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Thus States were form’d; the name of King unknown,
Till common interest plac'd the sway in one. 210
'Twas VIRTUE ONLY (or in arts or arms,
Diffusing blessings, or averting harms)
The same which in a fire the Sons obey'd,
A Prince the Father of a People made.

VI. Till then, by Nature crown'd, each Patriarch fate,
King, priest, and parent, of his growing ftate :
On him, their second Providence, they hung,
Their law his eye, their oracle his tongue.
He from the wondering furrow call’d the food,
Taught to command the fire, control the flood,

220 Draw forth the monsters of th' abyss profound, Or fetch th' aërial eagle to the ground. Till drooping, fickening, dying, they began Whom they rever'd as God to mourn as Man: Then, looking up from fire to fire, explor'd 225 One great First Father, and that first ador’d. Or plain tradition that this All begun, Convey'd unbroken faith from fire to lon; The worker from the work distinct was known, And simple Reason never fought but one : 230 Ere Wit oblique had broke that steddy light, Man, like his Maker, saw that all was right; To Virtue, in the paths of Pleasure trod, And own'd a Father when he own'd a God. Love all the faith, and all th' allegiance then; 235 For Nature knew no right divine in Men, No ill could fear in God; and understood A sovereign being, but a fovereign good.


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True faith, true policy, united ran,
That was but love of God, and this of Man. 240
Who first taught souls enslav'd, and realms un-

done. Th' enormous faith of many made for one; That proud exception to all Nature's laws, T' invert the world, and counter-work its Cause? Force first made Conquest, and that conquest, Law; Till Superstition taught the tyrant awe, Then shar'd the Tyranny, then lent it aid, And Gods of Conquerors, Slaves of Subjects made : "She 'midst the lightning's blaze, and thunder's found, When rock'd the mountains, and when groand the ground,

250 She taught the weak to bend, the proud to pray, To Power unseen, and mightier far than they : She, from the rending earth, and bursting skies, Saw Gods descend, and fiends infernal rise : Here fix'd the dreadful, there the blest abodes; 255 Fear made her Devils, and weak Hope her Gods; Gods partial, changeful, passionate, unjuft, Whose attributes were Rage, Revenge, or Lust; Such as the souls of cowards might conceive, And, form'd like tyrants, tyrants would believe. 260 Zeal then, not charity, became the guide; And hell was built on spite, and heaven on pride. Then sacred seem'd th' ethereal vault no more; Altars grew Marble then, and reek'd with gore: Then first the Flamen tasted living food;

265 Next his grim idol smear'd with human blood;

With heaven's own thunders shook the world below, And play'd the God an engine on his foe.

So drives felf-love, through just, and through unjust, To one man's power,'ambition, lucre, luft:

270 The same Self-love, in all, becomes the cause Of what restrains him, Government and Laws. For, what one likes, if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall he keep, what, sleeping or awake,

275 A weaker may surprize, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain : All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forc'd into virtue thus, by Self-defence, Ev'n Kings learn'd justice and benevolence :

280 Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good.

'Twas then the studious head or generous mind, Follower of God, or friend of human kind, Poet or Patriot, rose but to restore The Faith and Moral, Nature gave before; Relum'd her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's Image, yet his shadow drew : Taught Power's due use to People and to Kings, Taught nor to flack, nor strain its tender strings, 299 The less, or greater, fet so justly true, That touching one must strike the other too; Till jarring interests of themselves create Th'according music of a well-mix'd State. Such is the world's great harmony, that springs 295 From Order, Union, full Consent of things : VOL. II.




Where small and great, where weak and mighty, made
To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade;
More powerful each as needful to the rest,
And, in proportion as it blefles, bleft;

300 Draw to one point, and to one centre bring Beast, Man, or Angel, Servant, Lord, or King.

For Forms of Government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is beft: For Modes of Faith, let graceless zealots fight; 305 His can't be wrong whose life is in the right; In Faith and Hope the world will disagree, But all Mankind's concern is Charity: All must be false that thwarts this One great End : And all of God, that bless Mankind, or mend.

310 Man, like the generous vine, supported lives : The strength he gains is from th' embrace he gives. On their own Axis as the Planets run, Yet make at once their circle round the Sun; So two consistent motions act the Soul;

375 And one regards Itself, and one the Whole.

Thus God and Nature link'd the general frame, And bade Self-love and Social be the same.


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of the Nature and State of Man with respect to

I. FALSE Notions of Happiness, Philosophical and

Popular, answered from ver. 19 to 77. II. It is the
End of all Men, and attainable by all, ver. 30. God
intends Happiness to be equal; and to be fo, it must
be focial, since all particular Happiness depends on
general, and since he governs by general, not parti-
cular Laws, ver. 37. As it is necessary for Order,
and the peace and welfare of Society, that external
goods should be unequal, Happiness is not made to
confist in these, ver. 51. But, notwithstanding that
inequality, the balance of Happiness among mankind
is kept even by Providence, by the two Passions of
Hope and Fear, ver. 70. III. What the Happiness
of Individuals is, as far as is consistent with the con-
stitution of this world; and that the Good Man has
here the advantage, ver. 77. The error of imputing
to Virtue what are only the calamities of Nature, or
of Fortune, ver. 94. IV. The folly of expecting
that God should alter his general Laws in favour of
particulars, ver. 121. V. That we are not judges
who are good ; but that, whoever they are, they must
be happiest, ver. 133, &c. VI. That external goods
are not the proper rewards, but often inconsistent



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