of sheepskin. But gloves were still made of costly material for bishops and the higher clergy, who were then adorned with jewels, in spite of sumptuary laws. Bishop Riculfus, who died in 913, left as an important legacy a pair of gloves ; and the earliest silk gloves on record were found on the hands of Thomas à Becket. The fifteenth-century child-bishop, that poetic, partly mournful religious burlesque, was installed on the mock Episcopal throne always in gloves, “a small lytell cope for a chylde byshop,” and his poor little gloves were preserved until the dissolution of the monasteries, in the reign of Henry VIII., in the Priory of St. Mary of Austin Canons. In fact, Pugin declares that gloves may be worn with propriety by all in ecclesiastical functions who carry staves, canopies, reliquaries, candlesticks, etc., so that they soon got down from the bishops to the inferior clergy and attendants. Scarlet gloves, embroidered with gold, were mentioned in the inventory of the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Trinity, 1552. Gloves have ever been an appanage of royalty. They have a place in the regalia, and we read of purple gloves ornamented with pearls and precious stones, which were deemed ensigns of imperial dignities. They were so intimately connected with kingly power that monarchs were invested with authority by.the delivery of a glove. Flamders was given to Philip the Fair by the delivery of a glove. The custom of blessing the glove at the coronation of a king came from the East. Mary de Medicis, the ill-used mother of Louis XIII., preserved with pious fidelity the gloves used at the coronation of her ungrateful son. In 1284 Conrad of Hohenstaufen cast his glove amid his rebellious subjects, and begged that it might be conveyed to his relatives, who should avenge his death. It was taken up by a knight and brought to Peter, King of Aragon, who, in virtue of the same glove, was afterward crowned at Palermo. Thus a glove was taken as the actual representative of power, and the emblem of legitimate sovereignty. From the kingly glove to the knightly glove was but a short step. The gift of a glove by the king was the pledge of the service by which land was held. The glove was the king's ambassador. These right royal symbols are preserved for us in mediaeval drawings and pictures, always white, with very wide-pointed cuffs. This peculiarly royal shape has come down to us only in the stage and the fancy dress. Kings, like bishops, were buried in gloves. For the coronation of James II. and his queen a pair of linen gloves are amongst the requisites ordered. They were used during the anointing. From the throne to the bench, from the king to the judge, is but a step downward. The chief remaining relic of the historic past of the judicial glove is the presentation of a pair of white gloves to the Recorder at an assizes, where “nobody has done nothing.” That is, where no criminal cases appear to be tried, and the judge and jury shut up shop for lack of business.
It may encourage us to remember in these days, when crime seems only too common, that formerly there were no less than 223 distinct offenses which were punishable with death. A maiden assize is not so uncommon a thing nowadays as it once was. The gift of the Sheriff of Lincoln to Lord Campbell was “a pair of gloves, richly trimmed with Brussels lace, and embroidered with the city arms, embossed in frosted silver on the back.” The gloves were sometimes given to magistrates by a grateful client “lined " with silver angels, but Sir Thomas More declined the lining, while he accepted the gloves. Gloves filled with gold were a common form of bribery. Thus the Portuguese proverb has, as expresssive of a person's integrity, “Nao tras navas” (He does not wear gloves). A person taking an oath on the Bible was required to unglove his hand, but this ceremony was dispensed with by one of England's judges in 1838. In England the judge on holding the assizes is always presented with a pair of gloves, and all the officers of the court receive gloves or an equivalent in glovemoney. Gloves had further connection with legal observances in an ancient custom requiring that when the judge invited the justices to dine with him at a county assize, a glove was handed about by the clerk or crier of the court, into which
every person present put a shilling, probably to defray the expenses for the dinner.
Hawking-gloves bring us to one of the most picturesque, as well as one of the most useful, of all the functions of the glove, for the sharp talons of those powerful birds must have demanded a pretty stout glove between them and the hand. In the thirteenth century ladies adopted this sport, and became soon so proficient that they surpassed their lords. This is a curious encroachment of the females on the monopoly of the males in an age which held women lightly. She was to her husband then only
was peculiar to Ghent. As a distinctive article of defensive dress, the gauntlet did not come into use until the thirteenth century. A mail-covered glove with a leather foundation was introduced in the reign or Edward I. In the reign of Edward III. arose a new fashion of fastening projecting spikes of steel to the knuckles; thus the wearer was, as the proverb says, “armed at all points.” The gauntlet of Edward the Black Prince now preserved in the Tower is a formidable instance. These steel points were then appropriately called gadlyngs, or goads. No species of glove has ever been invented or worn which is so elaborate a piece of workmanship as was the
THE BROOR TROUT.-An UNFORTUNATE TROUT-FISHEB.
She could not have been as valuable as a ger-falcon, or a tercel. But there was something which attracted both knights and ladies to the pretty sport. The hawkingglove was of leather, embroidered on the cuff and lined with velvet. Hence the proverb of the “Iron hand in the velvet glove.”
Gloves were used in archery; the tension of the bow and the abrasion of the skin of the forefinger by the rebound of the arrow made a covering for the hand necessary.
The gauntlet, the iron glove of the knight, is by far the most romantic and the most symbolic of all gloves. The word comes to us from the early French; from Gant, the hand, although Isaac Taylor, in his work on “Words and Places,” would have us derive the word from Gaunt, or Ghent, in Flanders, which was an established city in the seventh century. But there is no authority for supposing that the manufacture of these warlike coverings
gauntlet of 1450, and we can well believe that when it was flung on the stone floor of a council-chamber as a challenge, it rang loudly and fiercely; he was a brave knight who took it up. The buff glove of Cromwell's troopers was protected at the wrist by a curious scalework wristlet, which was admirably arranged to break a sword-blow. The glove in chivalry was not only a forfeit from the unskillful, but a reward of success. At a famous joust in Venice, in 1523, the prize to the victors was “forty pairs of perfumed gloves.” And in a “Mery Geste of Robyn Hode,” we learn that a “Bull, a courser, with saddle and bridle, a mug, and a cup of wine, and a payre of gloves,” were all offered as prizes to the best wrestler that presented himself. Perfumed gloves were brought from Italy by Edward Were, Earl of Oxford, after his long and voluntary exile, and his present of a pair of gloves with “four tuffes, or